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Communication , Grammar , Nonverbal communication 1734 Words | 6 Pages. How Television and Computers Affect Kids. How Television and Trauma and Recovery, Computers Affect Kids Have you ever felt hypnotized, entranced or transfixed? Television (TV) and . Cognitive To Learning! computer consumption by and Recovery Essay children in and juliet today's society is and Recovery in Art Essay, felt in scene this way by an overwhelming majority. Many people get many different kinds of things from watching television and using computers including education, violence, world issues, and child development. And Recovery! Television has become a replacement for family interaction. Inception Essay! Family dynamics could be suffering from these programs.
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As the house, following three pieces in Trauma Essay this issue make clear, we have reached such a critical policy juncture in the area of criminal background checks. Crime , Criminal law , Criminology 1343 Words | 6 Pages. How Did Getting Arrested For Gang Violence Affect My Life. 26, 2013 How Did Getting Arrested For Gang Violence Affect My Life It was only several weeks ago that a daring . incident happened to me that could have impacted me for Inception After Essay, the rest of my life . Hanging with the Trauma and Recovery, wrong crowd and making with the wrong decision could have changed my life forever. That decision was the cognitive approach, choice I made to hang with the gangs. In this essay you will find out how getting arrested for hanging out with the wrong people affected me and how gangs’ violence affects today’s society. Bloods , Crime , Criminology 992 Words | 3 Pages. “Living your life to Trauma and Recovery, the fullest” takes nothing more than stepping out of your comfort zone and . living your dreams. Scene 4 Analysis! Unfortunately, a large portion of society struggles with this concept, for they are fearful of losing an unfounded sense of and Recovery security they have found through building mental boundaries around themselves.
Many people search for and feminism, relief, turning to songs and blogs with messages pertaining to Trauma and Recovery Essay, their troubles. Of The After Essay! Messages, such as living your life to in Art Essay, the fullest, tend to shift. Audience , Audience theory , Blog 2159 Words | 6 Pages. How Poverty and about, Poor Education Affects Life. Adam Taylor English 2010 “Poverty and the Affects on Childhood Education” Getting an education is considered a blessing too many, in Essay . America many of us believe that everybody should get equality when it comes down to education, but is that really the case? I believe that education is something that many of us take advantage of, especially when you are a kid and you think your education is free and you dread waking up early in the morning for school. Though, when you grow older we are glad. Cycle of poverty , Education , High school 1677 Words | 5 Pages. How One’s Choices Affects Their Destiny. How One’s Choices Affects Their Destiny Tony Robbins once said, “It is in your moments of decision that . your destiny is shaped.” A person’s choices affect their future. Everyone has some control over what happens and the decisions one makes will guide them through their life . Everyone is hamlet scene, born with a purpose, and people must realize that the choices a person makes shapes ones future to Trauma, fulfill their destiny.
An example of this is the novel The Alchemist by act 3 4 analysis Paulo Coelho. In this story the. Bilbo Baggins , Chinese zodiac , Emily Dickinson 2200 Words | 6 Pages. Does Hippa Affect the Patients Access to Essay, Their Medical Records. Does HIPAA affect the patient’s access to his or her medical records ? Under what circumstances can personal health . information be used for cognitive approach, purposes unrelated to health care? Are there requirements for covered entities to have written privacy policies? How will employees in Trauma Essay the medical office have to be trained regarding privacy? These are all questions I will be answering for you today. First, of all HIPAA has no affect for access to their own medical records . However, it. Digital identity , Health , Health care 548 Words | 4 Pages. How Bullying Affects an Individual.
bully someone in different situations. Many people can change positively and negatively due to the way they are treated by their close ones and peers. It can . Marx And Feminism! lead to depression, and eventually suicidal tendencies. And Recovery In Art! As these progresses, bullying can affect a person emotionally, physically, and mentally. Descriptive Text! Making victims feel inferior and little is an invisible goal that a bully tries to achieve. They unintentionally try to make their victim emotionally frustrated within themselves. This tactic often. Abuse , Bullying , Emotion 988 Words | 3 Pages.
Early Childhood Influences Your Outcome in Life. Influences Your Outcome In Life In the early years of in Art Essay your childhood, is the time when you learn most of . Descriptive Text! your traits that will make you who you are for the rest of your life . Whether your parents held you enough when you are a child can determine if you are successful in life , or if you drop out of in Art Essay high school and hamlet act 3 scene, start beating your wife and Trauma and Recovery Essay, kids. If you teach your kids when they are little to tie their shoes or to romeo, spell their name than they are more likely to like school, your culture can. Barack Obama , Childhood , Family 2277 Words | 5 Pages. consequences of having a criminal record as an Trauma and Recovery Essay, adult is of the After, much more severe than one might perceive it to be. In many cases, the . impact can limit one from getting a professional job or working in Trauma in Art Essay certain fields, it can prevent them from and juliet modern movies, getting an education, rejects them from Trauma and Recovery in Art Essay, traveling in particular areas of the social cognition, world and many other penalties as well. A criminal record is information held about that person’s arrest or conviction. Courts can than review ones criminal record to determine their sentencing. Arrest , Conviction , Crime 484 Words | 3 Pages.
Criminal Justice Careers Marielu Villa Westwood College Abstract This paper reflects about criminal justice careers that will . Trauma In Art Essay! help me get knowledge and get a better idea about the career that I choose. Components of criminal justice: law enforcement, courts, and social, corrections. In Art Essay! A brief description about the career, the requirements, and the hiring criteria the career has. Tell why the position interest me, how does it relate to the career path that I want, and finally what I’m looking for After Life, in gaining. Corrections , Crime , Criminal justice 1735 Words | 5 Pages.
Explain how a high school or college course has influenced your life. Describe how this course influenced your decision in selecting your college major and Essay, how it may affect your career path. you decided what you want to and feminism, major in yet? asked my high school counselor as I sat before her trying to decide what my class schedule would be like for the . following year. I wasnt sure how to reply to such a question considering it was one of the most important questions I could ever answer that would direct my life to its development. I began thinking about Trauma and Recovery, all the classes Ive taken throughout high school and there was one class that really stuck. A class I took my junior year as an elective, a class. Compact fluorescent lamp , Environment , Environmental science 1066 Words | 3 Pages.
How Does Media Affect My Life ? The developing industry of media and technology has flourished into a . revolution. A revolution in which has embarked on plenty of cognition model opportunities for media companies to expand and give people the in Art, ability to approach to learning, experience a new wave of media products and communications. The affects in which the author of the novel ‘The Shallows’, Nicholas Carr, discusses throughout his own personal experiences of how media has negatively affected his life and his mentality. From reading. Brain , Electronic media , History of the Internet 1108 Words | 3 Pages. How the Essay, Environment Affects Learning. How the cognitive approach, Environment Affects Learning Rick Lyman David C. In Art! Nelson, PhD Adult Learning Theory– EDU 500 02/04/12 . How the Environment Affects Learning This paper will discuss how our environment affects learning.
I will discuss how important the environment is in the early years of one’s life in early childhood development. I will also discuss how one’s interest in learning plays a vital role in learning. I will also discuss how active learning and development plays an integral role. Developmental psychology , Education , Educational psychology 1245 Words | 4 Pages. Crime and cognitive to learning, Criminal Justice Process. ? Sentencing Paper Abstract The population in Trauma and Recovery in Art Essay the United States prisons is about house, currently soaring.
Many argue that the quality of . life in Trauma in Art prison is more likely to have a greater impact on the prisoners and criminal behavior than the death penalty. Deciding methods of fixing bad behavior has been a discussion since the beginning of time. There are two types of correctional methods that are often used, punishment and rehabilitation. “Punishment is defined as a penalty that is imposed on. Capital punishment , Crime , Criminal justice 1370 Words | 4 Pages. The experiences that have changed your life. ?1 What events, activities or achievements have contributed to your own self-development?
2 Describe a situation in After Essay which you had significant . responsibility and what you learned from it. Trauma And Recovery! 3 Describe your strengths and approach, weaknesses in Trauma in Art Essay two areas: setting and achieving goals, and working with other people. 4 Your career aspirations and factors leading you to apply to this course at this time. Describe a challenge to which you have successfully responded. What did you learn about yourself as you responded. College , Curriculum , Essay 861 Words | 2 Pages.
How National Debt Affects your Wallet. ?Anthony Lombardi Professor Kincaid Research Essay 10 November 2013 How National Debt Affects your Wallet . In the times we live in 4 analysis today, National Debt can really put a dent in Trauma in Art Essay your wallet. “The national debt is the amount of money owed by the U.S. government to cognitive approach to learning, its creditors, which may include private individuals, corporations, banks, and other financial institutions as well as foreign governments” (Gale Encyclopedia). Trauma In Art Essay! National debt is basically the result of the government spending more. Economics , Federal government of the United States , Inflation 2651 Words | 7 Pages. us and of the After Life, teach us about life . Whether it be potty training or how to throw a ball, but one thing is for sure, from the moment we . can understand emotions we are taught what is right and what is wrong. When we are infants and learning about the many shapes and and Recovery in Art Essay, colorful things around us we are told no when trying to put something potentially harmful into our mouths and praised when we take our first steps and our first potty break. And as we get older the right and wrongs of life become more and more complex.
Economy of the marx, United States , Electronic article surveillance , Package pilferage 2840 Words | 9 Pages. How Does Ite Class Affects Your Future. grads. IS professionals provide a bridge between the organization, technology, and the customer. The systems analyst is always asking questions and . communicating, providing this bridge. And when viewpoints differ, must come to Essay, resolution and clarity on how to remedy. Cognitive Approach To Learning! MIS grads will need to in Art, solve problems more effectively through abstraction. They will do this through Computational Thinking. Social Cognition Model! Critical Thinking + Technology = Computational Thinking. Trauma! Computational Thinking represents away of solving problems. Data , Data mining , Decision support system 1637 Words | 5 Pages.
Tayja Walker English 1105 Emily Gilliam February 19, 2011 Can Technology affect your mind? iPod+ iPhone+ iPad= . iBroke”…and dysfunctional” Has your life begun to revolve around your cell phone? Are you checking your email, texting or tweeting more often than you speak to an actual human? Are you making life and death decisions at the computer. “Should I buy new iTunes or have gas for the rest of the week?” This is a growing problem. People have begun to let technology control their. Bluetooth , Cellular network , GSM services 1621 Words | 5 Pages. corrections in marx the criminal justice system. Corrections has made a lot of positive changes since the time it was establish, which it was in and Recovery in Art . early 1900’s. The reason I selected this component is because I believe that is very interesting how corrections has improved throughout the years. I will be explaining on the changes that had been made to make correction a lot better now. The budgetary and cognitive, managerial impact that future trends will be discuss, but also on the other components of the Trauma, criminal justice system.
Corrections , Crime , Criminal justice 1401 Words | 4 Pages. How Does Facebook Impact on Your Life? How does Facebook impact on your life ? What is the most popular social network in the world? I believe that . most people prefer the and juliet modern, answer “Facebook”. Nowadays, there are more and more people join the Trauma, Facebook. Romeo! You can always see such situations that some people refresh their Facebook when they have nothing to do, and in Art Essay, there are some people even only use Facebook to about house, keep in touch with others. Actually, Facebook has already become a part of our life ; and it changed our lives in four aspects: it.
Facebook , History of the Essay, Internet , Instant messaging 1474 Words | 4 Pages. ?Title: Midterm Examination TREX 1001 In partial requirement for and juliet modern, TREX 1001 Mythbuster's Prepared By: Lex Brown Prepared For: Dr. And Recovery In Art! Rich Miller . And Juliet! 10/19/2013 1. Trauma And Recovery In Art Essay! Feelings can affect the decision making of a person drastically. Sometimes this affect can be positives, whereas at other times it is not. The most common instance in which emotions can get the best of a person’s actions or decision making that I can think of is marx, sports. In sports emotions can be both a positive and a negative when it. Cerebrum , Cognition , Frontal lobe 1738 Words | 9 Pages. Chapter 1: The Problem and Its Background Introduction We all know that it is time consuming doing things manually specially on record . keeping on a certain establishment. The PNP (Philippine National Police) Valenzuela has been handling crime related issues for Valenzuela. The PNP Valenzuela, as a consequence, maintains a large volume of information.
To be able to manage their information requirements, PNP Valenzuela is currently using an information system. This system is manual and in Art Essay, paper-based. Access control , Ajax , Crime 1434 Words | 5 Pages. People have an cognitive approach to learning, idea of Trauma how law enforcement works but rarely ever think of how much technology affects it, and model, . how much it keep them safe and keep their kids safe. The world changes every single day so consequently law enforcement has to keep up, for example 30 years ago there were no such things as cyber crimes but today there are all new laws and technology to prevent and protect against these crimes. Some innovations were much needed and in Art, sought after and others were spontaneous and Inception After, groundbreaking.
Corrections , Crime , Criminal justice 1801 Words | 5 Pages.
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Encyclopaedia Biblica/Timnah-Tobie: Wikis. If you see such errors, please fix them by in Art clicking edit and inserting the and feminism, proper word. If you'd like to Trauma in Art Essay, help, please place the text of the footnote inside the tags refIn this instance, the Lieutenant is referring to hamlet, the woman's child./ref , and move it to the proper place in the text. Then add to the very bottom of the page. If you'd like to help, please review the help pages. (n:pfi ; e*MN [BAL] ; also Josh. Trauma And Recovery In Art Essay! 19:43, Judg. 14:1-2, 14:5 ; i.e. , 'allotted portion') 1. A town in the hill-country of Judah, in the same group with Maon and Carmel (Josh.
15:57 ; 6ajj.va6a [thamnatha] [B]), and therefore not to be identified with Tibneh or Tibnah, 4 h. W. of Bethlehem. There must have been a Timnah SE. of romeo modern movies, Hebron. Most scholars have supposed this place to be intended in Gen. 38:12-14 (daifiva [thaimna] [A] in v. 12 ; 6afivav [thamnan] [L] in v. 14), but the and Recovery in Art Essay, emended reading of the first place-name in v. 14 (see TAPPUAH, i) favours the view that the Timnah (see below, 2) of Josh. 15:10, Judg. 14:1 is meant.
The gentilic of this Timnah, 'Timni', seems to cognitive, occur, miswritten as TEMENI (q.v.), or Timeni, in 1 Ch. 4:6. 2. (AV Timnath, and once, Josh. 19:43, THIMNATHAH, where LXX varies as in 15:57 [see above]. In Judg. dapvaOa [thamnatha] [BAL]. The gentilic :an, 9a/zw [thamnei] [B], OauvaOaiov [thamnathaiou] [AL], Timnite, Judg.
15:6.) A place on the northern frontier of Judah (Josh, 10:10, where LXX has e-n-l ij3a [epi liba] [BL], eiri vorov [epi noton] [A]), assigned to Dan in Josh. 19:43, but according to Judg. Trauma And Recovery Essay! 14 inhabited by Philistines in the pre-regal period. The latter narrative describes most graphically an occasion on which Samson 'went down to Timnah' (Judg. 14:1) from Zorah. The Chronicler includes it among the cognitive, cities taken from and Recovery in Art, Ahaz by the Philistines (2 Ch. 28:18; om. LXX ), and the contemporary evidence of text about, Sennacherib in the 'Prism-inscription' (KB 2:92-93) records that king s capture of Trauma and Recovery, Tamna after the descriptive, battle of Altaku before he laid siege to Amkaruna or Ekron. Timnah is now represented by in Art the village of Tibneh, on the S. side of the Wady Sarar, 2 mi. W. of 'Ain Shems (Beth-shemesh) and a little farther to the SW. of Sarah (Zorah). The site, however, has been robbed of three-fourths of Inception of the Life, its ruins by the builders of a neighbouring village (Guerin, Jud.
2:30-31). Trauma In Art! But cp ZORAH. 3. A third Timnah (possibly the same as TIMNATH-HERES) may be recognised in social cognition model the THAMNATHA of 1 Macc. 9:50 (on the Trauma Essay, readings, see PIRATHON), which was one of the Judaean cities fortified by Bacchides. It is doubtless the Thamna mentioned by Josephus (BJ 3:3:5) and and feminism Pliny (HN 5:14:70) as giving name to one of the Trauma and Recovery, toparchies (the Thamnitica) of Judaea, and incorrectly described by Eusebius and Jerome (OS 260:3, 1566) as being in the district of Lydda on the road to Jerusalem. And Feminism! The topographical notices in Jos.
BJ 4:5:1 confirm the view that this Timnah or Thamna is the northern Tibneh, a village about 10 mi. NW. of Bethel, with extensive ruins which have been described at length by Guerin (Sam. 28:9+). Cp Clermont Ganneau, PEFQ, 1875, p. And Recovery Essay! 169; Schurer, GVI 2:138. (Dnn njpn, as if 'Portion of the Sun', see NAMES, 95; Judg. 2:9 fla/ui/aSape? [BL] 8anva.0a.p- eta? [A], also called in Josh. 19:50, 24:30 Timnath-sorah (rnD nrpjjt ; Sa^ap X ap^ [thamarchares] [B], ea^avapax [thamnasarach] [Ba. mg.], 0a^ia0ropa [thamnathsara] [A], 0a;aia0aerap [thamnathasar] [L] in 19:50; 0aui/a0a0-aYapx [thamnathasachara][B], fla^ao-axap [thamnasachar] [A], fla/uia6r. Movies! [L], in 24:30).
A locality in 'Mt. Ephraim on the N. side of the Mt. GAASH' (q.v.). According to the book of Joshua it was assigned to Joshua at his own request ; he fortified the city, dwelt there, and was buried there. Trauma In Art! The place has been identified with the modern Tibneh (see TIMNAH, 3), where, on the N. slope of the hill to the S. , are some remarkable tombs described by Guerin (Sam. 2:89-104). This, however, assumes that there is hamlet scene 4 analysis, only one Ephraim, whereas the probability is that there was a second Ephraim ( Jerahmeel) in the Negeb. The alternative identification with Kefr Harith (a small village NE. of Tibneh), proposed by Conder, has only the support of a late Jewish and Moslem mediaeval tradition (see ZPDV 2:13+, 6:195+, and cp Goldziher, PEFQ, 1879, pp. 193+). It also implies the correctness of -heres, whereas Josh. (ll.c.) gives -serah, which is in Art, hardly to be treated as a deliberate metathesis (so Moore). But possibly Din [HRS] (whence by scene 4 analysis error mo [SRH]) comes from -nv [ShHR] - i.e., TintrN ['ShHVR] (this also accounts best for 'Mount Heres').
This will become still more probable if 'Nun' in 'Joshua son of Trauma and Recovery, Nun' should really be Nahshon (apparently a Rehobothite or Jerahmeellte name). Joshua surely represents a clan of the Inception of the After Life Essay, Negeb ; see JOSHUA. It is and Recovery, also important that Eleazar son of Aaron (apparently a kinsman of Joshua), is said to have been buried in Gibeath-pinehas, 'which was given him [omit ^3] in Mt. And Feminism! Ephraim', for bi[ne]has is Trauma and Recovery Essay, not improbably another corruption of Jerahme'el. See PHINEHAS.
1 For a parallel cp ?n in y. X Vn, which may represent see TEL-ABIB. (TIMCON [Ti. WH]), one of the seven deacons (Acts 6:5). He has a Greek name and was perhaps a Hellenist. Traditions contained in Pseudo-Dorotheus and Pseudo-Hippolytus make him bishop of Bostra in Arabia, and according to the former he suffered martyrdom by burning at romeo modern movies the hands of the heathen. 1. An Ammonite leader; whether an Ammonite with a Greek name, or a Greek who had been put by the Syrian general in in Art command of the Ammonites is unknown. About House! He was defeated on various occasions by Judas the Maccabee ; first in the campaign which resulted in the capture of Trauma Essay, Jazer, and again in that which included the battles of Dathema and Raphon and the relief of Bosora, Bosor, Alema, Casphor, Maked and Carnaim (1 Macc. 5:6-12, 5:24-44).
He is also mentioned in cognitive approach 2 Macc. 8:30, 8:32, 9:3, 10:24, 10:32, 10:37, 12:2, 12:10, 12:18-21, 12:24, where the Essay, scene is transferred to Western Palestine and a chronology implied which has suggested to many scholars that a different person must be intended. Of The Essay! The most probable explanation of the discrepancies, however, is that suggested under MACCABEES (SECOND), 2,3; viz., the inadequacy of the sources, and the uncritical character of the compiler, of that book. Birthplace, etc. (1). Circumcision (2). Journeys (3-5). An author? (6).
Traditions (7). This Hellenistic name (see TIMOTHEUS) is in the NT (TIMO06OC [Ti.WH]) borne by one of Paul s younger companions who was connected with, and Drobably born at, LYSTRA ( 3) in Lycaonia, where the apostle first came across him. In Acts 16:1 efcei [ekei] is epexegetic of and Recovery in Art Essay, Ka.1 els AuVrpar [kai eis lystran], and the text of 20:4 is too secure to justify any alteration which (GAIUS, 2) would connect AepjSaios [derbaios] with Tifj.66cos [timotheos], identifying this Gaius with the Macedonian of the same common name (19:29) from descriptive house, whom in all likelihood the epithet Aep/3aios [derbaios] is expressly intended to distinguish him. And Recovery! Cp Holtzmarm, Die Pastoralbriefe, 65-66 (1880). The diminished strictness of local Judaism (PHRYGIA, 3) is betrayed by two features in the Lystran household where Timothy was brought up; his Jewish mother had married a pagan, and their son was allowed to reach manhood uncircumcised. His father, it has been conjectured, died during the boy s early years ; this is corroborated at any rate by the absence of all reference to approach to learning, him as well as by the strong influence assigned in reliable tradition to the lad's mother (EDUCATION, 5) and (maternal?) grandmother, even though we hesitate to and Recovery, lay stress on the slight textual evidence for Eunice's widowhood (Acts 16:1, add x ? W xls [cheras] 2:5 : X- [ch.] for romeo modern, lovSalas [ioudaias], gig. fu.), or even on the tense of virripxev [hyperchen] (fuerat, Acts 16:3 ; virdpxti [hyparchei] would have been used, had he been alive [Blass]) Whether her husband was among 'the men that worship God' ( re/36/uevoi rbv Qtov [sebomenoi ton theon]) or not, Eunice (Acts 16:1, cp v. 15) seems to and Recovery Essay, have become a Christian at Paul's first visit to Lystra (Acts 14:6-7, 14:20-22). Later notices, embodying a tradition which there is no reason to suspect, indicate that her mother Lois had assisted her to train 1 the lad in the knowledge and piety of the Inception Essay, OT previous to their joint conversion (2 Tim. 1:5, 3:14-15, cp 1 Tim.
5:4) ; and Trauma in Art it may be inferred that their influence subsequently brought Timothy over to model, the new faith some time before the return of Paul a couple of years or so later. Passages like 1 Cor. 4:17 (contrast v. 15), 2 Tim. 2:1, etc., refer to kinship of spirit, and Phil. 2:22 expressly identifies Timothy's genuine sonship with his loyal service to Paul, not with spiritual parentage. And Recovery Essay! At any rate his intimate connection with Paul dates from the latter's second tour with Silas, when he found the young Lystran not a neophyte but a full member (uadijTris [mathetes]) of the local church. The allusion in 2 Tim. 3:10-11 (a genuine fragment) simply means (Lk. 1:3) acquaintance with the facts and experiences narrated - an acquaintance involving moral imitation (1 Tim. 4:6) - and does not imply that Timothy accompanied Paul on the journey described in Acts 13:14-14:20. In this flight, according to Acta Petri et Pauli, etc. (ed.
Lips. 1891, pp. Cognition! 235-236), Paul is accompanied by Demas and Hermogenes 6 xaAicevs, vrroicpio-eios yeT-coiTey, KGU e^eAtrrapoui TOV IlauAor to? ayaTritVTS O.VTOV [o chalkeus, hypokriseoos gemontes, kai exeliparoun ton paulon oos agapoontes auton]. 1 As the nearest synagogue was at in Art Essay Iconium, the marx and feminism, religious instruction of the child devolved on Eunice, who probably possessed a copy of some part of the OT scriptures is well as the little parchment rolls, specially for the use of and Recovery Essay, children, containing. e.g.. the Shema, the Hallel, the history of Creation down to approach to learning, the Flood, and Lev. 1-8 (Edersheim, Sketches of Jewish Social Life, 114-117).
The language of Acts 16:1 (/ecu I8ov [kai idou], cp 1:10, 8:27, 10:17, 12:7) is intended to Trauma in Art Essay, denote a remarkable and happy episode in the tour (cp Hort, Christian Ecclesia, 178-179). It seemed providential that another youth was found willing and fit to join Paul's company and enterprise, after the defection of descriptive about house, Hohn Mark and Barnabas. In Art! Characteristically (cp 6:3, 10:22, 22:12) an excellent reputation is singled out as one essential feature in his moral equipment ; Actsl62 suggests also, though it does not necessarily imply, that he had already preached in cognitive the neighbourhood. However, as his father's nationality was notorious in the locality, Paul had him circumcised. Trauma And Recovery Essay! He carried out this long-deferred rite upon the eve of proceeding farther on a tour among the Phrygian churches with their Jewish surroundings and partially Jewish atmosphere, his object being to text, prevent people taking needless offence either at Timothy's connection with Paul or at his entrance into Jewish circles. Acts 16:36 is often taken as an Essay editorial gloss (e.g., Clemen, Jungst, Hilgenfeld, and Wendt), and on cognitive to learning, different lines the last-named critic and McGiffert (Apostolic Age, 232-234) have attempted to explain the whole passage as the popular and later misstatement of an actual fact, in opposition to the dominant view (cp ACTS, 4, 7) which - apart from minor variations - generally regards the story as an invention of the author, introduced in order to illustrate what he conceived was or should have been Paul s deferential and Trauma and Recovery conciliatory attitude towards Jewish-Christian scruples. But the existence of a strong Timothy-tradition in approach the later church makes it hard to believe that a strange story like this could be spread not long after Timothy s death, if it did not correspond to fact. And psychological reasons can be adduced which render the tradition fairly acceptable (cp Renan, S. Paul, 125, 313 ; Hort, Jud.
Christ. 85-86). Paul, either before or after the conference at Jerusalem, was independent of petty scruples against or for circumcision, which he probably regarded as among the Trauma in Art, adiaphora (1 Cor. 7:18). Particularly in the case of a half-caste or semi-Jew like Timothy, where no principle was at stake, Paul could not have felt bound to abstain from circumcision, if it promoted effectiveness, any more than to cognitive, insist upon it uniformly. His liberal views (cp Rom. 2:28-29, 14:13-21) left him free to act upon his own judgment and to decide any case upon its merits, free even to accommodate himself to scruples felt by Jews when such accommodation could not fairly (yet cp Gal.
5:11, and Rams. Hist. Comm. Galat., 8) be misunderstood. Timothy s circumcision was a matter of convenience, not of principle ; and Paul would make that perfectly clear before permitting his friend to Essay, become legally a Jew to save the to learning, Jews.l Upon the whole, therefore, there is a distinct case to be made out on behalf of the and Recovery, historicity of this paragraph, as against the plausible but somewhat arbitrary view that it represents a make- weight to Gal. About House! 2:3-4. The case of Titus was entirely different. And it is one thing for a writer to omit an awkward fact, another and a much more serious thing - requiring greater motives and historical justification than can be reasonably brought forward in this case - deliberately to invent a story which hundreds of contemporary Christians (cp Heb.
13:23) could have readily refuted. This forms an almost insuperable difficulty in the way of accepting the ordinary hypothesis of criticism upon Acts 16:1-3 ; and it seems therefore more natural to regard Paul s action as somewhat exceptional, though it depends on the view taken of the in Art Essay, date of Galatians (cp 5:2) whether we suppose Paul deliberately made this exception afterwards (so Weber, Abfassung des Galatterbriefes, 77-78 ), or advanced to a clearer and more consistent line of action. In sketching at a later date some personal traits of Timothy, the author of the pastoral epistles, either drawing upon Acts or upon independent oral tradition, lays characteristic stiess on the questions of good character and and feminism reputation as a requisite for the ministry (e.g., 1 Tim. 3:7), preserves the names of Trauma and Recovery, Eunice and Lois (2 Tim. 1:5), suggests timidity and backwardness as qualities of Timothy (2 Tim. 1:7-8), and refers to several circumstances attending Paul's selection of the younger man.
There is no reason to descriptive house, doubt the in Art, substantial accuracy of such notices or of the After, tradition that this momentous event (1 Tim. 1:18, 4:14) was due to some local Christians, possibly including Paul himself, who felt themselves inspired in the assembly to single out the youth as a fit companion for Paul. The statement agrees at any rate with phenomena such as those noted in Acts 13:3, etc., and merely implies that the local prophets and leaders felt themselves divinely guided in selecting Timothy, or in ratifying Paul s judgment on a matter which may have already occupied his mind. But ecclesiastical tendency of a later age is felt in the further description, throughout these passages and elsewhere (e.g., 2 Tim. 1:6, cp TIMOTHY AND TITUS [EPISTLES], 7), of a supernatural xapio-jua [charisma] due to solemn ordination; although the fact of the laying-on-of-hands at such a time is in itself quite credible (cp Acts 13:3, 14:23). 1 Zahn (Einl. 1:479-480) subtly traces an allusion to this characteristic of Timothy in the emeis of Trauma and Recovery in Art, Phil. 3;3, which he insists on scene 4 analysis, taking (as in v. 17) as a reference to Paul's coadjutor (Phil.
1:1). See further K. Schmidt's Ap.-gesch. 358-359 (1882). Accompanying Paul and Silas on their European tour (PAUL, 20), Timothy apparently took a specially keen interest in Trauma in Art the Macedonian churches which he helped to found at Philippi and Thessalonica, although it is remarkable that the narrative in Acts only mentions his name quite incidentally (Acts 17:14, 18:5). With the descriptive, former church (Phil. 2:20-22) his relations remained singularly close and Trauma in Art warm, but it is impossible to Inception of the After Life, see him (with Volter, Th.T, 1892, p. 124) in a second-century allusion (4:3) to rwfirye [synzyge] (cp SYNZYGUS).
His subsequent movements between Beraea (BEREA, 3) and Trauma in Art Essay Corinth are not quite clear owing to the loose and general statements of Acts at this point. The probability is, however, that (1 Thess. 3:2 being parallel to 3:5) Timothy rejoined Paul soon at Athens, and was sent back (perhaps with a letter, cp Rendel Harris: Expos., 5th ser. , 8:161-162, 8:401-402) to Thessalonica to confirm the local Christians and bring back news of their condition to their anxious apostle. Returning from model, this errand Timothy, now accompanied by Silas, found that in despair Paul had gone across from Athens to Corinth. Cp THESSALOXIANS, 1-2. The 'awkward and badly constructed' (Ramsay, St. Trauma In Art Essay! Paul, 233) narrative of Acts 17:10-11 shows that the author, or the cognitive to learning, source which he followed here, was ignorant of this Macedonian mission; he offers no explanation of the and Recovery, extraordinary delay which - on his own statement - transpired between 17:13-14 and 18:5, imagining that Silas and approach Timothy had simply remained in Beroea.
Whereas it is in Art Essay, probable that the visit of Paul's two emissaries extended to Philippi as well as to Thessalonica, and that they conveyed from the former church to Paul (2 Cor. 11:9 ? Phil. 4:15) a gift of romeo and juliet, money. At Corinth and throughout Achaia, Timothy, as an apostle (1 Thess. 1:1, 2:6) in the wider sense of the term (cp MINISTRY, 17; McGiffert, Apostolic Age, 648-649), shared Paul's pioneering work (cp 2 Cor. 1:19) and was associated with him in the epistles (epistle?) to Thessalonica, which were written in Trauma in Art Essay the earlier part of the apostle s stay on the Isthmus - for although the mention of Athens (1 Thess 3:1) does not exclude the possibility of that city as the place where they were composed (see 1 Cor. 15:32, 16:8), it is plain from other allusions (cp 1 Thess. 1:8) that they presuppose the apostle's entry into modern Achaia. From Corinth two years later Timothy seems to have accompanied Paul as far as Ephesus, where he became known to the churches in the neighbourhood (Col. Trauma And Recovery! 1:1) and to descriptive text about, local individuals (Philem.
1). And Recovery In Art! At any rate (cp CHRONOLOGY, 68) towards the close of the two or three years spent by Paul in Ephesus and Inception After Life the surrounding district, Timothy and Erastus (Acts 19:22), as two assistants of Paul upon the spot, were despatched to Macedonia and Achaia (possibly; dav ZXdy [ean elthe], 1 Cor. 16:10) in advance of their leader, who intended to follow up his letter to Trauma and Recovery in Art, Corinth (despatched by sea after March 5, when navigation became open) by a personal visit. It is plain, from 1 Cor. Romeo And Juliet Movies! 4:17, 16:10-11, that there was a chance of Timothy failing to arrive until after the letter reached its destination ; for Paul bespeaks a courteous reception for Trauma and Recovery, his young representative. The absence of any greeting from the latter, and the temporal aorist ^jrea^a [epempsa] ('I have sent', 1 Cor.
4:17), show that he had left before the epistle was despatched. Cognitive Approach To Learning! His instructions were to return with some other Christians directly (i.e., by the sea-route) to Paul at Ephesus (1 Cor. 16:11), after instructing the Corinthians afresh upon Pauline methods and views (1 Cor. 4:17) and generally consolidating their faith. The obscurity of the Corinthian episode at this stage (cp TITUS, 2) renders it difficult to in Art Essay, decide whether Paul s silence in 2 Cor. upon the mission of Timothy and any results attending it forms a tacit proof that Timothy did not manage to and feminism, reach Corinth (so, e.g., Lightfoot, Weiss, and Ramsay), or that he did arrive and then, failing to cope subsequently with the fresh trouble, returned to Paul or simply sent him word of the crisis. On the last-named hypothesis he may have been either (so Beyschlag, Pfleiderer, G. G. Trauma In Art Essay! Findlay) in person, or with Paul on the latter's painful visit (2 Cor.
2:1, 2:5-6), actually the man insulted (oiSiKrjfJei s [o adiketheis]; 7:12) by the recalcitrant majority at Corinth. On the whole intricate question see Schmiedel, HC 2:1;220-223. Whatever happened to Timothy in the interval, Paul at cognitive approach to learning last met 2 him somewhere among his favourite Macedonian churches (2 Cor. 1:1, 7:5) whither he had retired from Corinth probably to find a more congenial sphere ; unless we are to suppose that he accompanied Paul thither from Ephesus. Evidently he had not been in Achaia lately (2 Cor. 7:5-6, 7:13). But when Paul went on to Corinth, Timothy accompanied him (Rom. 16;21), and and Recovery in Art Essay formed a member of the descriptive text about house, apostle's entourage on his return to Asia in the spring of the following year. 1 If the note to Ephesus, incorporated in Rom. Trauma Essay! 16, extended (as, e.g., Weizsacker and McGiffert suggest) to v. Social! 23, the mention of Timothy in v. 21 would be highly appropriate.
But the note probably contained v. 1-20 and no more. [Cp, further, ROMANS, 13.] 2 Or, sent for him ; if one plausible reconstruction of the period, based on a critical view of 2 Tim. 4:9, 4:11-18, 4:20-21 (see TIMOTHY AND TITUS [EPISTLES], 12), could be established. Whether he accompanied Paul to Rome or was summoned by him afterwards, the scanty data available do not permit us to determine ; the latter conjecture (cp TIMOTHY AND TITUS [EPISTLES], 12-13) fits in Trauma and Recovery Essay well with the tone of 2 Tim. 4:13-15, 4:21-22a when that fragment is assigned to a genuine note sent by Paul either late in the Czesarean or early in the Roman imprisonment, urging his friend to join him. At any rate it is obvious that Timothy did stay beside him at Rome for a considerable period (Col. 1:1, Philem. 1, Phil. 1:1). Later on, however, Paul s concern for the Philippian Christians led him to cognitive to learning, arrange for Essay, the disinterested and zealous Timothy paying them a visit (Phil.
2:19-22) in order to relieve the apostle s mind by bringing back news of his old friends. Timothy had a tried character by this time and his 'solicitude for the Philippians had become a second nature' (Lightfoot). Clearly he was not a a prisoner, but free to come and go. His journey may have detained him ; or he may have proceeded farther to Ephesus. Cognitive! 1 At least a genuine fragment preserved in 2 Tim. 1:15-18, 4:6-12, 4:16-19 shows that at some subsequent period Paul had been forced to abandon his hope of release and now, in and Recovery in Art view of a martyr s death, wanted to have Timothy beside him again in his isolation.
We do not know if the summons was obeyed in time, or at all. A final glimpse of the envoy is afforded, some twenty years later, by romeo modern a casual remark in an epistle apparently addressed to some Christians at Rome (Heb. 13:23), from which it would appear that Timothy, who was familar to Trauma and Recovery, this circle of readers (cp Rom. 16:21, HEBREWS, 9), had been recently released from of the After Essay, imprisonment somewhere and and Recovery might possibly revisit Rome in company with his friend the writer. Apart from a hypothesis, which needs only to be chronicled, that he actually edited the two pastoral epistles bearing his own name, three lines of critical reconstruction connect Timothy with authorship either independently or as an amanuensis of Paul, (i.) Least probable of all is Spitta's ingenious attempt to find in him the author of 2 Thess. (Zur Gesch. u. Lift, des Ur-christenthums, 1:22-23), an epistle written by marx and feminism him in the name of his companions (2 Thess. 1:1) - hence its somewhat formal and official tone - and saturated with apocalyptic fantasies of Judaism peculiar to himself (cp Acts 16:1, 2 Tim. 3:15-16, 1 Tim. Trauma And Recovery In Art Essay! 1:4, 4:7) See THESSALONIANS, 14. (ii.) When 2 Cor.
10-13 is accepted as part of an intermediate letter to Corinth, written previous to 2 Cor. 1-9, it is natural (Pfleid. Das Urchristenthum, 106-107) though far from necessary to suppose that these four chapters were preceded by a part (no longer extant) written by Timothy or by text house some other companion of Paul interested in the local church. And Recovery Essay! On this view the avrbs 5e eyoo IlaCAos [autos de egoo paulos] means that Paul now strikes in to speak alone and independently, (iii.) With more plausibility the composition of the 'We-journal' in Acts has been assigned occasionally to Timothy (e.g., by Konigsmann, Ulrich, Beyschlag, de Wette, Bleek, and [?] Weizsacker), although the threads of positive proof are extremely subtle (cp ACTS, 9b) and social model the general probabilities point rather to Luke as the diarist. Besides, even if the Bezan reading in Acts 11:27-28 be rejected, a passage like Acts 20:4-6 (unless we are to suspect a serious dislocation of the text) tells against the composition of the journal by Essay Timothy.
Sorof, however, has followed a modified form of modern movies, Mayerhoff s theory in attributing to Timothy the Trauma and Recovery, task of editing Acts in its extant shape from. (a) a Lucan sketch of early Christianity in connection with Paul and (b) a rather legendary Petrine source (Die Entstehung der Ap.-gesch. Text! 1890). 1 If so, this would be the basis for the literary setting adopted by and Recovery in Art Essay the later author of the pastoral epistles in his third composition (1 Tim. 1:3-4, cp TIMOTHY AND TITUS [EPISTLES], 11). The casual way in which Timothy's connection with Ephesus is cognitive approach, assumed there, may be pure fantasy; but it is more likely that it may reflect some actual tradition of his career after Paul's removal ; certainly (although the far from exhaustive or accurate nature of Acts as a record of Paul's later life does not make this an Trauma and Recovery in Art Essay insuperable objection) there is no recorded period in Acts when Paul started for Macedonia leaving Timothy to descriptive, superintend matters at Ephesus. The widespread belief of Christian tradition (Ap. Const. 746, Euseb. HE 3:4, Photius, Bibl. 254), that Timothy was appointed by Essay Paul as the first bishop of Ephesus, is probably nothing better than an marx and feminism inference from the pastoral epistles (1 Tim.
1:3-4), which, however, may echo some historical relationship. The story is and Recovery in Art Essay, occasionally improved by Inception of the some circumstantial details: e.g., that he was succeeded in his episcopate by the apostle and the presbyter John, suffering martyrdom (Jan. 22, Greek church ; Jan. 24, Latin ; Sept. 27, Ephesus) during the Trauma and Recovery in Art, former s exile at Patmos towards the descriptive text, close of the first century A.D. (see Nicephorus in Trauma and Recovery in Art Essay HE 3:11). No miracles are narrated of him in the fifth century Acta Timothei (ed.
Usener, 1877). For these and other legends see further Lipsius, Apokr. Ap.-gesch. (1884), 372-400, and, for the traditional connection of Timothy and cognition Ephesus, Zahn, Einl. 1:426-427. His martyrdom 1 Tim. Essay! 6:12-13) is connected in one tradition with wild orgies in descriptive house vogue possibly at the local festival of Diana, the mob having clubbed him to death for Trauma Essay, protesting against their licentiousness.
Contents of epistles (1-3). Period and object (4). The errorists (5). Paulinism (6). Sub-Pauline elements (7). The faithful sayings (8). Style and diction (9). Romeo Movies! Second imprisonment (10). Genesis of pastorals (11). Critical analysis (12-14). Order of composition (15).
Author (16). Pseudonymity (17). Trauma In Art! Bibliography (18). These three epistles commonly form a group 1 in the NT canon, 2 and the general similarity of their diction, aim, and atmosphere makes it convenient to discuss them side by side. 1 As 'personal' letters ('pro affectu et dilectione', Murat. Can.) they usually share with Philemon the last place in the list of Pauline epistles. Cognitive Approach! After the Murat. Canon, where for some reason Titus precedes the other two, the normal arrangement is 1 Tim., 2 Tim., Titus. 2 The allusions and and Recovery Essay citations in early Christian literature simply prove the existence and (by no means unanimous) acceptance of these epistles during the second and third centuries. Neither their rejection by writers and to learning leaders outside the and Recovery in Art Essay, catholic church, nor their welcome within it, can be supposed to throw independent light upon the question of their actual origin and authorship.
Errorists usually refused to admit what was in more or less plain conflict with their own tenets, and one has always to suspect the bias of moral dislike (Clem. Alex. Strom. 2:11) behind their so-called literary verdicts upon authorship. But as little do the employment and the approbation of and feminism, such writings by church-authors tell in favour of their reputed authorship. When admitted to the canon as documents bearing Paul's name, they were judged healthy in religious tone, practically serviceable to the church ('in honore ecclesiae catholicae in ordinatione ecclesiasticae discipline sanctificatae sunt', Murat. Can.), and generally congruous with the Pauline tradition and temper. Those who thus stamped them with approval had no independent knowledge of their composition ; it was enough that the epistles contained nothing which jarred with what was judged to be apostolic or Pauline ; and the early Christian attitude towards 'Hebrews' is abundant evidence of how loose that judgment could be. Trauma Essay! The modern critic is therefore justified in going behind such ecclesiastical tradition in order to face directly problems of romeo and juliet modern movies, origin and authorship which, in the nature of things, could hardly have been present to the consciousness of those who with sound instinct preserved writings handed down by religious usage from the past. No one would dream of in Art Essay, challenging the verdict of the Homeric ioptfoi Te [chorizontes], simply because in common with antiquity generally Aristotle (with the same facts before him) found no difficulty in and feminism treating the Iliad and the Odyssey as products of the same mind.
And the identification of canonicity or worthiness with direct apostolic authorship, which tacitly controlled nearly all early Christian discussions upon the primitive literature of the in Art, church, is a literary convention which it is needless at this time of romeo, day to spend space in refuting. Consequently, in the case of the Trauma Essay, pastoral epistles, there need not be any hesitation in concentrating attention upon their internal evidence when problems such as pseudpnymity are raised. This is cognition, just one of the instances in in Art Essay which the naive presuppositions of early Christianity imposed limitations upon its judgment, when that judgment was exercised upon the remote literary and historical sources of its treasures. 3 J. Turmel, 'Histoire de l'interpret. de 1 Tim. 2:4' (Revue d'Hist. et de Litt. Relig. 1900, Sept.-Oct.).
Their contents are as follows : 1 Tim. is somewhat loosely knit together; the descriptive about, contents are miscellaneous rather than orderly, as if the writer had had no single topic dominant in his mind. But in spite of this desultory character the general trend of the epistle is not obscure. After the usual greeting (1:1-2) the and Recovery, epistle opens by describing the commission already given by Paul to his lieutenant at Ephesus and descriptive house now urged afresh upon his attention that he may be able to counteract local errorists of antinomian proclivities. This commission enforces sincerity and moral earnestness, according to Trauma and Recovery, the Pauline standard presented as an apostolic trust and tradition to which Timotheus is naturally heir (1:3-11). Here a digression occurs, suggested by the closing words of v. 11; Paul claims to be the staunch though unworthy representative of this evangelical standard, and and feminism summons Timothy to unflinching loyalty (1:12-20) in view of some recent instances of aberration (HYMENAEUS and ALEXANDER). The epistle then passes away from polemic and personal allusions into and Recovery in Art the first of its two sections (2-3). Inception Of The Life! Directions are laid down for the regulation of and Recovery in Art, church-life in general: (a) for whom (2:1-2) and by whom (2:3) prayer is to be offered in church - both paragraphs expanding into slight digressions upon the universality of salvation in the Pauline gospel (2:3-7) and upon the subordinate place of women (2:9-3:1).
The writer then proceeds from Christian worship to the more vital question of (b) organisation, laying down the moral criteria (see EDUCATION, 16-17) of episcopi (3:2-7) and diaconi (3:8-13, incidentally deaconesses are included), and cognitive to learning closing the whole section with a lofty stanza or fragment of Trauma and Recovery in Art, a primitive confession upon the incarnate Christ (3:14-16). The second section (4-6), which resumes the tone of polemic, is thrown into the form of act 3, rules for in Art Essay, the personal conduct and ministry of Tim. in view of serious moral aberrations fostered by the ascetic tendencies of certain Christian teachers; these sophistries and superstitions he is authoritatively to refute (4:1-16). He is further advised upon his attitude to the practical problems created by differences of age and sex within the membership of the churches (5:1-2), and cognitive approach to learning some space is devoted to the maintenance and control of two special classes of officials - widows (5:3-16) and and Recovery presbyters (5:17-25). And Feminism! After a word on the relative duties of slaves and Essay masters (6:1-2), the epistle comes round to text about, lash the errorists, attacking them with considerable vigour for making a trade of religion. Naturally this suggests a warning to Christians in general against the passion for money (6:3-10), and with an impressive charge addressed to the 'man of God', the epistle dies away in a doxology (6:11-16). In a postscript, some words to rich people are appended, together with a supplementary warning to Timothy against contemporary yccocris [gnoosis] (6:17-21). In 2 Tim., after the greeting, Paul gives thanks for Timothy's inheritance and experience of faith (1:1-5). Trauma And Recovery! He then warns his friend against false shame, urging his own life and teaching to and feminism, the contrary (1:6-14), as well as a recent example of energy and Trauma and Recovery in Art fearlessness on the part of an Asiatic Christian called Onesiphorus (1:15-18).
Especially for one who like Timothy is heir to the Pauline trust and tradition, endurance for Christ's sake and adherence to the Pauline gospel (of which, indeed, endurance is act 3 4 analysis, a note) form a pressing duty; the former is certain of a reward (2:1-13), whilst the Trauma and Recovery in Art Essay, latter is the one useful and honourable course of action open for a Christian teacher (2:14-26) amid the heightening temptations of unpractical controversy and immorality. After vigorously exposing the principles and methods of these errorists (3:1-9, see JANNES AND JAMBRES), Paul bids Timothy maintain the principles of the Pauline gospel, even when they involve suffering and obloquy, and at the same time adhere to the OT scriptures (3:10-17); then follows a resume containing his final charge and act 3 scene 4 analysis the swansong of his own confession (4:1-8). Data of personal information and private messages close the letter (4:9-22). 1 The personal reference elsewhere in the NT (Gal. 2:9, Rev. 3:12) does not justify Bois in Trauma and Recovery Essay bracketing 'which is the church of the living God' (TJTIS . . . Ju)fTOs [epis . zoontos] : 3:14-16) and connecting 'pillar' (crri/Aos [stylos]) with the subject of 'behave' (ayacrTpfV/ietrOai [anastrephesthai]). 2 The concern to social cognition model, keep the in Art Essay, widow-class under the bishop's control is thoroughly sub-apostolic (cp Ignat. ad Polyk. 4, 5). Cognitive! See MINISTRY, 41, and Hastings' DB 4:916-917. 3 The interpolated remark (5:23), if not an aside suggested by 'pure' (dyrdr [agnon]), may have originally lain between 4:3 and 4:4 or 4:12 and Trauma Essay 4:13, from text about house, which it has got displaced (instances of this in Hist. New Test. Trauma And Recovery! (2) pp.
39:676 ; also Jahn on Juv. 3:12, 3:16 and Che. on Is. 38:22). Its insertion after 5:22, which must have taken place very early, would thus be due to a copyist who read the sentence as a qualifying definition of 'pure' (ayvuv [agnon]) - Christian purity being no Essene-like abstinence. Epictetus (Diss. 3:22) similarly regards bodily health as a necessary part of the true Cynic's religious equipment; 'for if he has the appearance of and juliet movies, a consumptive, pale, and thin person, his testimony has not the Trauma and Recovery, same weight'. Julicher and Bacon group vv.
23-25 together, and von Soden links 25 to 23, 24 to 22, whilst Calvin plausibly suggested that 22c-23 was a marginal note of the author. 4 In particular to romeo modern movies, teachers who found Christianity a lucrative trade (cp Did. 11-12, Barn. 10, Ignat. And Recovery! Ephes. And Feminism! 7, Tit. 1:11). 5 The absence of any greetings to members of the Ephesian church, together with the paucity of and Recovery in Art, personal allusions, shows that the epistle is not a letter in the strict sense of the word. The author is writing with his eye on modern, the Christian church of his own day, as the phrases (2 Tim. 4:22, Tit.
3:15, 1 Tim. 6:21) prove for all three epistles. In Philemon, the one genuine 'private' note of Paul extant [cp, however, PHILEMON], the 'your' (uuwv [hymon]) in v. 25 refers to and Recovery in Art, the different persons associated with Philemon in the introduction. Cp also the variant 'know ye' (yivtuCTxeTe [ginooskete] : Lachm.) in 2 Tim. 3:1. The alternative open to descriptive, the traditionalists is the gratuitous assumption that passages like 1 Tim. 2:1-3:13, etc., were meant to Trauma Essay, be communicated by their recipients to wider circles (Zahn); which of course destroys the character of the writings as private letters.
Cp 1 Tim. 2:8 (1 Cor. 7:17). 6 On the contents of 1:6 see below (section 7). But even if 'us' in v. 7 referred to Paul and Timothy (which is social model, not absolutely certain) it would simply allude to Trauma and Recovery in Art Essay, them as the persons immediately under consideration, not as officials. The passage, therefore, does not in itself betray the narrowing of the Spirit to a class ; and the contents of the social model, Spirit are distinctly ethical : vigour issuing in love to others and in self-control. 7 On 3:13 cp Aristides 6:16 (Wendland, Klicin. Trauma And Recovery In Art! Mus., 1894, 49:309).
8 The curious antipathy of the model, writer to and Recovery, second marriages on the part of presbyters, episcopi, diaconi, and 'widows' (?pu [cherai], see WIDOW), is quite un-Pauline, but corresponds to marx and feminism, the more general cast of feeling prevalent in the second century throughout the churches (e.g., Athenagoras, Leg; pro Christ. 33, 'respectable adultery', euvrpeTri)? /aot^ eta gt [euprepes moicheia]; Herm. Mand. 4:1:4 ; Clem. Alex.
Strom. 3:1). See Jacoby, Neutest. Ethik (1899), 378-399. After a somewhat elaborate greeting (1:1-4), the epistle to Titus opens by reiterating Pauls instructions with regard to the choice and duties of presbyters or episcopi in Crete, in order to sharply check erroneous teaching and Trauma and Recovery in Art immoral practices on the part of descriptive text about house, some Judaising propagandists who were upsetting the churches (1:5-16). Titus is then instructed how to enforce the moral obligations of Christianity upon aged men (2:1-2), aged women, and married women (2:3-5), younger men like himself (2:6-8), and slaves (2:9-10). Paul insists on this moral life as an essential of the Christian faith (2:11-14, see PECULIAR PEOPLE), and urges Titus to press home the positive duties of obedience to authority and of pure conduct, instead of in Art, wasting time over-controversialists and sectaries (2:15-3:11; cp EXCOMMUNICATION, 3 ; HERESY, 2). With some brief personal notices (3:12-15) the epistle closes; the mention of the jurist Zenas and cognitive approach the evangelist Apollos is and Recovery, perhaps intended to social, suggest that it was conveyed by and Recovery in Art Essay their hands to its recipient. The cluster of problems offered by these epistles is intimately connected with the text house, dual nature of their contents.
Within a setting and alongside of Trauma and Recovery in Art Essay, material which, upon modern movies, all available criteria of internal evidence, must be pronounced distinctly sub-Pauline, 4 the reader meets passages apparently alien which have high claims to be considered as directly due to the apostle whose name the letters bear. The task of criticism is to do justice to both of these elements. The sub-Pauline element is primary, and in view of it any reasonable appreciation of the whole question, not merely of isolated details, leads almost inevitably to the conclusion - one of the in Art Essay, best established in hamlet act 3 scene 4 analysis NT research - that the three epistles are pseudonymous, composed by Trauma and Recovery in Art Essay a Paulinist in Asia Minor 5 not earlier than the close of the marx and feminism, first century, and Trauma in Art not later than the second decade of the second century, based in part upon marx and feminism, genuine fragments from the Essay, apostle s pen as well as upon more or less reliable oral tradition, and intended to express and instruct the common Christianity 6 of the day in terms, as far a! was possible or useful, of the great Pauline tradition. Substantially they were written and descriptive text about circulated early in the second century, as is evident from their employment in the epistles of Ignatius and Polycarp. During the period 90-120, and during that period alone, they possess a career and object which corresponds to in Art, their own internal evidence as well as to the data afforded by more or less contemporary literature.
The latter point is minor though real. Their literary affinities are beyond question with Lk.-Acts, 1 Clem. Rom., Barnabas, and descriptive text the epistles of Jude and 2 Pet. , as well as with the fourth book of the Trauma in Art, Sibylline oracles (Asia Minor, circa 80 A.D. ) which, like 4 Maccabees, reiterates the marx, term 'pious' (eire,i?7s [eusebes]). And Recovery Essay! Unlike Paul, the author also makes copious use of the vocabulary of 2 Maccabees, and, at descriptive text about house least in Titus and 1 Tim. Trauma In Art Essay! , there are traces of acquaintance with 1 Pet. 1 The concrete and bitter description of the to learning, Cretan character - with its prevalent traits of falsehood, avarice, drunkenness, and restless sedition - does not favour the ingenious hypothesis that Cretans in and Recovery in Art this epistle are an of the After Life Essay allegorical equivalent for Philistines (Kprji-es [kretes], cp CRETE), whom tradition occasionally connected with the island. There is no evidence for such personification in the pastorals as would represent the in Art, church under the social cognition, figure of the twelve tribes scattered in the dispersion (Jas. 1:1) and opposed by and Recovery in Art enemies of the true Israel. 2 In v. 16 o/j.ooyovcriv [homologousin] (EV 'profess') is (as Heb. 11:13) 'to make public avowal', especially when called upon (1 Pet. Cognition Model! 3:15).
The writer s point is, not that the errorists made extravagant claims, but that they did not act up to Essay, the normal profession of the Christian faith. 3 For npfcrBuTis [presbytis] in social cognition model early Christianity see Achelis, ZNTW, 1900, pp. 92-93; 'young men' (vfwTfpoi [neooteroi]) came to mean 'laymen' as 'presbyters' (npfcrbuTfpoi [presbyteroi]) passed into an official term (see MINISTRY, 43). 4 It is only fair to the ascertained results of criticism to Trauma, adopt this position, although one still meets statements like the cognitive, following: 'It may be asserted without fear of contradiction that nothing really un-Pauline has been proved in any of the disputed epistles' (Sanday, Inspiration, 338-339, 363-364, 379-380, 1896, a discussion characterised by Dr. Hincks of Andover thus: 'General assertion, bolstered up by the opinion of those like-minded this is not the way in which an intelligent man, who has solid arguments at his disposal, maintains an in Art imperilled cause'). 5 Cp von Dobschutz, Die urchristlichen Gemeinden, 127-139 (1902), Harnack, Ausbreit. d. Act 3 Scene 4 Analysis! Christ. (1902) 461-462. 6 The motto of the Trauma in Art Essay, pastorals lies in and feminism a sentence like (RV) 'For the grace of God hath appeared, bringing salvation to all men, instructing us' (Tit. 2:11, eTre^afr; yap TT apis TOV 9eoO cramjpio? iracrti/ ayflpiuTroi? TraiSev ovtra rjfias).
In their age Christianity had to fight for its life against a subtle spirit in the air rather than against civil persecution ; visionaries and sophist? were more deadly than proconsuls and lictors. Thanks to the moderation and steady sense of writers like the author of the pastorals, however, ordinary Christians came safely through the struggle with four truths as a secure possession; the unity of the Creator and the Redeemer, the unique and Trauma and Recovery in Art Essay sufficient value of Jesus for redemption and revelation, the vital tie between morals and faith, and the secure future assured to the church of God. The distinctive element, however - i.e. , the and feminism, prominence assigned to Trauma and Recovery in Art Essay, Timothy and Titus, is intelligible only upon the supposition that the author had specially in view the Inception of the After Life, ulterior end of vindicating the legitimate evangelic succession of and Recovery in Art, contemporary episcopi and other office-bearers in romeo and juliet modern provinces where this was liable for various reasons to be challenged. The pastorals were composed, says Tertullian, to expound church affairs ('de ecclesiastico statu'). The craving (visible in Clem. Rom. In Art Essay! ) for continuity of succession as a guarantee of authority in doctrine (and therefore in discipline 2 ) underlies the effort of this Paulinist to show that Timothy and Titus were genuine (yvrjcrioi [gnesioi]) heirs of social cognition model, Paul, who himself (as the author goes out of his way to repeat and assert) was a divinely commissioned herald of the Trauma and Recovery in Art Essay, gospel. Inferentially, the successors appointed by Paul's lieutenants possessed the true central deposit of the faith. Conscious of 4 analysis, this inheritance, and alive to its value, they are urged even as novices to instruct 3 the churches personally upon the faith in a peremptory and positive manner, 4 instead of allowing converts to Trauma Essay, lie exposed to unreliable teachers or false leaders. Such teachers and leaders abound. Indeed, one note of the age is the flaunting confident temper of the errorists (2 Tim. 2:23-24, 3:1-2, 4:3-4, Tit.
1:10-11, 3:10, 1 Tim. 1:7, 4:1-2, 5:24, Acts 20:29-30, Jude 8-10, 12, 19, Rev. 2:20, 1 Jn. 4:1, 4:5, 2 Jn. 7, 3 Jn. 9 ; Ign. Ephes. 7, Trall. 6, etc. ). 1 Cp von Soden, Theol. Abhandlungen, 133-135 (1892).
A comparison of the pastorals with Lk.-Acts, etc., establishes not their priority or literary filiation, so much as the relatively late period at which all were composed. Diction, ideas, standpoint - all indicate unmistakably the sub-Pauline period, with its stereotyped expressions and current phraseology. 2 The concern of the pastorals, less avowed yet none the less real than in Ignatius and Clement, is to romeo movies, vindicate the authority of the elders or bishops over the enthusiasts and ascetics in Trauma in Art the church ; the second century reveals this perennial struggle going on and feminism, particularly in Asia Minor. Hence this Paulinist is forward to and Recovery in Art Essay, claim Paul s authority on behalf of the organised discipline of the churches. 3 The prominence given to and feminism, 'teaching' qualities shows that one danger of the contemporary churches lay largely in the vagaries and crude speculations of unauthorised teachers (Did. 15:1). The author's cure is simple. Better let the episcopus himself teach ! Better let those in authority themselves be responsible for in Art Essay, the instruction of ordinary members ! Evidently teaching was not originally or usually (1 Tim.
5:17) a function of the presbyters ; but abuses had led by this time, as the Didache proves, to a need for combining teaching with organised church authority. A contemporary spirit of contempt for young episcopi (Ignat. Magn. 3 etc.) is and feminism, answered by the repeated encouragements of Paul in 2 Tim. 2:22-23, Tit. 2:6-7, 1 Tim.
4:11-12, 5:1; these are effective from the writer's standpoint, though such a tone would have been singularly inappropriate from Paul to lieutenants of mature experience. Here, however, they are types of loyalty to the Pauline gospel; that is all. 4 Timothy (2 Tim. 4:5), eg., is Trauma in Art, not an evangelist, but he is to do an evangelist's work as part of descriptive text house, his full service. See EVANGELIST, MINISTRY, 39b, and Dieterich in ZNTW, 1900, pp. 336-338. The whole evidence from the allusions to ecclesiastical organisation points to Trauma in Art, the period immediately preceding that of Ignatius (MINISTRY, 54).
5 Also to the statement of model, Clem. Alex. (Strom. And Recovery! 7:17) that Gnostic heresies first became threatening about Hadrian's reign, whilst the apostolic age and teaching ended with Paul's ministry under Nero. 6 Emphasis on the visible church as a bulwark of morals (2 Tim. 2:19-20 etc.) is Life, accompanied by its elevation to the rank of foundation (#e/xe Aios [themelios]), hitherto reserved for in Art, Christ (1 Cor. 3:11), or, at least, for about house, the prophets and apostles (Eph. 2:20). The church now takes her place in a fairly stable world; the old anxious outlook for Trauma and Recovery in Art Essay, an immediate return of act 3 4 analysis, Jesus is Trauma and Recovery Essay, no longer central. The really pressing questions concern not the next world but the present, and institutions are brought forward as a means of moral discipline and religious settlement.
Open attempts, as well as cunning intrigues (2 Tim. 3:6, Jude 4), are on foot to about house, exploit the principles of the faith, and the new tone of overbearing petulance, among other traits, answers to Trauma Essay, the tradition preserved by Hegesippus (circa. 160 A.D.) that such a phase occurred first of descriptive text, all during Trajan's reign (Eus. HE 3:32), previously to which the church had remained 'a pure and incorruptible virgin' (mtpScvos KaOapa. And Recovery! KO. aidtji0opo; [parthenos kathara kai adiaphthoros]), her seducers lurking somewhere in obscurity (ev afiijAo TTOU cr/corei [en adeloo pou skotei]). This comparatively virgin purity of the church lasted not merely till the death of the apostles, but till the close of the hamlet act 3, next generation, 'of those thought worthy to be immediate listeners to the very words of the divine wisdom' (riav avrals dicoats TTJS evBiov rofia.f eTraicoGcrai /caTTjfiiojitei coi [toon autais akoais tes entheou sophias epakousai katexioomenoon]), when the deceit of teachers of other doctrine (TO eTepo6ifiao-/taAui^ [toon eterodidaskaloon], cp 1 Tim. 1:3, 6:3) produced impious error in the communities. Trauma And Recovery! Since none of the apostles survived, these [eTpo6iSd(rcaAoi [eterodidaskaloi]] now attempted, unabashed and openly, to preach 'so-called gnosis' (TTJC l/tvtawnov yvtatriv [ten pseudoonymon gnoosin], cp 1 Tim.
6:20) in opposition to 'the preaching of the truth' (TUJ TTJS aArjSei a? (cijpuy/maTt [too tes aletheias kerygmati]; cp 2 Tim. 4:17, Tit. Cognition! 1:3). Of these Marcion 1 was the foremost. In the pastorals, as in Jude and 2 Peter, this movement in its incipient stage is met by equally frank methods, which seem denunciatory merely because we no longer possess any statement of the Trauma and Recovery in Art, other side and are, therefore, prone to forget that such rough and decisive ways are at social cognition times the soundest method of conserving truth. Popular applications of gnosticism were, as a rule, brilliant and poisonous fungi. Instead of writing a botanical treatise on their varieties, this writer felt the Trauma and Recovery, simpler and more practical plan was to and juliet movies, make people either avoid or destroy them. It was a short and easy plan, and probably effective at the time, although its expression in literature runs the natural risk of being reproached for containing more heat than light. Firmness and even ridicule have their own place as ethical weapons of defence, and the opening of the second century offered Christianity some admirable occasions for their use. The physiognomy of the errorists is indistinct, for several reasons.
The author had to preserve the verisimilitude of a Pauline situation, for one thing ; and and Recovery in Art the desire of avoiding undue anachronisms prevented him from being more explicit about the details of errors which had arisen in social cognition model his own later age. In Art Essay! Besides, the errors were familiar to marx, his audience and might be taken for granted on the whole. And Recovery In Art Essay! It is social cognition model, even probable that he abstained purposely from confining his range to any one set of visionaries and opponents, inasmuch as his letters were intended (like 1 Peter, James, and 2 Peter) to be manifestoes to the church in general, rather than homilies for any local audience. The numerous forms of opinion and Trauma Essay conduct in and around contemporary Christendom, which by a sound instinct he regarded as a menace to the faith, had certain common features; and to describe these as due to descriptive text, a syncretism of Gnosticism and (Tit. 1:10-11, 3:9, 1 Tim. 1:7) Judaism, is to go as far as the evidence of the pastorals warrants.
The environment (as in Rev. 2-3, and the Ignatian epp.) is Essay, marked by the incipient phases of what afterwards blossomed out into the Gnosticism of the second century : an amalgam of tendencies towards dualism and docetism (1 Tim. Descriptive About! 2:6, 3:16, as in 1 jn.), the multiplication of media between God and man (1 Tim. 2:5-6), a distinction between the Trauma Essay, God of creation and the God of hamlet act 3, redemption (1 Tim. 4:3-5, cp Herm. Vis. 1:3), a depreciation of the OT (2 Tim. 3:16), and a penchant for magic and superstition (2 Tim.
3:8, 3:13 ; cp. Acts 8:9-24, 19:11-19 for Ephesus, 13:6-12 for Trauma and Recovery, Cyprus). Text About! These tendencies were allied to ascetic predilections (like the prohibition of marriage among the Encratites, of marriage and flesh among the Saturninians and the Marcionites), which as usual bordered on and Recovery Essay, antinomian license, to an aristocratic exclusiveness (opposed in non-Pauline fashion, 1 Tim. 2:4-5, 4:10), to a semi-philosophic evaporation of primitive beliefs - e.g., on the resurrection (2 Tim. 2:18 ; so Menander and Dositheus), to indulgence in superficial theories and rhetoric, and so on.
To our author's eye these errorists were heterogeneous. 'For there are many insubordinate people, chatterers and cheats, especially those who have come from the Inception After, circumcision' (Tit. 1:10). The mischievous feature about Trauma and Recovery in Art, them was their presence within the and juliet, churches and their combination of plausible errors with apparent, even ostentatious, fidelity to the principles of the faith - a trouble elsewhere reflected (Acts 20:29-30) in connection with the Ephesian church towards the close of the first century. 1 Marcion's omission of the pastorals from his canon tells heavily against their origin as preserved in tradition. Philemon was accepted by him, though far more of a private note than any of the pastorals; and in Art Essay the presence of elements antagonistic to his own views need not have made him exclude them, since he could have easily excised these passages in this as in other cases. 2 Cp von Dobschutz, 180-187, 189. 3 The lack of homogeneity in approach the description of the errorists prevents this trait from telling against the reference (GENEALOGIES, 4; Hart, Judaistic Christianity, 135-136) of the 'genealogies' (yei/eaAo-yuu [genealogiai]) in Essay Tit. 3:9, 1 Tim. 1:4 to legendary pedigrees of descriptive about, Jewish heroes. But the phrase came to have a conveniently appropriate colour afterwards in view of the interminable series of aeons and emanations developed especially by Gnostic sects like the Valentinians.
The Jewish legalism of Tit. Trauma And Recovery In Art! 1:14, 3:9, 1 Tim. Cognition Model! 1:7-8 recalls Cerinthus decidedly. Even if the in Art, author had any single system of error in approach to learning mind (which, in view of the contemporary fusion of paganism and Judaism, is unlikely), the vague and somewhat indiscriminate fashion in which he endeavours to confute their pretensions, renders it impossible to reconstruct any coherent picture of his opponents. Trauma In Art! Several traits suggest influences similar to those which fostered Essenism ; others 2 recall the picture of Cerinthus sketched in later tradition, others again the errorists Carpocrates, Menander, and Dositheus. The two in disputable facts are, that the collective evidence of the early Christian literature, as well as of later tradition, places the origin of marx and feminism, such phenomena (upon any considerable scale) not earlier than the in Art Essay, close of the first century, and that their locus was primarily Eastern, in Syria and cognitive particularly Asia Minor, where we find the pastorals, like the Ignatian epistles, pouring a scattered fire upon manifold forms of antagonistic theosophy. Against the seductive influences of local paganism, with its ethical miasma and religious cravings, the author assumes a moralistic standpoint based upon the popular conception of Paulinism.
No writer after Paul s death could maintain, even when - as in Marcion's case - he happened to sympathise with, the deeper aspects of the apostle's thought, which survived mainly, so far as the subsequent literature was concerned, but in altered form throughout the Fourth Gospel. As a general rule Paulinism was either misunderstood or modified. The sub-Pauline epistles, like the Roman symbol (Kattenbusch, Das Apostolische Symbol, 2:498-499, 596-597, 720-721 ), show instances of both attitudes, and the pastorals are a vivid proof of how even a devoted Paulinist had to alter the emphasis at Trauma and Recovery Essay many points of his master s teaching upon about house, religious and practical topics 3 in a restatement of it for some later age - being forced, for Trauma and Recovery in Art, example, to and juliet, meet the common objection to Paul's severe view of the Law, and to admit the high estimate of its value throughout the diaspora as an and Recovery in Art Essay ethical code and check (1 Tim. 1:5-11), as well as to correct abuses and misunderstandings of certain Pauline ideas (e.g., the resurrection, 2 Tim. Marx! 2:18). 1 This notion is either ultra-spiritualist (cp Jn. And Recovery In Art! 5:24, qualified carefully by 5:28-29, etc.) and Inception Life Essay due to Gnostic tendencies, or chiliastic - the reign of Christ, eternal life, has already begun; therefore there can be no marrying (Lk. 20:35-36, 1 Tim. 4:3).
2 If Cerinthus and Carpocrates really rejected the virgin-birth (Iren. Adv. haer. 1:26:1, 1:25:1), it is Trauma and Recovery in Art Essay, strange that neither the author of the Fourth Gospel nor the author of the pastorals defended this point. The former, probably, had reasons of his own; but the hamlet 4 analysis, latter, who had no semi-philosophic christology to state, seems to have omitted the virgin-birth from his rhythmic summary (1 Tim. 3:16-17) owing to his genuinely Pauline standpoint. This adherence to the older view is all the more remarkable side by side with the eager insistence on it in Asc. Isaiae., 11:2-22, and Ignat. ad Eph.
19 (where a Pauline citation occurs, 1 Cor. 2:8), both contemporary writings. 3 Note, e.g., the varying proportion of the Trauma and Recovery in Art, two currents - one spontaneous and prophetic, the other veering towards order and organisation. The former is in Life Essay some writings of this age almost wholly subordinated to Trauma, the latter (Clem. Rom., Past., even Ignat.) : in others it is dominant, almost exclusively important (Barnabas, 1 Jn., Rev., Jude, 2 Pet.). 4 Antiphanes (Fragm. Com. Graec.), 'He who does no wrong needs no law' (6 jUTjSep aSiiciuv ovfierbs 6f ITCU vonov [o meden adikoon oudenos deitai nomou]). The author rightly felt that Paul was essentially anti-Gnostic, and that the tenets of the incipient Gnostic theosophy would have been repugnant to the man who had theoretically and marx practically attacked its precursors at Colossae. But his own practical bent and prudent sense of the situation prevent him from developing in reply Paul's peculiar theory of gnosis as a special endowment, superior to Trauma in Art, faith, and mediated by Life the spirit. And Recovery In Art Essay! Such methods would not have been appropriate.
Popular Christianity had always been wider and more varied than Paulinism, even during Paul s lifetime, and the new period which found Christianity in fresh relations with the wider empire in the generation following Paul s death, stimulated fresh energies and fresh methods of expression, native to the age but more or less an advance upon all previous conceptions. Model! To the author of the pastorals, loyal to the apostolic and especially the and Recovery Essay, Pauline tradition, but none the less free to interpret afresh his Christian consciousness, God appears - in un-Pauline fashion as a Saviour ; Jesus not as the son of God but as a mediator, 1 or rather the act 3 scene 4 analysis, mediator ; baptism (Tit. 3:5) as almost a sacrament of salvation, the Trauma in Art, Law simply as a useful code of morals. Anthropomorphism is carefully avoided, as in the Fourth Gospel ; God is the Absolute - his unity, awe (1 Tim. 6:16, cp En. 14:21-22), and eternity, his universal purpose, but not his fatherly love, being prominent. Cognitive! 2 The pressing question of religion is the in Art Essay, consolidation of the churches rather than the extension of the romeo modern, gospel to those as yet unreached. We are in the age of the Epigoni, when the creative genius has almost disappeared and is yielding place to practical activities which are mainly devoted to conserving ground already gained.
The spirit of defensiveness has increased. Christianity is Trauma and Recovery in Art, now more self-conscious than ever. Her outlook is cognition, not eschatological so much as secular, directed to a useful though troubled career in Essay the world. The church has behind her a sound body of cognitive to learning, religious truth, which it is her business to teach and enforce ; and this is presented by the writer in brief, crystallised phrases and paragraphs, which recall the Trauma and Recovery, incipient liturgies and symbols of the church. 3 Faith consequently is tending to become more than ever fides quae creditur. It is predominantly the confident apprehension of the marx, truth or the conviction that the Essay, gospel-message is authentic, sometimes the virtue of fidelity ; but neither the author nor his age has any intelligent sympathy with Paul s characteristic idea of faith as the of the Life, warm tie between Jesus and the redeemed Christian. Nay more, the old Pauline antithesis of Trauma and Recovery in Art Essay, faith and marx and feminism works (like the idea of justification by faith, or of salvation from sin's guilt) is put into the background, evidently as misleading or apt to be misunderstood. 'Piety', nourished by sound 4 teaching, is the root out of which all human virtues spring ; and Trauma in Art Essay the conceptions of reward, a good conscience, and the value of a respectable reputation, come to the front. In effect, this is practically the ethical result of Paulinism. But how differently 5 the apostle and the later church reached even the same conclusions ! Here eternal life is the boon granted to good works, and 'faith' (iriffris [pistis]) is a man's relation to the 'truth' of 'the teaching'. Similarly the church, to this unmystical author, is no longer the bride or the social model, body of Christ but God's building, or rather a familia dei, quite in the neo-catholic manner. It is beginning to assume the place occupied by the Holy Spirit in Paul's theology, the latter doctrine having become liable to abuse as well as proving too profound for later generations.
As in books like the Apocalypse, Jude, and and Recovery 2 Peter, the Spirit in the pastorals is essentially prophetic ; 1 as a means of union between the individual and Jesus, it is romeo, almost if not entirely ignored. The exceptions - and they are apparent or partial exceptions - are Tit. 3:5-6, 2 Tim. 1:14 ; even the personal relation of the in Art Essay, believer to Jesus is not cardinal (2 Tim. 1:12, 2:11-12). 1 Sub-Pauline idea (Heb.
8:6, etc.). In Test. Dan. 6, the angel of peace is the mediator between God and man. 2 The heaping up of predicates, especially in the negative, recalls earlier attempts by Inception Essay Jewish thinkers (e.g., Philo and Josephus) to define God semi-philosophically, as a reaction from the earlier realism and its love of theophanies.
Passages like 1 Tim. 1:17, 6:16 mark the sub-Pauline transition from this to the later efforts of the Greek spirit, as in the 'Preaching of Peter' and Aristides. The pastoral 'Trinity' corresponds, however, to the apocalyptic (e.g., Rev. 14, Lk. 9:26, etc.) - i.e., God, Jesus, and the angels (elect); while Christ s appearing (1 Tim. 6:14-15) is stated in Pauline terms of subordination, and with the substitution of epiphany (eTrt^xxveta [epiphaneia]) for the Pauline parousia (wapowia [parousia]). 3 The pastorals, like Ephesians, are absorbed in an un-Pauline devotion to the church which ignores the local churches. In Art Essay! This trait, absent even from Ignatius, significantly illustrates their authorship and real aim as tracts for the officers of the Catholic church. Timothy and Titus are portrayed as receiving instructions and ideals which were to approach, control the contemporary teachers and other office-bearers of the author's age. 4 This un-Pauline use of vyiaiveiv [hygiainein] in 8iSacnca.ia vyiaivovcra [diaskalia hygiaiousa] ('sound doctrine') is anticipated in the Philonic phrases 'sound learning' (vyiaivovcra |ud#T)ris [hygiainousa mathesis]), and 'sound words' (oi vytai j/orres Aoyoi [oi hygiainontes logoi]); it tends occasionally to become almost equivalent to 'rational', or 'sane'. 5 Paul could have written Tit.
2:11, 2:14; but he would have had something to say also about peace with God and and Recovery in Art reconciliation. He 'could no doubt have said all this' (i.e., Tit. 3:4-7) also, but 'probably he would have said it otherwise, and not all at a time'. Practically it is the use of such stereotyped and almost formal language which makes it reasonable to say that 'St. Paul was inspired, but the writer of these epistles is social model, sometimes only orthodox' (Denney, The Death of Christ, 1902, p. 203). These and other items of the creed, now rapidly crystallising in Rome and Asia Minor, are conveyed partly in hymnal fragments which, like those in the Apocalypse of John, sprang from the cultus of the churches ; partly in the shape of aphorisms such as the terse and Trauma Essay weighty axioms called the five 'faithful sayings' (cp Ps.
111:7-8). These are like proverbs; they mark a comparatively advanced stage of experience, expressing in concentrated form the outcome of prolonged reflection. (i.) 2 Tim. 2:11-13a. - Here the 'faithful saying' (TTIO-TO? Ao-yos [pistis logos]) resembles a fragment of some primitive hymn or confession, if it is not - like the rhythmical snatches (cp also Rev. 21:5, 22:6, Adyoi TTIOTOI [logoi pistoi]) in the Apocalypse - an outburst of the hamlet act 3 scene, Spirit-raptures in the early church (cp Weinel, Die Wirk. des Geistes, 80-81 ). (ii.) Tit. 3:8. - As the Trauma and Recovery in Art, phrase implies a condensed and descriptive text about house pregnant statement, it seems better in Tit. 3:8 to find its contents in v. 7 rather than in 4-7, which it is sometimes supposed (e.g., by von Soden, Bernard, Weiss) to recapitulate. (iii.) 1 Tim.
1:15. Here the phrase not merely is expanded by the non-Pauline addition 'and worthy of all acceptation' (/cai Trao-rjs aTroSoxrjs a to? [kai pases apodoches axios]; as in Trauma and Recovery in Art Essay 4:9), but also precedes its contents which are in this instance introduced by marx 'that' (on [oti]), (iv.) 1 Tim. 3:1 - The use of the phrase in this verse, which of course refers back to 2:15 ('saved in Trauma in Art Essay child-bearing'; Chrysost. Erasm. etc.) - a wife's salvation being worked out in her own sphere of social cognition model, motherhood (despite the Trauma in Art Essay, associations of social cognition, Jewish tradition), not in ecclesiastical position - is Essay, remarkable for the variant (accepted by Zahn. Einl. 1:482) 'human' (avdpuiwivo; [anthroopinos) 5 in romeo movies D*g (Ambrosiast. Sedul.). In 1:15 as here, 'save' (ra$ei.v [soozein]) has an indirect eschatological reference, (v.) 1 Tim. 4:9. Trauma In Art Essay! - In this verse (which Bois and Baljon delete) the and feminism, contents of the 'saying' (Adyos [logos]) might be either v. 8 (Chrysost.
Weizs. Hilg. Trauma In Art Essay! Weiss, von Soden, Horton) or v. 10 (Bengel, Schleierm. Holtzm., cp 'for' [yap [gar]] and ayuiv [hagion]. Cognitive To Learning! 2 Tim. Trauma In Art! 2:11). 1 In 1 Tim. 1:18, 4:14, where a symbol is trembling into a sacrament (cp Acts 20:28, not 13:1-3 which denotes a commission for some special service), divine inspiration prompts the Christian prophets, of whom Paul is one, to select men for to learning, office in the church, and to confer upon Trauma and Recovery Essay, them a supernatural charism (xcipicrjiia [charisma]) by means of the rite of imposition of hands (see HANDS, LAVING ON OF, and SPIRITUAL GIFTS, also MINISTRY, 37b, 37c). The idea of such a special rite, even in the form of 2 Tim. 1:6 (1 Thess.
5:19-20), could hardly have come from the man who wrote 1 Cor. 12:4 (diversities of gifts), 1:11 (dividing to every man), and and juliet modern movies represents the water-mark of later Catholicism; the Trauma and Recovery in Art Essay, semi-official tinge lent to a primitive ceremony is palpable (see Gunkel's Wirkungen des heilig. Geistes,(2) 7 , and especially Weinel's Wirk. des Geistes und der Geister, 140-142, 216-218 , with the conveyancing of social model, influence through physical contact as traced by Volz in ZATW 21:93-94 ). The other function of the Spirit in the prophets - i.e., prediction of woes and perils (1 Tim. 4:1-2, 2 Tim. 3:1-2) - is naturally referred by the sub-apostolic age (Acts 20:29-30, Clem. Rom. 44:1, Jude 17-18, 2 Pet. 2:1) to the apostles. They foresaw what their successors suffer.
Hence the pseudonymous pastoral epistles credit Paul with anticipations of the Essay, errors current in their own age. 2 In 1 Tim. 3:16 the descriptive about house, statement of the resurrection ('justified in the spirit', eSixaiiaOr] ei n-i/ev/ixaTi [edikaioothe en pneumati]) is an un-Pauline development of and Recovery, Rom. 1:4 (cp Iren. 2:32:3-4) after 1 Pet. 3:18, 4:6 and Jn. 16:10, as that of the marx and feminism, incarnation is un-Pauline and distinctly Johannine (1 Jn.
3:5, 3:8, cp 1 Pet. 1:20); 'seen by angels' is a sub-Pauline development (Eph. Trauma! 3:10, 1 Pet. 1:12, 3:18-19), 'world' (edoyios [kosmos]) appears to have its sub-Pauline emphasis of 'evil', and 'was taken up in glory' (di/eA^i^r) f v Sofrj [anelemphthe en doxe]), if an allusion to the Ascension, is thoroughly un-Pauline. On the Messiah as the copestone of this new temple of Truth, see Briggs, Messiah of Apostles, 228-232 . 3 The reference is neither to hamlet act 3 scene 4 analysis, v. 8 (Weiss) nor to what immediately precedes (Chrysost.), but to v. 11b-13a. which, like Tit. Trauma In Art Essay! 3:8 and and juliet modern 1 Tim. 4:9, looks out Trauma in Art directly upon marx and feminism, the future and final hope of the Christian disciple. Trauma And Recovery In Art! v. 13b is probably an explanatory comment ; but there is no need to regard v. 13 (with Ewald, Hesse, Hilg.) as a gloss or interpolation.
4 Cp En. 9:41, 'the paths of righteousness are worthy of acceptation'. 5 So r (humanus), 1:15. It is noticeable that of these sententiae (i.) alone is in thought anil style somewhat parallel to Paul, who never associates 'heirship' or 'hope' (as Tit. 3:7-8) with 'eternal life' (fior) aiiovios [zooe aioonios]).
The colouring of (iii.), as of Tit. Cognition! 3:5 (2 Tim. 1:10, 1 Tim. 2:4 6:13-14, Tit. 1:1-2, 1:16) is Johannine, whilst (iv.) contains the pastoral triad of Trauma, faith, love, and soberness, and the air. Aey. [ap. leg.] childbearing, which is to learning, besides an idea generally strange to Paul's mode of thought (particularly if childbirth is and Recovery in Art Essay, considered as a means of salvation). In (v.) characteristically un-Pauline terms abound (e.g., 'bodily' [erw^uiTiKos [soomatikos]], 'bodily exercise' [yvuLvatria [gymnasia]], 'profitable' [ot^e Aipof [oophelimos]], v. 7-8, niaTrjp [sooter] of social model, God, v. 10). And Recovery! The 'faithful sayings', therefore, not merely are characteristic of the hamlet scene, pastorals, but betray an essentially un-Pauline conception of the Trauma and Recovery, regula fidei.
This difference in ground-work is endorsed by the difference in style and diction between Paul and the author of the pastorals, an argument which forms a cumulative and cognitive approach to learning almost final proof of the sub-Pauline origin of the epistles. Out of the Trauma and Recovery in Art, 176 hapax legomena, a proportion two or three times as great as in the Pauline epistles, nearly 80 are in LXX and were therefore consciously neglected by Paul. Favourite Pauline phrases and words are totally wanting (e.g., 'unjust' [afiixos [adikos], 'uncleanness' [aKaBaptria [akatharsia]], 'adoption' [vio0ccria [hyiothesia]], 'our Father' [n-ar)p ijjuui [pater emoon]], 'covenant' [6ia07jier) [diatheke]], 'reveal' [aTroKaAun-Teiv [apokalyptein]], 'free' [eAeutfepos [eleutheros]] and compounds, 'be operative' [ei/epyety [energein]], 'perform' [Karepyd^ftrdai [katergazesthai]], 'boast' [(cauvao-Sai [kauchasthai]], 'folly' [fiuipia [mooria]], 'tradition' [napaSocn; [paradosis]], 'persuade' [TruBeiv [peithein]], 'abound' [7repirTfvftv [perisseuein]], 'do' [irpa.va eLi [prassein], = iroielv [poiein], in past.], 'perfect' [re Aetof [teleios]], 'be gracious' [apifea-0ai [charizesthai]], 'think' [fjtpovclv [phronein]], with 'ordinance' [SiKautyia [dikaiooma]], 'greater' Oaeafiof [meizoon]], 'small' [ju/epo; [mikros]], 'body' [crw^a [sooma]], 'good' [pr)cTT6? [chrestos]], etc. Life Essay! ; also particles like 'then' [apa [ara]], 'wherefore' [fiio], 'because' [fiiort [dioti]], 'then' [en-ftra [epeita]], 'still' [en], 'behold' [tfie, iSov [idou]], etc., etc., prepositions like 'with' [rvv [syn] = fj.eTa [meta] of pastorals], 'instead of' [ai/Tt [anti]], 'until' [dxpt [achri]], 'before' [HiJLirpor6ev [emprosthen]], 'beyond' [irapd [para], acc.]). Many fresh terms are coined, new compounds and Latinisms are introduced, whole families of Trauma in Art, words appear for the first time (cp those in a [a] privative, SiSaovc- [didask-], otico- [oiko-], Taijp- [soophr-], iAo- [philo-], etc.), and hamlet act 3 scene others are used with unwonted frequency (e.g., icdA- [kal-]). The extent and significance of and Recovery Essay, this change in vocabulary cannot adequately be explained even when one assigns the fullest possible weight to such factors as change of amanuensis, situation, or topic, lapse of time, literary fertility, or senile weakness ; for the wider evidence of syntax and style, to be felt even through a translation, comes in to verify the impression already made by the vocabulary. Particularly where the writer is and feminism, most himself and least dependent on Trauma and Recovery in Art, previous letters (as in 1 Tim.), the idiosyncrasies of his composition appear, neither accidental nor trivial by any means. The comparative absence of rugged fervour, the smoother flow, the heaping up of words, all point to another sign-manual than that of Paul. In short, the relative proportions of likeness and unlikeness (especially to Romans and Philippians) between the style of text about, Paul and the style of in Art Essay, these three letters, are explicable only upon the hypothesis that the text about house, writer of the pastorals modelled his diction in part upon that of his master, but not slavishly - certainly not to the prejudice of his own originality and cast of Trauma in Art Essay, thought. These proportions are precisely what we should expect in text such a literary relationship. Upon any other hypothesis they do not seem credible or reasonable.
Questions of style are proverbially delicate, but the linguistic data of the pastorals and Trauma the Pauline epistles may be said to resemble those of the Apocalypse and the Fourth Gospel ; both ratify the conclusion that we have to hamlet scene, do with kinship, not identity, of authorship. * 1 Yet 'deny' (apvelcrOat [arneisthai]) is non-Pauline, and the stanza reads like a popular version of Paul's own words, adapted to in Art, the requirements of a martyr-period. See Denney, 202. 2 The knowledge of God or of the truth = salvation or eternal life (Jn. 17:2-3, 17:17); cp Jn. 17:3 with 1 Tim. 2:5, the same combination of monotheism as against polytheism, and of Christ's unique and sufficient position as against and juliet movies, Judaism or Gnosticism, besides ('the man Christ Jesus') a Johannine protest against the Gnostic or Docetic tendency to resolve Christ into Essay a phantom of abstract spirit. Model! On the Christology of the epistles (1 Tim. 3:16), see A. Klopper in ZWT (1902) 339-361.
3 No possible change of circumstances could make Paul oblivious (through three separate letters) of God's fatherhood, of the believing man's union with Jesus, of the in Art Essay, power and witness of the Spirit, or of reconciliation. They might be taken for granted? But surely in enforcing the ethical requirements of the pastorals, Paul would never have demanded the blossom without urgently pressing the need of these spiritual facts as its root ! 4 There is no ground for the idea that the prosaic tone of the pastorals is due to their preoccupation with the hamlet scene 4 analysis, practical steps of organisation, whilst in Paul s earlier letters he had been mainly employed in sketching the ideal of the church. A letter like 1 Cor., to say nothing of passages in the other letters, is enough to refute this explanation and to show how Paul would have dealt with the Trauma and Recovery Essay, problems of cognitive approach, organisation and church order, had these met him in in Art Essay an acute form. It would have been different from the method of this Paulinist, for Paul ever came down upon ethical tasks from 4 analysis, a spiritual height. Still further proof in corroboration of their un-Pauline origin flows in from the impossibility of placing the Trauma and Recovery, epistles within Paul s lifetime. With practical unanimity defenders of the traditional hypothesis abandon all attempts to fix them previous to social cognition, Paul's Roman imprisonment ; but their conjecture of a release, followed by and Recovery a further extension of activity and a second imprisonment, is quite gratuitous and hardly furnishes a more tenable ground for the pastprals. It is not indeed bound up with the acceptance of their Pauline authorship ; the and feminism, two positions are independent and maybe held separately. Hut even apart from the evidence of the pastorals (which never mention Spain, nor allude to so momentous a tour in the Western Mediterranean), the evidence for this second imprisonment must be pronounced inadequate (CHRONOLOGY, 79-80, PAUL, 31), resting mainly on a vague rumour (Xtryos ?x et [logos echei]) reported by Eusebius, and the allusion in the Muratorian Canon (possibly derived from in Art, apocryphal Acta) which is simply an expansion of of the Life Essay, Rom.
15:24, 15:28 - the devout and imaginative fantasy of later tradition being convinced that because Paul proposed a visit to Spain, he must have carried it out. No such tradition lingered in Spain itself, whilst the express statement of Acts 20:25, 20:38 and the significant silence of Clemens Romanus imply that the and Recovery in Art Essay, tradition nearest to Paul's life knew of text house, no return to Asia Minor. The very passage in Trauma Essay Clemens Romanus (5), which has been supposed to refer to this western journey, tells against it. Charged with rhetorical feeling, as Baur pointed out, it narrates (like Rom. 15:19) the sweep of Paul's career from Jerusalem to Rome: 'after teaching righteousness to the whole world, and reaching the limit of the text house, West, and bearing testimony tefore the authorities, so he left the world'. Paul's sun had ended its course (Acts 13:47). And Recovery In Art Essay! Clement is speaking from the standpoint of his Eastern readers who would naturally take 'the limit of the After, west' (rd repfj.0. Trji Srcrews [to terma tes dyseoos]) as the Imperial capital (cp 'east' [dvaToXrjs [anatoles]] and 'west' [5wns [dysis]] of Syria and Rome in Ignat.
Rom. 2), and in Art incidentally clinches the descriptive text house, proof by adding that the Neronic martyrs of 64 were 'gathered unto Paul and Peter', implying that the latter had already died. Were the 'earlier' chronology adopted, which brings Paul to Rome early in Trauma and Recovery Essay the sixties if not even earlier, space would of course be won before 64 for the two or three years' interval required by the traditional hypothesis of the marx, 'pastorals' (CHRONOLOGY, 64-66). And Recovery Essay! Otherwise no time is left, and it is almost incredible that the text house, 'pastorals', if written after 64, should breathe no hint of the shock produced upon the Christian consciousness of the age, especially at in Art Rome, by Nero's massacre which outraged even the Roman conscience. But even chronological resetting only makes the hypothesis possible ; its acceptance or rejection rests on other grounds, and - to put it mildly - these do not seem at any point secure. 1 Bartlet, Bowen (Dates of Pastoral Letters, 1900), and about house Lisco (Vincula Sanctorum, 1900) are the chief exceptions recently.
2 Especially Spitta in Zur Gesch. und Litt, des Urchrist. And Recovery Essay! 1:2-108 ; also Lightfoot (Biblical Essays, 215-233), Zahn (Einl. 1:435-436), Steinmetz (Die zweite rom. Gefang. des Apostels Paulus, 1897), C. H. Turner (Hastings, DB 1:421, etc.), and Frey (die zweite rom. Gefang. Social! und das Todesjahr des Apostels Paulus, 1900). The genesis of the pastorals is therefore sub-Pauline. To account for the Pauline, or presumably Pauline element, including not merely phrases and and Recovery conceptions such as could be gathered pfrom the extant letters of the apostle or from tradition, but also private details and personal matters affecting about sixteen new figures (some of whom are not mere names) - recourse must be had to theories of compilation, whose common feature is the presupposition that the author was in possession of and juliet, genuine reliquiae Paulinae. And Recovery In Art Essay! No doubt a pseudonymous writer would endeavour to stamp his figures and scenery upon the reader's mind by means of circumstantial details, especially when (as in this case) the authentic letters would suggest the romeo and juliet modern movies, introduction of Trauma in Art Essay, a certain quantum of personal matter - though in the sub-Pauline letters (Eph. , Heb. , 1 Pet.) this quantum is noticeably small. But, while it is conceivable that this may be sufficient to about, account for 1 Tim., it fails to afford an adequate rationale for 2 Tim.
The latter is flooded with items which by and Recovery no means fall under the category of romantic ornament or literary vraisemblance, and lift the letters quite above the level of to learning, later Pauline romances. Even when such passages do not part from their context, they suggest to a critical inquirer the advisability of admitting that they are based upon authentic tradition and that they reproduce, with more or less freedom, information still accessible to the immediately sub-Pauline generation. It may be allowed, still further, that genuine notes have been incorporated, although these cannot any longer be deciphered. But the advocates of compilation attempt the subtler task of actually separating original notes from the strata in which they lie embedded, 2 upon the hypothesis that, whilst the authors direct aim was to instruct and move the church of his own day and Trauma in Art not to preserve literary relics, he was able to use certain Pauline notes in the composition of 2 Tim. at least and even Titus. The preservation of such letters is far from model, incredible. In Art! 3 Paul was the cognitive approach to learning, first 'man of letters' in early Christianity, and the extant canonical collection represents only a part of his actual correspondence. In the nature of things, private notes would be more likely to remain overlooked than others, unless, like the letter of recommendation to Phoebe (Rom. 16:1-20), they were attached by late editors to some larger epistle.
In addition to this, the Trauma in Art, pastorals have suffered accretion as church documents, and marx thus three stages of their composition must be distinguished: (i.) the primitive notes from Paul's lifetime, (ii.) the in Art, incorporation of these by the author of the pastorals in his epistles, substantially composed about cognition model, forty years after Paul's death, and (iii. ) glosses added to these epistles by subsequent copyists to render them more suitable than ever for the needs of the second century. The last-named process naturally ceased by the time that the letters passed into Trauma in Art the canon. Whether the letters are substantially Pauline and only interpolated by some editor, 4 or whether - as is social cognition model, highly probable, in the case of i Tim. at any rate - the Pauline element, such as it is, has been submerged in later work, cannot be decided till each letter has been separately examined upon the principles of literary morphology. As the and Recovery in Art Essay, amount of presumably authentic material is obviously largest in 2 Tim. and least in 1 Tim., it will be advisable to discuss the epistles in that provisional order. 1 1 Tim. Marx! 1:3-4 might be developed from the and Recovery, hint in Philem. 22 (the Asiatic locus being shown in the failure to use the companion allusion in Phil.
2:24 to hamlet scene 4 analysis, a return visit to Macedonia). The personal matter here is principally meant to furnish a suitable setting for an epistle dealing with general questions of church life and work in the Asiatic provinces, and reflecting that cardinal importance of Ephesus as a centre of early Christianity to Trauma and Recovery in Art Essay, which Lisco has rightly but extravagantly called attention (Roma Peregrina, 1901). Cp Harnack, Ausbreitung, 333, 462, 482. 2 Perhaps 2 Pet. also contains material worked up from earlier sources ; certainly it has incorporated parts of Jude. Romeo And Juliet Movies! And the canonical 2 Cor. is a compilation of two separate letters in reverse order. But even were the pastorals, as compilations, without any analogy in the NT literature (cp, further, JAMES [EPISTLE], 5), this would not of itself discredit the analytic hypothesis. Tlie pastorals present quite unique features, and it is only reasonable that the complexity of their structure should demand somewhat unique and exceptional methods of treatment. 3 E.g., the correspondence of Cicero and Atticus, the letters of King Agrippa II. (Josephus), etc. See Peters, Der Brief in Trauma in Art Essay der romischen Litteratur (rgoi), 27-28, 78-79, and Wehofer, 'Untersuch. zur altchristliche Epistolographie' (SWAW: phil.-hist.
Klasse, 143, 1901). 4 Menegoz, for approach to learning, example (Le Peche et la Redemption, 5-6), treats them as authentic, but supposes that copyists under the direction of bishops subsequently added glosses; these, however, affected only questions of discipline and order, leaving the genuinely Pauline spirit unimpaired. 5 The insertion of 'mercy' between 'grace' and 'peace' (so 2 Jn. 3) is un-Pauline. Deleting it among other phrases Hausrath (Neutest.
Zeitgeschichte, ET, 1895, 4:160-163) finds a genuine letter to Timothy in 1:1-2, 1:15-18, 4:9-18, Sabatier in Essay 1:1-18, 4:6-22. Second Timothy. And Feminism! - Although the address of 2 Tim. (1:1-2) is fairly 5 Pauline, the Trauma in Art, strange emphasis on the fact and purpose or standard of romeo and juliet modern, Paul's apostolate ('according to Trauma and Recovery Essay, the promise' [/car 1 eTrayyeXiai [kat epaggelian]]) in a letter to one who could hardly have doubted it, at once reveals the real genius of the of the After Essay, writing and corroborates the general evidence afforded by all three epistles, especially by in Art 1 Tim. and descriptive house Titus. They are not private letters at in Art all, not even semi-private, and the very form of of the Essay, a private letter is not strictly preserved. They resemble rather 'pastorals' in the modern sense of the term , and find their real audience among people (primarily teachers and Trauma and Recovery Essay officials, it may be) 1 inclined to doubt the validity and misunderstand or misapply the tenets of the Pauline gospel. As even Liddon admits (Explan.
Analysis of 1 Tim., 1897, ad loc.), of Paul's apostolic authority 'Timothy did not require to be reminded ; St. Paul has other readers of the epistle - perhaps false teachers 2 - in view'. Behind 1:3c-6a lies a tradition of Timothy's temporary absence (Phil. 2:19-20) from Paul during his last captivity ; but neither here nor elsewhere is it feasible in 1:3-14 to disentangle any written source. Marx! On the other hand, 1:15-18 is perhaps a displaced (after 4:10 M Giffert, 4:13 Knoke), 3 and at any rate a genuine, fragment, probably written from Paul's Roman captivity.
So most editors and critics (Lemme, 4 Hesse, 5 and Krenkel 6 omitting rather needlessly 1:15b and in Art 1:18a). Again, 2-3 hardly seems homogeneous (cp 2:16, 3:13 with 3:9); 2:2 [or 2:22] seems a gloss (om. Hesse, Hilg. Social! ZWT, 1897, pp. 1-86); 2:14-15 is awkwardly introduced, and the thoroughly un-Pauline passage 3:1-9 may well be a later insertion, due to the process of accretion. Trauma! 3:10-12, however, is an interpolated genuine fragment ; its isolated position and contents mark it off from the surrounding context. Furthermore, the bulk, if not the whole, of 4:(6)9-22 is generally allowed to have come directly from Paul's own hand (4:9-18a, except 'having loved this present world' [a.ya-n-qa-a.^Tbvv uva.i^va [agapesas ton nyn aloona]] 4:10, 4:11b, Bahnsen ; 4:9-15, 4:19-22, Ewald ; 4:9-18, Immer ; 4:9-21, Pfleid.). But it is not homogeneous ; evidently 4:11a and 4:21b, like 4:6-8 and act 3 4:9-15, reflect different situations in Paul's life, and the whole passage offers an Trauma admirable proof of the composite character of even the directly Pauline strata in the pastoral epistles. Following the various dates and moods, one can detect approximately in 1:15-18 4:6-12, 14:6-19 a note (or part of a note) written after Philippians ; the situation has become more grim, and Paul pines in loneliness for his younger ally.
Again, 4:13-15, 4:21-22a go back to a still earlier period, when Paul had left Troas on some journey; 4:20 (cp Acts 21:29) seems to belong to Acts 18:18-19, though the historicity of Acts 21:29 is not above suspicion (cp ACTS, 11, TROPHIMUS ; with J. Weiss, Ueber die Absicht u. Of The After! d. Trauma And Recovery Essay! literar. Charakter der Ap.-gesch. Cognitive Approach To Learning! 39-40 ). A dual analysis of and Recovery in Art, 2 Tim. Hamlet Act 3 Scene! has been carried through by several critics from Credner onwards. Hesse, e.g. (pp. And Recovery Essay! 170-180), regards it as the social, compilation of a genuine brief letter of recall (1:3c-4, 1:16-17, 1:18b-c, 4:9-22a) with a later pseudonymous letter (1:1-3b, 1:5-10, 2:3-8a, 2:14-26, 3:1-8, 3:13b-17, 4:1-5). Lemme's reconstruction of the genuine letter underlying 2 Tim. is even more intricate (see O. Holtzmann's critique, ZWT, 1883, pp. 45-72) and less convincing (=1:1-9 except 'pity' [eAeos [eleos]] 1:2, 1:3b, 1:6b, and 'a sound mind' [cat crujcJpoi ij7xoG [. sophronismou]] 1:7, 'in Christ Jesus before the world began' [ef . . . nioji ioji [. aioonioon] 1:9, 1:10, except 'but is now made manifest by the appearing' [la.i epu6(iTa.v, . . . nri^opctaf [ranerootheisan . In Art Essay! epithaneias]], 1:11 except 'and a teacher' [ai i .Sa.TKaos [kai didaskalos]], 12 except 'against that day' [ets . . Inception Essay! . rmtpav [eis . emeran]], 14 except 'that good thing which was committed' [TTJI . . . jv. [ten . oul.]], 1:15a, 1:16-17, 1:18b-c, 2:1, 2:3-5, 2:8a, 2:9b, except 'with eternal glory' [ju.era 56f) aitaviov [meta doxes aiooniou]], 4:6+ except iv ec. r. 17.[en ek. t. In Art! e.], 4:9-22), while Hilgenfeld's analysis of the epistle into two sub-Pauline notes is quite in social cognition model the air (A = 1:1-2, except 'according to the promise of life which is in Christ Jesus' [KO.T . Trauma And Recovery In Art Essay! . . IrjaoO . iesou], 1:3a, 1:5-10, except 'before the world began; but is and feminism, now made manifest by the appearing of our Saviour Jesus Christ, who hath abolished death and hath brought life and immortality to light' [irpb poviav . . . afflapaiav [pro chronoon . aphtharsian]], 1:11-12a, 1:16-18a, 2:1, 2:3-8a, 2:9-12, 2:19-26, 3:1-4, 3:10-12, 3:14-15, 4:1-2, 4:6-8, 4:19-22; B = 1:1b, 1:3b-4, 1:9c-10, 1:12b015, 1:18b, 2:2, 2:8b 2:13-18, 3:5-9, 3:13, 3:16017, 4:3-5, 4:9-18). More is to be said for McGiffert's hypothesis that the epistle is a redacted version of one written by Paul towards the Trauma, close of hamlet act 3 scene 4 analysis, his Roman imprisonment (1:1-12, 2:1-13, 4:1-2, 4:5-8, 4:16-19, 4:21b, 4:10, 1:15-18) (so Clemen for 1:15-18; from Rome 61 A.D.), whilst 2 Tim. 4:9, 4:11-18, 4:20-21a represents an earlier note written from Macedonia before 2 Cor. which was composed (1:1) after Timothy had obeyed his summons. Similarly Bacon places 4:9, 4:11-18, 4:20-21a, 4:22b in the period immediately previous to 2 Cor.
2:12-13, when Paul was in Macedonia, whilst von Soden takes 1:15-18, 4:9-19, 4:21b-22a as a note written after Philippians from Paul's Roman captivity. Hitzig had already found a letter of Paul written about in Art, 58 A.D. from Caesarea in 1:15, 4:13-16, 4:20-22 (so Clemen : 4:9-18, about and feminism, 60 A.D. ?), and another letter written from Rome about 63 A.D. in 4:6-12, 4:19, 1:16-18, 4:22b ; whilst Kartlet recently has distinguished (in 4:9-13, 4:21-22a) a note written between Ephesians and Philippians, the rest of 2 Tim. Trauma And Recovery In Art! being the swan-song of the apostle. Less probably Clemen puts 4:19-21 into 57 A.D. (from Jerusalem, previous to his imprisonment), dating the epistle as a whole slightly earlier than Titus (circa 100 A.D.), which again preceded 1 Tim. (100- 110 A.D. Asia Minor) and the author's interpolations in 2 Tim. (1:13-14, 2:14-26, 4:1-8) and Titus (1:7-11, 3:1-11). 1 'Les communautes vaudront ce que valent leurs conducteur? ; voila l'idee generale qui se degage de ses instructions' (J.
Reville). 2 Cp Ascension Isaiah 3:20-21 (before 100 A.D.) for the contemporary feeling that an apostasy would precede the latter days, when the disciples of Jesus would desert 'the prophecy of hamlet act 3 4 analysis, his twelve apostles and their faith (cp 1 Tim. 1:19, etc.) and love and purity (1 Tim. 4:19), and there shall be many sects', etc. Trauma And Recovery In Art! (rrji/ npo^Tfiav TWV StaSfxa. ajroo-ToAoii/ avroO ai -rrv rriemv [cp 1 Tim. 1:19, etc.] (cai TIV ayaTriji O.VTMV, icai -rr]v ayveiav aiiTtav [1 Tim. 4:19] Kai eVoi Tcu aipeVet; TroAAai K.T.A.). 3 Praktisch-theol. Comm. House! zu den Past.
1887-1889. 4 Das echte Ermahnungsschreiben des Ap. Paulus an Tim., 1882. 5 Die Entsteh. der NT Hirtenbriefe, 1889. 6 Heitr. zur Aufhellung der Gesch. und der Briefe des Ap. Paulus, 395-408 .
7 Chap. And Recovery! 2 contains two passages paralleled in Epictetus (Diss. 3:10, 'God saith to Inception of the Life Essay, thee, Prove to me whether thou hast contested according to requirement' [et POjiu /uios TJyAT)ras [ei nomimoos ethlesas]] = 2 Tim. 2:3 ['good soldier']; and Trauma and Recovery in Art 3:22 where, as the Cynic is in to learning an army arrayed for battle, it is urged that he should not be 'entangled' [e/u.7re7rAeyju.eVoi [empeplegmenon]] but wholly devoted to God's service - cp 2 Tim. 2:4 ['entangleth himself', efiirAefceTat [empleketai]] - and free from Trauma in Art Essay, distraction; aTrepio-TraoTios [aperispastoos], 1 Cor. 7:35). Five parallels to the pastorals in Seneca are cited by Lightfoot, Philippians, 290. 8 Upon the difficulties of geography in v. 10, see CRESCENS, DALMATIA, GALATIA 32. The figurative expression in v. 17 is paralleled by an old proverb that one should 'visit the poor in cognitive approach to learning his affliction and speak of him in and Recovery in Art Essay the Sultan's presence and do one's diligence to save him from the mouth of the act 3, lion' (Rendel Harris, Story of Ahikar, p. 67). Trauma And Recovery! The conjecture 'Melita' [MeAiVn [melite]] for 'Miletus' [VIiAtJTto [miletoo]] is neither probable nor helpful.
9 II. Timothcus (1876). 10 Sieben Sendschreiben (1870). 11 Theologie des NT, 399 (1877). 12 These 'commissions and cautions' at least are 'unlike a dying man ; the writer is in a hurry for Timothy to come simply because he is and feminism, old and lonely', not because he fears his friend will be too late (G. A. Simcox, Expos. T 10430-432, finding in Heb. 13 also two commendatory letters). Titus. - The attempts to and Recovery, find in of the Essay Tit. 1:1-4 a genuine address interpolated by some redactor are not convincing.
But, even when the epistle as a whole is taken as sub-Pauline, 1:7-9 certainly appears a further g]oss (so O. Ritschl, TLZ, '85, 609; Knoke ; Harnack, Chron. Trauma! 710-711; Clemen, and McGiffert). The sudden transition from marx and feminism, presbyters to episcopi, and the general contents of the passage, mark it off as the insertion of some later editor who was interested in Trauma in Art Essay promoting the monarchical episcopate. Hesse and Clemen carry the gloss on 4 analysis, to the end of 1:11; but, although 1:10 connects with 1:9 (which partly explains the insertion of the gloss at this point), 1:12 would be abrupt after 1:6, for naica. 0. [kaka th.] are not an antithesis to Trauma in Art, dwir. [anup.], nor 'slow bellies' (yaartpes dpyai [gasteres argai]) to 'riot' (duwrias [asootias]), much less 'liars' (^ePcrrat [pseustai]) to 'faithful' (TTicrrd [pista] which here = believing, not reliable or trustworthy). The passage 1:7-9, then, was inserted, perhaps from the margin, in the original text which ran : 'unruly, for there are many unruly' (avvTroraKra. Approach To Learning! Fjlfflv yap TroXXot dvvir6Ta.KTOt, K.T.. [anupotakta Eisin gar polloi anupotaktoi, k.t.l.]). No man could discharge a presbyter's duties effectively, if the members of his own family were tainted with the local disease of insubordination and profligacy.
2:1-14 and 2:15-87 are somewhat parallel (cp 2:5 and 3:2, 2:14 and 3:1) ; but no analysis of the passage into a Pauline and a later source is plausible. The 'genuinely Pauline ring' of much in 3:1-7 (McGiffert) is not very audible, though Sabatier detects genuine material in it and 3:12-15. Trauma In Art Essay! The latter passage certainly, 3:12-13 [3:12-14], 3:15b, contains an social cognition authentic fragment, as is in Art Essay, admitted upon almost all hands (e.g. , Weisse, 1 Ewald, Krenkel, Knoke, Hesse, von Soden, Clemen, M'Giffert). Hesse (pp. 150-151) finds further in Titus (1:1-2, 1:4-6, 1:12-13a, 1:16, 3:1-6, 3:12-13, 3:15) a complete letter of Paul, written shortly after he left Crete; it has been expanded by the addition of passages which, although rising out of the original text (with the possible exception of 2), are intended as a proviso against heresy. Similarly McGiffert regards the canonical epistle as a redacted version of some letter (1:1-6 partly, 3:1-7, 3:12-13) written to Titus before Paul reached Corinth in Acts 20:2. The alternative to these dual hypotheses is to reconstruct (with Krenkel) out of 2 Timothy and romeo modern Titus three letters of Paul; (a) one written to Titus at Crete, perhaps from Illyricum during Paul's second journey to Corinth (Acts 20:1-3) = Tit. 3:12, 2 Tim. 4:20, Tit.
3:13; (b) another, from his Caesarean imprisonment, to Timothy at or near Troas = 2 Tim. 4:9-18, subsequent to Colossians and Philemon; (c) a third = 2 Tim. 4:19, 1:16-17, 1:18b, 4:21, written from Trauma and Recovery, his Roman imprisonment to Timothy at Ephesus. The Caesarean date of romeo modern, Colossians, however, is untenable; and and Recovery in Art otherwise this ingenious resetting of the fragments fails to explain satisfactorily how such notes came into their present curious position. 1 Philosoph. Dogmatik, 1:146. First Timothy. - In spite of marx and feminism, its unwieldy anacoluthon (cp Rom. 1:1-7), 1 Tim. 1 is probably a unity as it stands, modelled on Pauline letters and tradition, though vv. 12-17 resemble in part something more definite. Certainly 1:13-11 and 1:18-20 hang together.
After 1:1-2 a thanksgiving would naturally follow, in the Pauline manner; but when the thanksgiving does come (v. 12-17) it is occasioned not by Trauma in Art the person addressed but by Paul himself. Even the 'therefore' (o$v [oun]) of 2:1, resuming either 1:3-11 or 1:12-17 or 1:18-20, forms a loose transition; but it illustrates the zigzag course of the epistle rather than any phenomena of compilation. Similarly with subsequent passages like 2:6b-7, which has a poor connection with its context and only repeats the protestation of 1:12-17 (so Holtzm., Hesse, Hilg. ), 2:9-10 (the odd juxtaposition of rules for prayer with a sumptuary regulation for women) 4:1-8 which would readily part from its context, and 5 which has suffered accretion towards the close. No fragment of the descriptive about, epistle can be referred, however, to the apostle himself with much confidence. The incidental allusions to Paul's personality (3:14-15, 4:13) merely betray the writer's consciousness that there was a certain awkwardness in such elaborate commissions and Trauma in Art Essay instructions upon the commonplace regulations of a Christian community being addressed to one who was not merely himself in mature life but ex hypothesi separated from his superintendent only for a short time. In such touches we feel the marx, author's literary conscience and his tactful attempt to preserve the vraisemblance of the Trauma and Recovery in Art, situation or to justify the existence and point of such an scene 4 analysis epistle. As it stands, in fact, 1 Timothy is and Recovery in Art Essay, a free composition; it consists of a sub-Pauline letter which has been subsequently enlarged by interpolations, especially in model chap. 6. 6:17-21 is plainly an addition (Harn.), in thought and diction perhaps the least Pauline paragraph in all the pastorals ; its contents and context are against it as an integral part of the letter. Essay! The 'antitheses' of 6:20 are not the casuistic subtleties of social cognition model, dialectic in the Halacha, but the tabulated passages from the OT and the gospel arranged by Marcion to prove the diversity of the in Art Essay, two dispensations and the superiority of the later. Marx And Feminism! Such arguments are dismissed as secular and Trauma Essay verbose and pseudo-scientific.
See 2 Tim. And Juliet! 3:16, 'every scripture', etc. , and and Recovery Essay the significant collocation of an OT sentence and an evangelic saying in 1 Tim. 5:18. Another un-Pauline element is romeo and juliet movies, of course the connection between eternal life and almsgiving (vv. 17-19) as already between salvation and religious work or personal conduct (2:15, 3:13). Hence, like Tit. Trauma And Recovery! 1:7-9 and some other passages in 1 Tim. (3:1-13, 5:17-20 ?) or even 2 Tim. (2:20-26 ?), 6;17-21 shows the hamlet scene, process of accretion familiar in documents bearing on church organisation and discipline. 1 The motive of this section is to throw the glorious gospel into relief against the unworthiness and weakness of its original bearers, as in Harn. 5:9: 'he chose for the preaching of his gospel his own apostles ovra; vnep ira.a av a/uapriai/ ai-o/uiorepovs [ontas hyper pasan amartian anomooterous], that he might show he had not come to call the righteous but sinners'. See Wrede, Das Messiasgeheimnis (1901), 107-108.
Here again Hesse, admitting (like Schleiermacher) the irregular course of the epistle, attempts acutius quam verius to disentangle an original letter of commission (1:1-10, 1:18-20, 4:1-16, 6:3-16, 6:20-21) containing the duties and in Art Essay rights of an episcopus at Ephesus. This is cognitive approach to learning, conjectured to have been enlarged by the addition of independent pieces bearing on the work of the episcopate: e.g., 1:11-17 (justifying the apostolate to the Gentiles), arrangements for the worship (2:6b-7, so Hilg., and 2:9b-10, glosses) and Essay the officials of the church (3:14-15a, a further insertion to justify the author dilating on such topics; 3:15b-16, to romeo modern movies, connect with 4:1-2), a general mandate for bishops (5:5, 5:23, however, being genuinely Pauline), and Trauma in Art Essay extracts (6:1-3, 6:17-19) from a table of ethical duties. Knoke pushes the epistle much nearer Paul by his hypothesis of two letters from Paul's pen, one - an instruction (n-apayyeAta [paraggelia]) written to Timothy from Corinth (1:3-4, 1:18-20, 2:1-10, 4:12, 5:1-3, 5:4c-6, 5:11-15, 5:19-23, 5:24-25 ?), another - more doctrinal in character - composed in his Caesarean imprisonment (1:12-17, 3:14-16, 4:1-11, 4:13-16, 2:12-15, 5:7-8, 6:17-19, 1:5-11, 6:2c-16, 6:20-21 ?). Marx And Feminism! These have been combined with an un-Pauline church-directory (3:1-10, 3:12-13, 2:11, 5:9-10, 5:16, 5:4a-b, 5:17, 6:1-2), whilst passages like 3:11 and 5:18 are to be regarded as marginal glosses. It is not easy, however, to see adequate psychological motives for in Art, this sort of extensive compilation, and the criteria of model, style are by no means equal to in Art, the inferences drawn from hamlet act 3, them. Hypothetical and contradictory as such conjectures may appear to be, however, a not inconsiderable agreement prevails even amid the most independent analyses of these epistles. All partition-theories presuppose an editorial function which certainly is unexampled in previous early Christian literature, even in in Art Essay Acts and the Apocalypse. To Learning! But this is in Art, not an insuperable objection; and romeo and juliet modern movies whilst it is idle to dogmatise upon Trauma in Art Essay, the particular and original setting of verses, or at cognitive to learning every point to distinguish precisely between redactor, author, and source, the composite nature of these epistles and (within general limits) the main strata of their contents have been substantially proved. Such analytic criticism is upon the right lines, and as a working hypothesis it is historically superior to the conjectures which attribute the writings en bloc to Trauma Essay, Paul or as unpromisingly set down the Pauline element to act 3 scene 4 analysis, vague tradition or the inventiveness of a literary artist. As the titles formed no part of the original autographs, the Trauma and Recovery Essay, early church naturally argued from the internal evidence that 2 Tim., with its reflection of a climax and marx rich individual references, represented the last phase of the apostle's life, and Essay that 1 Tim. was earlier. But the comparative study of the epistles suggests that 2 Tim. is the earliest, and 1 Tim. the latest production of the descriptive house, author.
3. The relative amount of hapax legomena (46 in 2 Tim., 28 in Tit., 74 in 1 Tim.), the increasingly sub-apostolic colour of 'faith' (TTICTTIS [pistis]) and 'saviour' ((rwrjjp [sooter]), the diminution of freshness and intimate feeling in the allusions to Paul, the predominance of ecclesiastical interests and church organisation in Trauma in Art Essay Tit. and 1 Tim., 1 the gradual shifting of model, emphasis from the personality to the sheer authority of the apostle, the gradual increase of severity towards errorists, evident as the epistles proceed - these and other traces form a cumulative and sufficient argument for this order of composition. When the author wrote 2 Tim. he had considerable Pauline material at his disposal. Even in the epistle to Trauma and Recovery, Titus, he falls back on romeo and juliet modern movies, genuine tradition, and Trauma and Recovery in Art Essay Pauline material preponderates though to a less degree. But in 1 Tim. the situation has become more advanced ; he writes more freely and less under the influence of his master, confutes errorists with greater sharpness, assigns more dictatorial powers to the officers of the church, and elaborates the various ecclesiastical canons with unprecedented care. The third epistle (1 Tim.) is thus, as Schleiermacher was the first to point out, an expansion and in some respects a repetition of the others, further from their Pauline background of reminiscences and tradition, but more characteristic of the writer himself. The superiority of 2 Tim., with its ample personal allusions and less formal tone, is quite obvious; and superiority means here priority. That it comes from the same pen as the others, need not be doubted, although in it the writer is more of an editor than an original author. The general sub-apostolic style and spirit of all three is fairly uniform and affords no adequate evidence for cognition, suspecting a plurality of writers.
1 Among the qualifications of the Jewish sheliah tsibbur (rv 7B 1s3gS, the man who on any given occasion offered common prayer in the synagogue) were: 'to have many children and no money . to be of in Art Essay, sound age, and marx humble, popular, well-mannered . to be practised in the study of the law, the prophets, and the psalms ; able to expound the allegoric meaning, traditions, and histories', etc. Trauma In Art! (R. Inception After Essay! Jehuda, quoted by Trauma in Art Essay Selwyn. Christian Prophets, 208-209). 2 The difficulty of fj^avBavovcn [manthanousi] (v. 13) would certainly be eased by the adoption of the attractive conjecture Aai/0aiou7 [lanthanousi] (Hitzig, Naber, Baljon, Clemen). 4 The pronounced element of ecclesiasticism in 1 Tim., which in several passages is simply a manual of church order, betrays its more advanced situation. Hamlet! For some not insignificant details of style, see 'certain men' (rti/es avBpunroi [tines anthroopoi]), or 'certain' (-rii/e s [tines]) [7 times in 1 Tim., never in others], 'faith' (TTUTTIS [pistis]) in objective sense (4 times in 1 Tim., once in Tit. 14), 'saviour' (roTtjp [sooter]) of and Recovery in Art, God alone in 1 Tim. Social Cognition Model! (in the second-century piety 'no one could any longer be a God who was not also a soter', Harn., Dogmeng., ET, 1:1:18) ; cp also 2 Tim. 2:17-20 as preceding 1 Tim. 1:20, and the heightening scale of 2 Tim. 2:23, Tit.
3:9, 1 Tim. 1:4, of 2 Tim. 1:11 and and Recovery in Art 1 Tim. 2:7, of 2 Tim. 3:1 and movies 1 Tim. Trauma And Recovery In Art! 4:1-2, of Tit. Model! 1:7 and 1 Tim. 3:2. Like most of the NT writings, the pastorals have a communal origin. In them a current of the age becomes articulate, and Trauma Essay hence the inconspicuous personality of their author 1 cannot be rightly deduced from his writings. Scene! It was an age when, as in the days of Haggai, men had to 'fetch wood and Trauma in Art build the house', while others had to encourage and direct their efforts.
To furnish such inspiration may not have been a very heroic task, demanding writers of exceptional insight and pioneering ardour like Paul, but it was timely and serviceable ; and after all 'edification' (oiKodo/j.eiv [oikodomein]) was the hamlet act 3 scene, criterion and aim of early Christian literature. This Paulinist had singular capacities for Trauma in Art Essay, the labour of instructing the churches of his day. Thoroughly convinced that he had a message for it, or rather that in Paul's teaching and life lay the pattern for true doctrine and act 3 scene 4 analysis godliness, he addressed himself to the duty of curbing and stimulating his contemporaries in the spirit of his master, writing like a shrewd and experienced man of affairs who feels (unlike his contemporary, the prophet who wrote Rev. 2-3) that the moral plight of the age demanded consolidation - consolidation as opposed to speculation in belief or looseness in organisation. If he lacks the authority of intuition, he at least possesses the intuition of authority. He has much in common with the unconciliatory element in Paul.
Unlike the later apologists, he refuses to discuss points of disagreement or to meet objectors on their own ground, but is content with the Trauma and Recovery, more congenial method of insisting in a rather dictatorial fashion upon the fixed truths of the faith. In this he is a precursor of and juliet modern movies, Polycarp, yet in all likelihood the majority of and Recovery in Art Essay, his opponents, perhaps even of his readers, were none the worse for being somewhat sharply reminded that the 4 analysis, ultimate proofs of religion lay open to faith and the moral sense ; there may have been an effectiveness in the resolve of this censor to and Recovery in Art Essay, assert and modern movies enlighten, not to argue. The genuine faith is to Trauma and Recovery, him a 'tradition' (TrapdSocns [paradosis]) or a 'deposit' (irapadriKr [paratheke]), 2 involving 'testimony' (/j-aprvpia [maryria]), which lays a moral responsibility upon the officials of the church especially. After Life! The tone of his instructions to them reminds one often of Butler's famous Charge to the Clergy (1751) not to trouble about objections raised by men of gaiety and speculation, but to endeavour to beget a practical sense of religion upon the hearts of the common people. This task demands moral purity above all things, together with teaching ability in and Recovery in Art Essay the higher officials. True to his master, this mentor is utterly indifferent to the sacerdotal heresy 1 which was already beginning to tinge unhealthily the primitive ideas of the church (MINISTRY, 59a, PRIEST, 8). In resisting incipient Gnosticism with its attempt to Hellenise the faith into an evaporated intellectualism, the pastorals refuse to marx, employ the tendency, which ultimately secularised the Catholic church, of Hebraising the religion of Jesus by means of Trauma in Art, a retrograde movement to ritual and priestly conceptions. Indeed the text house, impression made by these letters is revealed in Trauma in Art Essay nothing so clearly as in the fact that they came to be cherished by those who more or less unconsciously were either ignoring or modifying or defying their principles under the constraining influence of the Zeitgeist. 1 The pastorals in fact voice a tendency of popular Christianity rather than any individual writer's cast of thought ; cp Wrede, uber Aufgabe und Methode der sog.
NT Theologie, 35-36 (1897). Authorship is here quite subordinate to function. 2 Cp Herod. 9:45 : Men of Athens, 'I leave these words with you as a trust' (ai/Spes AftjfOlOl, Trapadr/Kujv v^iv TO. Romeo And Juliet Modern! ewea raSe riSffnai K.r.A.) with 2 Tim. 1:12-13, etc. Like the authors of Matthew's gospel, Barnabas, Hebrews, the Trauma and Recovery in Art Essay, Fourth Gospel and 2 Peter, the author of the pastorals belongs to the great anonymous period of early Christian literature. The religious life of the primitive church, as of ancient Israel, was 'at certain periods very intense, and at these periods the spiritual energy of the nation expressed itself almost impersonally, through men who forgot themselves and hamlet scene were speedily forgotten in name by others' (Dav. Job, 68).
His work, too, was pseudonymous. 2 To write under Paul's name was, for a Paulinist, quite a legitimate literary artifice'; and although pseudepigrapha in the second century - that period rich in Trauma in Art Essay rhetorical forgeries (Jebb, Homer, 87) - ranged from mere fabrications to high-toned compositions, the pastorals, like 2 Peter, belong to the latter class, breathing not a crude endeavour to deceive but self-effacement and deep religious motives. Hence the oblivion in which the writer chose to work and has been allowed to remain. It was clue not merely to the necessity of throwing a certain air of and juliet modern movies, mystery round the and Recovery in Art, situation in order to secure the circulation of letters long after their putative author s death, but to marx and feminism, a sort of Pythagorean feeling that unselfish piety required a pupil's work to be attributed to his master - a canon of Trauma and Recovery in Art, literary ethics not unfamiliar to early Christianity itself (Tertull. adv. Marc. 4:5). This author wrote from what he conceived to be the standpoint of Paul. 3 But it would be unjust to estimate him by the measure of the social cognition model, man whose spirit he endeavoured to propagate and apply in his own way. The correct standard is to be sought in the sub-Pauline literature. And if the author of the pastorals is Trauma, inferior to cognitive to learning, the genius who wrote the fourth gospel, even in appreciating some of the more inward aspects of Pauline thought, he is superior in range and penetration to those who wrote Barnabas, Jude, the Ignatian epistles, the Christian section of Ascensio Isaiae, and 2 Peter.
The prevailing deference shown to the apostles and to Paul by contemporary and later writers 4 who disclaim all pretensions to in Art Essay, equality with them, as well as the fact that mere literary ambition was utterly foreign to the early Christian consciousness at of the After Life Essay this period, may serve to guarantee the ethical honour of the Trauma in Art, pastorals and to corroborate the hamlet scene, impression left by themselves that their author 5 was right in feeling himself not merely justified but obliged to sanction and support his message by his master's name. Not long before, another 'Paulinist' had composed speeches for Paul which were based on Trauma, oral tradition and yet were indubitably free products of a historian who had skill and sympathy enough to social cognition model, give fairly faithful transcripts of the and Recovery Essay, situation in question (Acts 13:16-4i, 17:22-31, 20:18-35, etc.). It was but a step from this to cognitive to learning, the other recognised method of literary impersonation, which chose epistolary rather than historical expression to ain its religious end. 1 Louw, Het ontstaan van het Priesterschaap in de Christelijke Kerk, 32-33, 62-63, 79-80, 110-126 (1892). 2 See EPISTOLARY LITERATURE, 4; MINISTRY, 35d; and, to the literature cited in Hist. New Test. In Art! 597-598, 619-624, add W. Approach To Learning! Christ, Philologische Studien zu Clem. Alex. 30-39 (1900), and (for the pseudepigrapha, mainly Gnostic, of the 2nd cent., etc.) Liechtenhan in ZNTW, 1902, Hefte 3-4. 3 He is least successful in reproducing what would have been Paul's tone and temper to colleagues like Timothy and Titus.
The curt, general instructions put into the apostle's mouth are often incongruous with the character of their primitive recipients as well as with the situation presupposed by the epistles in question. 4 E.g., Ignat. Rom. In Art Essay! 4, 'I do not order you, as did Peter and Paul; they were apostles, I am a convict'; also Acta Phoc. 4, OVK aTravTO/aoAo) Tt)T Ttav aTrocrroAcoi TOV eou euapeerrtas [ouk apautomoloo tes toon apostoloon tou theou euarestias]. 5 His success, undoubtedly deserved, becomes all the more remarkable where failure was so easy. The Asiatic presbyter who half a century later composed the Acts of marx and feminism, Paul and Thekla no doubt acted with a sincerity equal to his affection (id se amore Pauli fecisse), but failed to appreciate the vital elements of Paulinism and was deposed - not for using an Trauma illegitimate method so much as for employing it to promote notions which the common-sense of the church rejected as palpably alien to the faith. Pseudo-Pauline epistles ('fictae ad haeresim Marcionis'), were widely circulated during the second century ; the superiority of the pastorals to all such is a difference of degree rather than of kind. Since Schmidt and Schleiermacher almost a century ago suggested a sub-Pauline date for 1 Tim., a conjecture which Eichhorn amongst others speedily (1812) extended to all three epistles, there has been a remarkable continuity of criticism, starting from *F. Social Model! C. Baur (Die sogenannten Pastoralbriefe des Apostels Paulus, 1835). For the critical work up to 1880 see.
H. J. Holtzmann, Die Pastoralbriefe kritisch und exegetisch behandelt (1880), a monograph which is far from Trauma in Art Essay, being superseded. Subsequent contributions in general support of Baur. and Holtzmann, with modifications and adaptations, have come along three main lines:- (a) editions: *H. von Soden (HC 3:1:155-254. (2) 1893); *Moffatt (Histor. New Testament. (2) 556-575 ); O. Cone (Internat. Hdbks. to NT, vol. 3 ). (b) monographs and essays on- (i) general criticism of epp. : Kenan (St. Paul, 23-53, l'eglise Chretienne, ch. 6); *Harnack (Chronologie, 480-485, 710-711); *Pfliederer (Paulinismus, ET, 2:196-214, Das Urchristentum, 801-823 ); *M.
A. Rovers (Nieuwtest. Cognition! Letterkunde, 1888, (2) 66-78); van Manen (OLD-CHRIST. LIT., PAUL); *Bruckner (Die Chronol. Reihenfolge der Briefs des NT, 277-286 ); Prof. E. Y. Hincks, J BL, 1897, pp. 94-117, Reville (Les origines de l'episcopat,1:262-263), and the NT introductions by Hilgenfeld (1875); H. J. Holtzmann (3) (272-292 ); *S.
Davidson, (3) 1-75 ; B. W. Bacon. (127-139 ); Baljon, Geschiedenis v. d. Bb. d. NT (1901) 150-174; *Julicher ((4) 136-156 ) and Sabatier, art. Pastorales, L'ency. And Recovery Essay! Sciences rel., 10:250-251. (ii) textual features: Henri Bois, JPT (1888) 145-160 'zur Exegese der Pastoralbriefe'; *Clemen, Einheitl. d. paul Briefe, 142-176 ; P. Descriptive House! Ewald, Probabilia betr. d. Text des 1 Tim. (1901) (c) Discussions on special phenomena of epp:- (i) ecclesiastical organisation : See under MINISTRY and add (to lit. And Recovery In Art! there cited) defences of conservative standpoint in Hort, Christian Ecclesia (1898), 189-217, and J. W. Falconer From Apostle to Priest, 109-146 (1900): against Kuhl (Die Gemeinde-ordnung in den Pastoralbriefen, 1885), see Hilgenfeld (ZWT, 1886, pp. Act 3! 456-473); and on their connection with Apostol.
Constitutions, Harnack, Texte und Untersuch. 2:5:49-50. (ii) the errorists ; Hilgenfeld (ZWT, 1880, pp. 448-464): Havet, Le Christianisme et ses origines, 4:376-380 (1884); and Bourquin, Etude critique sur Paul. epitres, 51-64 (1890) (iii) general setting and religious standpoint: Hatch (EB (9), articles 'Paul' and 'Pastorals'); *Beyschlag's Neutest. And Recovery Essay! Theol. (ET, 1895), 2:501-517, Holzmann's Neutest. After Essay! Theol. Trauma And Recovery In Art! 2:259-281 (1897); O. Cone (Gospel and its Interpretations, 327-338 ); W. Mackintosh (Nat. Cognitive Approach To Learning! Hist. of Christ. Rel. 465, 490 ); Weizs, Das Apostl. Zeitalter, (2) (ET) 2:163-165, 2:329-330; *A.
C. McGiffert, The Apostolic Age, 398-423 (1897); E.P. Gould, Bibl. Theol. of NT, 142-150 (1900), also Harnack, Dogmengeschichte (ET) 1:156-162, 1:189-192, 1:215-216, 2:23-24, and Wernle, Die Anfunge unserer Religion, 347-368, 380-381 (1901). Although the general critical position, outlined in these contributions, is unquestionable, it is unhappily not unquestioned. The traditional view survives, with more or less hesitation and in Art a far from uniform presentment, in the editions of house, Rolling (1882- 1887 ; on i Tim.), Weiss (-Meyer, ( G )i893, also Die Paulin. Kriefe, i6yC, 6o4-682_li8g6]), Riggenbach-Zockler (1897), and Stellhorn (1900), and in Trauma in Art Essay the representative NT introductions of Weiss, Godet, Zahn, and Belser ; so still most English commentators (Ellicott, Plummer, J. H. Bernard, Horton, J. P. Lilley), writers on NT introduction (Salmon, Gloag, and marx and feminism Adeney), and Trauma in Art Essay others, e.g., G. G. Inception Life! Findlay (appendix to and Recovery Essay, ET of Sabatier s L apttre Paul, 341-402 , Hastings D B 3 714-716), and Rams. Church, ) 248^, EJ:/OS. 4th ser. 8no_/T, etc.
Add Bertrand (!-:ssai critique sur [authenticity des cpitres Past., i88b), Ruegg (Ans Schri, t und Geschichte, 59-108 ) ; Roos (Die Briffe des ap. Paulus und die Redcn des Herrnjesii, 156- 202), G. H. Gilbert s Life of cognitive approach, Paul, 225-232(1899); and G. T. In Art! Purves, Christianity in Apostolic Age, 170-176 (1900). Also (published since this article was written) Lock s studies in Hastings DB 4 on the epistles. i. MO. ( 7H2, bedil, lit. 'that which is separated' [from precious metal], see Is. 1:25, where render 'alloy' [RVmg. Che., see LXX] ; KacrriVepos [kassiteros] [4 times], |u6Ai(6]os [molib[d]os] [twice], stannum), Ezek. Cognitive Approach! 22:18, 22:20 (Israel to be cast into and Recovery the furnace like one of the baser metals), 27:12 (exported from Tarshish), Zech. 4:10 (material of of the Essay, plummet, /cacraiTepu os [kassiterinos]), Nu. Trauma Essay! 31:22 (cleansed by passing through fire). Being a component of bronze, tin was used as a metal from a very early date (see COPPER).
A ring from a tomb at Dahshur (dated about the movies, third dynasty) contains 8.2 percent of tin ; a vase of sixth dynasty 5.68 percent of tin. When the unalloyed metal was first introduced cannot be ascertained with certainty. All we know is that about the first century the Greek word Ka.TriTfpos [kassiteros] designated tin, and that tin was imported from Cornwall into Italy after, if not before, the Trauma in Art, invasion of Britain by Julius Caesar. From what Pliny says (HN 34:16, 33:9), it appears that the Romans in marx and feminism his time did not fully realise the distinction between tin and lead ; the former was called plumbum album or candidum to distinguish it from plumbum nigrum (lead proper). 1 The word stannum definitely assumed its present meaning in the fourth century. And Recovery! (See Jer. on Zech. Scene! 4:10. (D DDi;), Is. 3:18 AV, RV ANKLETS (q.v.). 1 So in LXX the distinction between Ka(rrtTep09 [kassiteros] and jixoAi/3os [molibos] is uncertain.
i. A place in the Eber-han-nahar (see EBER) mentioned as the NE. boundary of Solomon's empire (1 K. 4;24 [5:4]), corresponding to Gaza in the SW. It is Trauma in Art Essay, generally held that Tiphsah is the ancient Thapsacus, and that Solomon's occupation of this place was connected with his commercial enterprises, Thapsacus being the great zeugma, or place of passage, of the river Euphrates alike for caravans and for invading armies. It was there that the romeo, Ten Thousand first learned the real object of the expedition of Cyrus the Younger, and crossed the stream (Xen. Anab. Trauma In Art! 1:4:11). There too, Darius Codomannus crossed after the fatal battle of Issus, and Alexander after him. In the sixth century A.D. it passed out of knowledge. The true site was identified about the same time by J. P. Peters (Nation.
May 23, 1889) and B. Moritz (Ber. der Berl. Akad., July 25, 1889) with Kal'at Dibse, a small ruin 'at the and juliet modern, bend of the stream where it changes from a southerly to Trauma, an easterly course, 8 mi. below Meskene, and 6 below the ancient Barbalissus'. Among other points in text about house which the situation of Dibse agrees with the statements of Xenophon and and Recovery Strabo is the existence of a camel-ford at cognitive to learning this very spot. There is no philological objection to and Recovery in Art Essay, this combination, but excavations still wait to be made (cp Peters, Nippur, 1:96+) At the same time, there are good reasons for social cognition model, testing this theory afresh. The realm of Solomon was not as extensive as a tradition based on incorrect readings of the text has represented (see SOLOMON, 9). Tiphsah and Azzah are most probably places on the frontier of Solomon's dominion in the Negeb. The former may come from Tappuah ( = Nephtoah), the latter may perhaps represent the and Recovery, strong city Zarephath. These points are doubtful. 2. Romeo And Juliet! A town in Ephraim which opposed the pretensions of Menahem, and was punished by Trauma and Recovery him (2 K. And Feminism! 15:16-17), identified by Conder with Kh. Trauma In Art! Tafsah, on an old site 6 mi.
SW. of Shechem (PHFMem. 2:169). The 'Tiphsah' of MT is as much conjecture as the 'Tirzah' (depua [thersa]) of LXX (Oaipa [thaira] [A]). The right reading, as many think, is that of social, LXX - viz. TAPPUAH (ra^we [taphooe]). So Thenius, Klostermann, Renan (Hist. 2:450), Kohler (Bibl. Gesch. 3:399), Guthe. There were at least three places called Tappuah (or Nephtoah).
Whether this Tiphsah or Tappuah was really in the neighbourhood of Shechem, and not rather in the Negeb (cp 1), is one of the most recent critical problems. See Crit, Bib. on 2 K. 15:16. (DTfl; 9[e]lpc[BADEL]), son of Japheth, mentioned after Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, and Meshech, Gen. 10:2 (P), 1 Ch. 1:5. It is usually assumed that he must be the representative of Trauma in Art, a northern folk. The older commentators mostly think of the Thracians (9/a [thrax]; Jos.
Ant. 1:6:1). Inception Life! But after removing the Gk. nom. And Recovery In Art! suffix s, we get a form which has no similarity to Tiras. Hence Tuch, Noldeke (HL 5:519-520), and W. Max Miiller (As. u. Eur. 382-383) think of the romeo, Tyrseni, who are spoken of not only Trauma Essay, as Etruscans but also as pirates on the Aegean Sea (cp TARSHISH, 6, and note quotation from E. Meyer on the probable distinction between the marx and feminism, Etruscan Tyrseni and the Turusha of the in Art Essay, Egyptian inscriptions).
This is certainly plausible, and descriptive text about has suggested (to the present writer) that after correcting DTD in v. 2 into DTin, the latter word should be substituted for srenn in v. And Recovery! 4. The order of the names in v. 4 seemed to favour this, and granting that Tarshish is the Hebrew name for Tartessus or S. Spain, no better course seems to be open, for one cannot expect Tartessus to be inclosed between Elishah (i.e., S. Italy and Sicily [Lag., Di. , Kau.]), and Kittim (i.e., Cyprus?). The Tyrseni, however, might naturally enough be so grouped. How easily Tiras (or Tures?)and Tarshish might be confounded is suggested by the fact that in Judith 2:23 [2:13] Vg. actually gives filios Tharsis where Vet. Lat. gives filios Thiras et Rasis. Cp ROSH. And Juliet Modern Movies! A better view, however, can possibly be found (see 2). Jensen connects Tiras with the Hittite T(a)rsh = Tarzi (so Shalmaneser II. ) = Tarsus (Jensen, TLZ., 4th Feb. 1899, col. 70), but see TARSHISH, 6.
The increasing evidence (see Crit. Bib.) that many parts of the OT, which came down to the late editor or editors in and Recovery a corrupt form, have been manipulated by him in accordance with incorrect views of geography and cognition history, compels us to consider, as we pass through the Table of Nations, what may have been the original form of each ethnic or place-name that we find there. It has already been suggested by others (see JAPHETH) that Japheth in the original legend meant either the Phoenicians or the Philistines. It may be added here that there is great reason to doubt whether either the J portions or the P portions of Gen. 10 in their original form extended their range beyond Palestine and Trauma and Recovery in Art Arabia. It is a characteristic of P's lists (and to P vv.
2-4, according to the critical analysis, belong) that he in naive ignorance repeats the same name in different corrupt and independent forms. Thus 'Tiras' in v. Romeo Modern Movies! 2 is ultimately the Trauma in Art, same as 'Tarshish' in v. 4 ; 'Gomer', 'Magog', 'Madai', 'Javan', and 'Togarmah' are all most probably corrupt and independent forms of 'Jerahmeel'. 'Tubal' (cp TABEAL), as the connection in which the After Life Essay, name occurs in Ezek. Trauma In Art Essay! 32:26 ought sufficiently to show, is a Palestinian or rather a N. Arabian name. 1 'Meshech' (TJire) should be 'Cusham' (CJ 2) - i.e., the N. Arabian Cush (see CUSH, 2). 'Elishah' in v. 4 should be 'Ishmael'; 'Kittim' probably comes from 'Rehobothim'; 'Dodanim' should be Dedanim. If these emendations are in the main right - and the evidence referred to descriptive house, above would seem to make this a reasonable contention - it follows that 'Tiras' as well as 'Tarshish' (see TARSHISH, 7), is most probably a corruption and distortion of the Trauma and Recovery, N Arabian ethnic name Ashhur or Asshur ( = Geshur). Cp GESHUR, 2. 1 'Elam' of course should be 'Jerahmeel' (as probably always [never] in OT), and most probably (if not certainly) 'Zidonians' should be 'Misrites' [no they shouldn't]. (D ninfi), 1 Ch. 2:55.
See JABEZ. 1. D Ohnb*, saharonim. Is. 3:18, Judg. 8:21, 8:26, RV 'crescents'. See NECKLACE, 2. 2. -IN2, pe'er, Ezek. 24:17 (AV), 24:23 (EV) ; see TURBAN, 2. 3. lity, shesh; Ezek. 16:10 RVmg translates '[a tire of] fine linen'. A headtire seems to be meant.
See TURBAN, 2. 4. fj-i-rpa. Judith 10:3, 16:8 (AVmg. 'mitre'), Bar. 5:2 (EV 'diadem'). See DIADEM. (H^rnF! ; OAPAKA [A in 2 K., B in Is.]. 9Ap0AK [tharthak] [L], -pA [-ra] [B in 2 K.], -p6A [ratha] [XAQ* in Is.], Vg. Tharaca).
According to Is. 37:9 = 2 K. 19:9, the Assyrian general (rab-shakeh) had heard that Tirhakah, king of Ethiopia (LXX of [the] Ethiopians), was coming forth to fight against the Assyrian armies occupying Judah before the siege of Jerusalem (701 B.C.) in order to assist Hezekiah. This is the social, third king of the and Recovery Essay, twenty-fifth (or Ethiopian) dynasty of marx, Egypt (EGYPT, 66b). His name is written in Hieroglyphic signs Ta-h-ru-k. The vowels (a and u) are written quite constantly, although they appear to us unintelligible and useless. The cuneiform transcription is Tarku. Manetho gives Tarkos or Tarakos, Strabo, 1:3:21, Tearko (he strangely makes the king a great conqueror, who reached the pillars of Trauma in Art, Hercules ; cp Megasthenes, Fragm. 20, in romeo and juliet Strabo, 686). The biblical rendering would seem to need a transposition ; Teharko, Teharka (npinn). The king seems to have been an usurper, 2 who legalised his crown afterwards by marriage with the widow of king Shabako. When the usurpation took place, can be determined with certainty (see SO).
Tirhakah reigned, according to a stele of the Serapeum, twenty-six complete years ; according to Assyrian sources he died in 668/67 ; consequently his accession to the throne was in 694/93 B.C. Essay! This shows at once that in the biblical account there is an impossible conjunction of facts. Either the original form of the text did not give the name of the 'king of model, Ethiopia' referred to - later scholars would then attempt to identify the king and insert Tirhaka-Taharko instead of Shabako who reigned in 701 (see, however, So on the improbability of Shabako's attacking the Assyrians) or Taharko was mentioned as the Ethiopian governor of Lower Egypt, and the later recension made him a king. Otherwise, we should have to acknowledge a confusion of the events of 701 with others of the time between 693 and 676 B.C. The first expedition of the Assyrians against Egypt, in 676, was in all probability caused by such a provocation as military aid from Trauma Essay, Egypt to Palestinian rebels against Assyria.
Esarhaddon mentions indeed that Ba'al, the king of Tyre, was induced to rebellion by Tarku. This may have occurred earlier ; but 693 is, as has been said, for Tirhakah the superior chronological limit. Tirhakah, however, could not really play the act 3 scene, part of an aggressor in Syria. The difficulty of maintaining Egypt and keeping the nomarchs in subjection must as a rule have absorbed his whole strength. An Assyrian army penetrated into Egypt in Trauma and Recovery in Art Essay 676 and seems to have occupied a considerable portion of text, it, but in and Recovery in Art Essay 675 was annihilated. 4 In his tenth year, 671, king Esarhaddon secured the marx, road to Egypt by Trauma and Recovery Essay an expedition against the Arabs, invaded (then, or by another army?) Egypt by way of a city in approach the desert called Magdali or Migdol (see MIGDOL), and met and defeated the forces of Taharko near a place called Ishupri. The Ethiopian king had finally, after losing the third battle, to withdraw from Egypt. The Assyrians marched as far as Thebes, which capitulated and was mildly dealt with. The country was divided among twenty nomarchs, descendants of Libyan generals. Trauma In Art Essay! Some of these may have called in the Assyrians to free them from the descriptive text about, Ethiopian yoke, and submitted to the Assyrian supremacy without resistance.
Nevertheless we read of a conspiracy with Taharko against in Art Essay, the Assyrians by the three most influential leaders (Niku-Necho I. of Sais and Memphis, Sharludari of Tanis and cognition Pakruru of Pi-saptu. Evidently, they felt too weak to resist the Ethiopians when these threatened to invade Egypt again, and therefore tried to maintain good relations with them. In point of fact Taharko invaded Egypt again in 669. Esarhaddon hurried to the rescue of his vassals, and died on the expedition. And Recovery In Art Essay! His army, nevertheless, entered Egypt, defeated Taharko's army, coming from Memphis, at Karbanit (near Canopus?), and forced him to retreat as far as Thebes. The cities Sais, Mendes, and Tanis were cruelly punished for joining the Ethiopians ; prince Necho, however, when sent to Nineveh as a prisoner, obtained a pardon and his dominion. Social Model! Evidently, the Assyrians needed his influence. They even gave the city of Hathribis to his son Psametik and thus furthered the rise of the next dynasty (the Saitic). Trauma And Recovery Essay! Taharko, in the meantime, fortified a camp near Thebes and, while the act 3 4 analysis, Assyrian troops were engaged in and Recovery in Art the Delta, forced this city to surrender. At first, the prince of Thebes seems to have closed the Inception of the After Life Essay, door to the fugitive Ethiopian king.
Preparing for a new invasion of northern Egypt, Tirhakah died there. His step-son Ten(wa)t-Amon (Tandamani of the Assyrian reports), son of in Art Essay, Shabako, became king, and made the model, last attempt to expel the Assyrians (668/67). 2 See Maspero, Histoire, 3361, on in Art Essay, this point. The words of the inscription of Tanis (de Rouge in Melanges d'Archeologie Egyptienne, 1:21, etc) 'he went to the Delta at the age of twenty years' do not point, however, to a revolution necessarily. 3 Cp Winckler in KAT (3) 93. Why he places (p. Inception! 87 and AOF 1:482) his accession to the throne in Trauma and Recovery in Art 691, does not appear.
4 See KAT (3) 88, for the report of the 'Babylonian Chronicles'. On the Egyptian monuments, nothing of 4 analysis, this warlike activity of the king can be observed. Tirhakah left many buildings and restorations, especially in his residence Napata (mod. Gebel-Barkal) and at Thebes. North of Thebes, the difficulties caused him by the nomarchs seem to have prevented him from and Recovery Essay, building much ; but inscriptions bearing his name have been found at Tanis, and at Memphis his name is represented at the burial of an Apis bull in his tenth and twenty-fourth year (directly before the Assyrian conquest?). Inception Of The After Essay! Nominally, also, the two years following 668/7 seem to have been counted to and Recovery, him in Egypt, so at least later by Psammetichus I. At Thebes, the romeo movies, nomarch Mont(u)-m-he't was in the time of the Assyrian invasion practically independent (he built considerably at Trauma Karnak) and does not seem to have always been faithful to his suzerain in Napata (see above). A (rather conventionalised) portrait of Tirhakah is given elsewhere (ETHIOPIA, fig. Life Essay! 1, right-hand picture); the Negro blood is more strongly indicated in several other portraits ; the full Negro type on the Zinjirli-stele of Esarhaddon is Trauma, therefore no caricature. [The view expressed elsewhere (SENNACHERIB, 5) as to descriptive about house, the possibility of a confusion between an Assyrian and an Asshurite (N.
Arabian) invasion of Juclah may possibly require a reinvestigation of the Trauma in Art, meaning of tm t^D in 2 K. 19:9 = Is. 37:9. 'Cush' may be, not Ethiopia, but a region in N. Of The Life Essay! Arabia (see CUSH, 2). Trauma And Recovery Essay! If so, npmn (Tirhakah) will have to be admitted into the group of approach to learning, personal names which have (according to the new theory) been modified by Trauma in Art Essay redactors to suit their own limited historical knowledge. See Crit. Bib. on 2 K. 19:9 and other parts of 2 K.] 1 So far after Winckler's arrangement, KAT (3) 90-94.
(narnn ; GARAM [tharam] [B], GARXNA [tharchna] [A], 6ARAANA [L]), a son of Caleb by his concubine Maacah (1 Ch. 2:48). (NJU ; in ; either = tarshata, Pers. partic. = 'feared' [Meyer, Ryssel, and most scholars], or an official title from Old Pers. antare-kshathra, 'royal representative in the province', Lag. Descriptive Text House! Symmicta, 160; A6ARAC0AC [atharasthas] [L generally]), a title like 'Your Excellency' (Meyer), or an official title (Lag., Stade) of the Persian governor of Judah, or perhaps a corrupt form of a personal name, or of a gentilic, of Semitic origin. The article is Trauma in Art Essay, always prefixed. (a) Ezra 2:63 (afleptraa [B], -crafla [A], -ar0a; [L]) = Neh. 7:65 (ao-eptrafla [R], aOcp. Inception After Life! [NA])= 1 Esd. 5:40 (see below); (b) Neh. 7:70 (om.
B, a.6apraoa [tfc.a mg. A]) ; The sense in Trauma and Recovery in Art Essay (a) Ezra 2:63 = Neh. Inception Of The After! 7:65 = 1 Esd. 5:40 and (b) Neh. 7:70 depends on the critical view adopted as to the origin of the list of sons of the province. If, with Meyer, we admit it to be a list of exiles who returned with Zerubbabcl, the Tirshatha will of course be Zerubbabel ; to Kosters, however, it is a list of post-exilic residents in Trauma in Art Judah and Jerusalem, and the Tirshatha is Nehemiah. Cp 1 Esd. 5:40 (= Ezra 2:63), where we find v. [o] Kai uT#x/xas [kai attharias] (BA), XTapao-0aS [atarasthas] [L], ATHARIAS, RV ATTHARIAS). In (c) Neh. 8:9 = 1 Esd. 9:49 and (d) Neh.
10:1 [10:2], Nehemiah is mentioned by name as the Tirshatha, but is it certain that the text is correct? Guthe (SBOT) points out that 1 Esd. 9:49 ( = Neh. 8:9) gives simply /ecu elirev aTTO.pa.Ti [kai eipen attarate] ([B], ar^apar. [attharates] [A], adapaaOas [atharasthas] [L], ATTHARATES) - i.e., 'and the Tirshatha said', and social infers that N?n rram [nehemiah . ] is a gloss. Smend, however (Listen, 18), prefers to omit 'that is, the Tirshatha' (so LXX [BXA] in Neh.), whilst Meyer (Entst.
200) omits both 'Nehemiah' and 'Tirshatha'. In (d) Guthe (SBOT) and Wellhausen (GGN, 1895, p. 177 omit 'the Tirshatha', because it separates the proper name from the Trauma and Recovery in Art Essay, patronymic (LXX , but not LXX , supports this). Very possibly here as well as in act 3 4 analysis (c) both 'Nehemiah' and 'Tirshatha' are intrusive (cp Marq. Fund. 34). The two laymen, Nehemiah and Zedekiah, are very isolated just before the names of priestly classes (see ZEDEKIAH). Nehemiah's usual title is and Recovery Essay, nns, 'governor'.
It is not certain that Nehemiah had yet returned. To this it may be replied that Nehemiah s change of romeo and juliet modern, title may be connected with a limitation of his jurisdiction during his second period of office to matters connected with a religious reformation. For the grounds of and Recovery, this hypothesis see NEHEMIAH. On the name see, further, Crit. Marx! Bib. in ? 'agreeable', 102; 0epc[BAL]; but in Josh. 12:24 0apra [BF], Oeppa. [therma] [A], in Trauma Essay 1 K. 14:17 yrji/ ra.pi.pa. Cognition! [gen sarira] [A ; see ZARETHAN], in Trauma and Recovery in Art Essay 2 K. 15:14 6aprei.a. [tharseila] [B], OepcrtAo, [thersila] [A], in Cant.
6:4 evSoiaa. [eudokia] [BXA], in Targ. NrTjnrY). 1. An ancient city of movies, Mt. Ephraim (see below) which had a king of its own before the Israelitish conquest (Josh. Trauma Essay! 12:24), and was the residence of the N. Israelitish kings from Jeroboam to Life, Omri (1 K. 14:17, 15:21, 16:6, 16:8-9, 16:15, 16:17, 16:23). Trauma And Recovery! According to Klostermann's emendation of has-Tseredah in 1 K. 11:26 (and of the crapeipa [sareira] of LXX in After 1 K. In Art Essay! 12), Jeroboam was a native not of 'Zeredah' but of Tirzah, which place he fortified while still nominally in descriptive text the service of Solomon (see JEROBOAM, i, ZARETHAN, 2). Shortly afterwards we read (1 K. 12:24-25) that on Jeroboam s return from Egypt he built a castle (xa/a/ca [charaka] = N3n3) at Sarira. Whether Klostermann is right in and Recovery in Art holding Tirzah to be the original form of the name of Jeroboam's city, will be considered later; at any rate, we may follow him in his statement that Zeredah (rrns), or hats-Tseredah, crapeipa [sareira], and hamlet Tirzah are fundamentally the same.
The next fact recorded of and Recovery in Art Essay, Tirzah is that, when, after a reign of seven days, Zimri saw that he could not hold Tirzah, he burned the 4 analysis, citadel, and himself perished in the flames (1 K. 16:17-18) ; the usurper Omri then took up his abode in Tirzah. Even after Samaria had supplanted Tirzah as the capital, it continued to be a fortress of strategic importance. Menahem b. Gadi won Tirzah first and then Samaria, when he slew Shallum b. Jabesh and mounted the throne of and Recovery Essay, Israel. From the context (on 2 K. 15:16 see TIPHSAH) Tirzah appears to have been not far from Tappuah (in Ephraim, but on the border of Manasseh). In the Book of Judges too there is one more reference in the narratives, which, if based on to learning, fact, should come first in chronological order. Nor must we omit a famous poetical reference in the ordinary text. In Cant. 6:4, as given by MT (LXX, however, has ws evdoKia [oos eudokia]), we find the Shulammite compared to Tirzah. Trauma And Recovery In Art Essay! But whether a methodical criticism can accept this reading, is doubtful (see CANTICLES, 14, and cp ROSE). We need not therefore discuss the of the After, question whether Tirzah really was as beautifully situated as the Trauma and Recovery in Art Essay, ordinary text of hamlet act 3 4 analysis, Cant.
6:4 seems to imply. It is enough to Trauma and Recovery, find out where this northern city lay. There are three current identifications. (1) Robinson and Van de Velde thought of Talluza, 1 a picturesque village on a hill 2040 ft. above the sea-level, E. of Samaria, and slightly N. of Mt. Ebal. The phonetic resemblance, however, is but slight, and the description of Thersa quoted by Robinson from Brocardus ('on a high mountain, three leagues from Samaria to the E.') suits Tubas (Thebez?) better than Talluza. (2) The Midrash represents Tirzah as Tir'an (cp CANTICLES, 14, note) and the Targum as Tar'itha. Hence Buhl (Pal.
203) suggests that Tirathana, a village close to Gerizim (Jos. Ant. 18:4:1), may be intended, and he (doubtfully) identifies this with et-Tireh, on the W. side of the plain of Makhneh. But this is not a sufficiently important site. (3) Conder (PEFM 2:216) suggests the village Teyatsir, 11 mi. N. of Shechem, and 12 mi. E. of Samaria (see ASHER, 2). Social Cognition! The site appears not unsuitable ; but nothing can be based on the name. But is the Trauma, name Tirzah really the correct form? Is it likely to have been corrupted into Zeredah or hats-tseredah ? And is it the most natural name for an important fortress? Add to this that another corrupted form of the same original may be ZARETHAN (q. v.).
The problem is to find a name out of which all these forms can have been corrupted. Such a name is VIS JV3 'Beth-zur'; such a name, too, is rlSlS, 'Zarephath'. It so happens that all the OT passages referred to above most [least] probably, in their original form, referred to the Negeb (Cant. 6:4 of Inception Essay, course is excluded). It will therefore be safer to and Recovery, pronounce in and feminism favour of Zarephath.
2. One of the five daughters of Essay, ZELOPHEHAD - the fifth (Nu. 26:33, 27:1 [om. Inception Of The Essay! L], Josh. 17:3), or the second (LXX the and Recovery, first), Nu. 36:11, perhaps = Zarephath. (nifa 3Cn ; CK Gee BOON THC p [ RA 1. o eK SecceBtoN THC p [L]) 1 K. 17:1, RVmg, AV 'inhabitants of Gilead', RV 'sojourners of Gilead'. Cognitive! See TISHBITE and reff.
CgP Fl; 6ecB(e)lTHC ; Thesbites, i.e., a native of Tishbeh, 1 K. 17:1, 21:17, 21:28, 2 K. 1:3, 1:8, 9:36. Trauma In Art Essay! See ELIJAH, i, and n. i ; JABESH, i ; and especially PROPHET, 6, and Crit. Approach! Bib., where it is conjectured that Elijah and Elisha both came from Zarephath in the Negeb, then perhaps the extreme limit of the southern dominions of N. Israel. Trauma And Recovery In Art Essay! Cp THISBE. pb lJP, pi. nnb M?: Aevm [dekath]; decima. 1 Probably the Tarlusa of the Talmud (Neub. Geogr. 268).
2 Konig (Exp. T 12:38 ) explains the ' [Y] in model the Gileadite place-name ajj-n [ThshBY] as a radical (/ 3B f [root ShBY]) 3 A om. in 1 K. 17:1, BAL om. In Art! 1 K. 21:28 ; LXX has eerj8(e)iTr [thesb(e)ites] also in 1 K. Text About House! 18:27 [BAL], 18:29 [L] Mal. 4:4 [3:23] [BXAQr[gamma]].
4 The tithe in relation to other sacred dues is discussed elsewhere (see TAXATION; see esp. 9+), to which the present article is Trauma, supplementary). The tenth, as a rate of taxation, secular or religious, is found among many ancient peoples. See Ryssel, PRE (2) 17:428-429, and for the Greeks, Pauly-Wissowa, Real-Encycl. 4:2423-2424; Romans, id., 2306+; Carthaginians, Diod. Sic. 20:14 ; Justin, 18:7 ; Egyptians, Maspero, Struggle of Nations, 312 (spoil of war, tribute, etc., to social cognition, Amon); Syrians, 1 Macc.
10:31, 11:35 ; Sabaeans, Plin. NH 12:63; Lydians, Herod. Trauma! 1:89; Nic. Damasc. Approach To Learning! frg. 24 (FHG 8:371); Babylonians, Jastrow, Religion of Babylonia and Assyria, 668 ; Chinese, Legge, Chinese Classics, 1:119, etc. The oldest use of the word seems to have been secular, designating a tax or tribute in kind levied by a ruler from a subject or vassal people, or from his own countrymen. The obligatory offerings to the gods were cnrapxai [haparchai], primitiae, Heb. reshith, bikkurim. When these offerings came to Trauma and Recovery in Art, be regarded as a tribute due to the deity as the ruler or the proprietor of the land, the and feminism, name tithes was applied to them also. Essay! The dedication of cognitive to learning, a tithe of the Trauma and Recovery in Art, spoils of war, an marx and feminism early and wide spread custom, may have contributed to this extension of the use of the term.
The 'tenth', doubtless, originally roughly expressed the proportion exacted; and in later times also, for example in Sicily under Roman rule ( Pauly-Wissowa, 4:2307+), was the actual rate of taxation ; but frequently the notion of tax or tribute predominated, so that the term tithe might be used in cases where the rate was different - as in Moslem law the 'tithe' is Trauma and Recovery in Art Essay, sometimes 1/20 or 1/40 - or where there was no fixed percent. Thus in the religious sphere dirapxal [haparchai] and deKarat [dekatai] are often synonymous: so, e.g., in Dion. Halic. 1:23-24, cp SeKarevcris [dekateusis], ib. 24, for the payment of a vow of firstlings ; so Philo calls the tithe which was to be paid the priests out of the Levites' tithe, dTrapxijs a.ira.px.n [haparches haparche] (De mutat. nom. 1:607, Mangey). Similarly in the OT : to exact a tithe from the grain-fields, vineyards, and flocks is a royal prerogative (1 S. Hamlet 4 Analysis! 8:15, 8:17). The oldest laws prescribe that the aparchae (reshith) of the first fruits of the land shall be brought to the house of Yahwe (Ex.
34:26, cp Dt. 18:4, 26:2, Ezek. 44:30). The term 'tithe' was in use, however, in the northern kingdom in the eighth century for and Recovery, religious dues (Am. 4:4, cp Gen. 28;22, E).
In Dt. the word occurs repeatedly (12:6, 12:11, 12:17, 14:22+, 14:28-29, 26:12+); the tithe of text house, grain and wine and oil is to be brought to Jerusalem and - as in Amos - used for a feast ; in the third year, however, a tithe is to be reserved for charity (see TAXATION, 9-10). Together with the tithes Dt. 12:6, 12:11, 12:17 names the terumah (terumath yadka ; EV 'heave offering'; more accurately 'reserved portion'), by which it is commonly thought that the first fruits are intended (see Dillm. in loc. ), but this is doubtful ; more probably the terms are to be taken as synonymous ; cp Nu. 18:24. In Ezekiel we find reshith and terumah (20:40), which are assigned to the priests for their support (44:30); but no mention of tithes. There is nothing on the subject of tithing in H. It seems probable, therefore, that the in Art, name 'tithe' was employed at some sanctuaries in marx the period of the Essay, kingdoms, while elsewhere other names were in use.
It is not improbable, moreover, that the nature and quantity of the obligatory offerings, and the use made of them, differed at different places as well as times. When the fragmentary remains of old sacred laws were brought together with later rules (P) in one code, these various terms were treated as so many different dues, and combined in one system of religious taxation. The critic, on the other hand, sometimes falls into social model the hardly less serious error of assuming that all the laws lie in one serial development. 1 Ex. 23:19 is brought over by a redactor from 34:26. Until the aparchae were offered to God, the crop might not be used by men in any way (see, e.g. , Lev. 23:14). The presentation was the natural occasion of a feast at the holy place.
This is the use of the tithe in Dt. Trauma Essay! (12:6, 14:23). The portion dedicated to the deity may at social cognition model some time have been actually consumed upon the altar ; or, as in the case of the voluntary minhah, a representative part may have been thus consumed ; but in the rituals we possess the offering is symbolical (cp the wave sheaf and the two loaves, Lev. 23:9+, 23:15+) , God ceded his share to the priest (Nu. 18:11). At the feast given by the offerer the priest had a place by custom ; and thus from early times the and Recovery in Art Essay, offerings of first-fruits or tithes indirectly contributed to the support of the clergy.
The poor, also, shared in the feasts by a religious guest-right. The deuteronomic reformers foresaw that the text, suppression of the village high-places would deprive both the country priests and the poor of the community of no small part of their living. They provided, therefore, that every third year the Trauma Essay, land-owner, instead of cognitive to learning, taking his tithe to Jerusalem, should set it aside for charity at his own home. And Recovery Essay! Here, again, it is not improbable that they found a precedent in earlier custom ; there are many examples, e.g. - among the Arabs - of sacrifices left wholly to the poor, this being a work of superior piety. The new model of Ezekiel provides for the support of public worship, including the feasts at the great seasons, by the prince, out of the proceeds of a general tax (terumah, 45:13+) at a fixed rate. Inception Of The After Essay! The old reshith bikkurim and Trauma and Recovery in Art Essay terumah, are all assigned to the priests for their support (44:30). Ezekiel s programme was never put into operation, but in the Persian period the tithe seems to have been converted to the use of the temple (Mal.
3:8-10). Some such provision must have proved necessary, not only for the support of the priests but also for the maintenance of public worship. In P all sacred dues, under whatever name, go to the support of the ministry (Nu. Marx! 18:8-20); the 'tithe' is specifically the portion of the Levites (vv. 21-24) ; of it they in turn make over a tithe to the priests (vv.
25-32). See NUMBERS, 11. According to Neh. 10:37+ (Chronicler), the plan was for the Levites to collect their tithe in all the cities and villages, under the supervision of Trauma in Art Essay, a priest, and then deliver the tithe of the social cognition, tithes into in Art the storehouse in the tern pie for the priests. There is complaint, however, that the tithes were not paid, so that the Levites had to support themselves (Neh.
13:10+). It is impossible to say whether this system was ever actually worked. It is and feminism, often inferred that Neh. 10:37+ represents the practice of the Chronicler's own time; but it is Trauma and Recovery Essay, quite as likely that it is social, one of the many pia desideria which he projects into his 'history as it ought to have been'. The fortunes of the Levites in these centuries are involved in dense obscurity (see LEVITES, 7). Trauma! What is certain is that at the beginning of the Christian era the tithes were collected by the priests for themselves (Jos. Vita, 12, 15; Ant. 20:8:8, 20:9:2). This departure from the law is recognised in the Talmud : Ezra took the tithe away from the Levites because so few of them were willing to return to Palestine (Kethuboth, 26a ; Yebamoth, 86a-b ; Hullin, 131b, etc.). The deuteronomic laws name grain, wine, and oil as subject to tithe (12:17, cp 14:22, Nu.
18:27); Lev. 27:30 is more general: 'all the tithe of the soil, whether of the of the Essay, seed of the ground or the fruit of the tree, is Yahwe's. The general rule of the Mishna is: 'Everything that is eaten and is watched over and grows out in Art Essay of the model, ground is liable to tithe' (M. Ma'aseroth, 1:1). The scrupulosity of the Pharisees in matter of garden herbs - 'mint', 'anise', and 'cummin' - is commented on Trauma and Recovery, in the NT (Mt. 23:23 Lk. 11:42); the Mishna and the Palestinian Talmud go into minute details and discussions of what should be tithed, and when, and how. The tithe of agricultural products paid to the Levites or to the priests, is called by the Jewish writers on the law the 'first tithe'. Lev. 27:32-33 puts by the side of the tithe of seed crops and fruit (vv. 30-31) a tithe of animals of the flock or herd ; every tenth one, as the flock is counted, shall belong to descriptive text, Yahwe.
The complete parallel between vv. 30-31 and vv. 32-33 naturally suggests two inferences : first, that it is the increase of the year that is to be tithed (so M. Bekoroth, 9:3+, etc.); and, second, that the tithe of cattle, like that of the fruits of the earth, was to go to the priests. Trauma Essay! This is the view of Philo (De praaemiis sacerdot. 2, 2:234, Mangey ; De carit. 10, 2:391) ; so also Tob. 16 (cod.
X [aleph]) and - what seems not to have been noted - Jubilees, 32:15 (on Gen. 28:22) : 'all tithes of neat cattle and sheep shall be holy to God and belong to his priests, who eat them year by year before him'. On the other hand, the legal authorities unanimously take the and feminism, whole passage, Lev. 27:30-33, to refer to the 'second tithe'; the animals were sacrificed by their owners as thank offerings (todah), or as 'joyous peace offerings' (shalme shimhah at the feasts. 1 Modern critics generally assume that the Trauma and Recovery, chapter is a late supplement to the 'Priests Code', and that the tithe is therefore to be understood in accordance with Nu.
18:21+ But if, as is After, more probable, it be a supplement to a body of law which included Dt. , the Trauma and Recovery in Art Essay, rabbinical interpretation is approach to learning, equally possible (cp vv. Essay! 9-15). There can be no doubt that the Mishna and approach Siphre represent in this particular the practice of the first century. And it is and Recovery, not difficult to conceive that the claim of the priests to all the firstlings - once the accompaniment of the social cognition, tithe of corn and wine and and Recovery in Art oil (Dt. 126, etc. ) - made it necessary to make some other provision for the sacrificial feasts ; the tithe of cattle is a natural form for this provision to take.
It is, therefore, not so certain as has sometimes been thought, that Lev. 27:32-33 is the last monstrous demand of about house, a greedy priesthood or the and Recovery in Art, fiction of an imaginative scribe. 1 Siphre, Dt. 63: M. Hagigah, 1:4 ; M. Menahoth, 7:5, etc. See Schurer, GJV (3) 2:251 n. So also Maimonides, Rashi, and social cognition model the Mishna commentaries.
On the basis of the Pentateuch as a whole, the system included three tithes: the 'first tithe', a tax of one tenth of all edible vegetable products collected by Trauma and Recovery the ministry for its own support (Nu. 18:21-24) ; the 'second tithe', of the hamlet act 3 scene, same products, which, together with the Trauma Essay, cattle tithe (Lev. 27:32-33), furnished a feast for the owner and his guests at descriptive about Jerusalem (Dt. In Art! 14:22-27); and the 'poor tithe', set apart every third year for charity (Dt. 14:28-29, 26:12).
The last, in the original intention of the law probably only a particular use of the tithe every third year, was in later times made, at least by some, a 'third tithe' falling twice in every seven years, in the third and sixth years of the Sabbatical cycle (Tobit, 1:7-8; Jos. Ant. After! 4:8:22; Trg. Jer. Dt. Trauma And Recovery! 26:12-13); see Geiger, Urschrift, 176+; Schurer, GJV (3) 2;252.
Spencer, De legibus ritualibus, lib. 3, diss. 1, cap. 10 ; Selden, History of Tithes; Reland, Antiquitates sacrae, lib. 3, cap.
9, reprinted with extensive notes by the editor in Ugolini Thesaurus, 2:1031+; J. C. Hottinger, De decimis Hebraeorum, also in Ugolini Thesaurus, 20:283-490 (valuable for social cognition, its Rabbinical erudition); Riehm, HIVR, art. 'Zehnten'; Ryssel, 'Zehnten bei den Hebraern', PREP) 17:428+, lit. ib. 17:444); A. S. Peake, 'Tithe' in Hastings' DB 4:780+; W. R. Smith, Rel. Sem. (2) 244+; Nowack and Benzinger, HA ; Schurer, GJV (3) 250+ i. |VV. tsiyyun, 2 K. 23:17 RV 'monument'. See MASSEBAH, 1 (e) 2. rtrXos [titlos], Jn. And Recovery In Art! 19:19-20. See CROSS, 4.
(TITOC : on the accentuation see Winer-Schmiedel Gramm. Act 3 Scene 4 Analysis! Th. i., 6:2) is the name of a rather enigmatic minor figure in the apostolic age, who is known almost entirely from and Recovery Essay, Paul's allusions to him (in Gal. and 2 Cor. ) as a friend and text house trusty lieutenant. He is not associated with Paul in the address of any extant epistle, and Trauma and Recovery in Art Essay nothing is known of his birthplace, age, or nationality, except that he was a pagan by birth (EXX?/!/ uv [hellen oon]) and apparently a native of Asia Minor (cp Gal. 2:1-5). Later tradition (Tit. Inception After Essay! 1;4) may be correct in hinting that he was brought over to Christianity by Paul himself.
At any rate he appears at Trauma in Art an early stage of the apostle's public career (possibly in 49 A.D. Inception Essay! ; cp CHRONOLOGY, 74, PAUL, 16) as a private individual who accompanied Paul and Barnabas (cp Acts 15:2) at the former's request upon Trauma in Art, their visit to Jerusalem, evidently to act 3, represent the Trauma in Art Essay, success of the Pauline gospel outside Judaism. The burning question at the conference of Jerusalem was the value and social validity of Christian faith if unsupplemented by circumcision, and Trauma (as Paul had foreseen) the case of Titus inevitably came up for discussion. Whether it was made a test case or not, it led to bitter feeling between the conservative party and their challengers. Paul and Barnabas, however, stood their ground against the orthodox centre and repudiated any compromise involving their companion; 'not even Titus', says Paul triumphantly, 'was obliged to get circumcised' - much less (as the Judaising Christians appear to have insisted) Gentile Christians in general, who were not (like Titus) in direct daily touch with a circumcised Christian. Nothing is said of romeo and juliet, what Titus himself thought and felt.
His attitude is passive. The natural inference, however, is that he left himself in Paul's hands, sharing, or at least sympathising, with that 'inward impulse' of Paul's spiritual nature, which 'went straight to the results of its principles . . . and thus carried him past a form of Christianity which was simply another form of Judaism' (Baur). Cp COUNCIL OF JERUSALEM. 4, 7. The textual problem raised by the omission of o! ovSe [ois oude] (Gal. 2:5) in some western MSS is not serious (cp Lightf. Gal. 121-123, and Trauma in Art Essay Klostermann's Probleme im Apostel-texte , 54-55); besides, even were the external evidence more considerable, the internal probabilities of the case put the matter beyond doubt, ihe curious silence of Acts upon this notorious controversy (ACTS, 4) is due to the irenical tendency of the author or of the sources which he edited at this point of social cognition, his story. Even if he did not know the Pauline Epistles, Titus must have been familiar to Trauma Essay, him, as familiar at any rate as several of the minor figures who flit across his pages. To Learning! But by the time he wrote, the circumcision-question was obsolete, and Trauma Essay he probably deemed it prudent to pass by allusions which might revive unpleasant memories better left unstirred.
Some such explanation is distinctly preferable to Ramsay's hypothesis that the Antiochian Luke omitted the name of Titus because he was his relative (St. Marx! Paul, 389-390). Further, the and Recovery, disinclination to report so discreditable and modern unedifying an in Art episode as that of the local dispute at Corinth naturally led to the omission of any later reference to Titus, who thus had the misfortune to be sacrificed to the special aims and interests of the first historian of the approach, early church. Three or four years elapse before Titus reappears, in connection with the Corinthian church. 1 His lack of and Recovery in Art Essay, circumcision would naturally prevent him from being a suitable companion during Paul's second tour (49-52 A.D.) which embraced as a rule - for so much is descriptive text about, visible even under the religious pragmatism of Acts - an initial attempt upon Trauma in Art Essay, the synagogues in almost every city. But, since Titus is found at Paul's disposal in Ephesus, it is possible that the apostle took him from Antioch, after the dispute with Peter (Gal. 2:11-21), upon his third tour through Galatia and the Phrygian highlands as far as the and juliet movies, Asiatic metropolis - a 'carefully planned stroke of Trauma in Art, policy', according to Ramsay, which effectually answered the unfair deductions drawn by Judaisers in marx favour of Judaic Christianity from Timothy s circumcision previous to his promotion. Be that as it may, the keenest interest shown by and Recovery Essay Titus was in the Achaian Christians, an interest only equalled by that of Paul himself (2 Cor. 8:16), who stamped him as 'my comrade and fellow-worker in your interest' (2 Cor. 8:23), my brother' (2 Cor. 2:13), and a colleague actuated by the same high motives (2 Cor.
12:18) - an estimate borne out by and juliet modern the record of and Recovery Essay, what transpired during the Corinthian episode, where Titus proved himself a prudent, active, and reliable commissioner of Paul. Cognitive! His connection with the Achaian Christians appears to have begun upon the occasion of in Art Essay, a visit paid either at the despatch of i Cor. (which he may have carried, as one of social cognition model, 'the brothers' : 1 Cor. 16:11; cp 2 Cor. 12:18) or shortly afterwards, when he set on and Recovery in Art Essay, foot arrangements for a local contribution to the great collection (cp Rendall, Expos. (4) 8:321-336, and E. Lombard, Rev. d. Theol. el Philos. Marx And Feminism! , 1902, p. 113-114) on behalf of the Judaean Christians which Paul was negotiating throughout the in Art, Gentile churches, partly as a timely act of charity, partly as a tangible evidence of sympathy between the two branches of the church, and partly to show his own belief and interest in their unity. Social Cognition! Acquainted with the instructions already given by Paul to the Galatians in this matter of the Trauma and Recovery Essay, Xoyia [logia] (1 Cor.
16:1), Titus was well adapted 2 for this financial work, which began in the year previous to that in which 2 Cor. 8:10, 9:2 were written. 1 On the movements of Titus and Timothy at this period see especially and scene 4 analysis variously Lightfoot (Bibl. Essays, 273-274), Schmiedel (HC 2:1:82-86, 2:1:267-269), Heinrici (Der zweite Brief an die Kor. [Meyer, 1900], 46-51), and A. Trauma And Recovery! Robertson (Hastings ' DB 1:492-497). The scantiness of the available data renders any outline rather hypothetical at more than one point; upon cognition, the whole the most satisfactory view of the episode in general and of its extant literary evidence seems to lie somewhere among those which are based upon an acceptance of 2 Cor. 10-13 as the 'intermediate letter' (literature in Moffatt's Hist. New Testament (2) 1901, p. 174-175). 2 In describing the collection of temple tribute among the Jews, a custom which no doubt suggested to in Art, Paul the idea or at least the form of this collection, Philo notices the periodical assignment of the funds in each district 'to men of good standing whose duty it is to convey them to Jerusalem. For this purpose it is always men of the highest rank who are chosen, as a kind of social cognition, guarantee that what forms the hope of every Israelite may reach the Holy City untampered with' (De monarchia, 3, cited by Schur. Hist.
2:2:289). Evidence for such collections in Egypt is displayed by Wilcken, Griech. Ostraka (1899), 1:253-254, 6:15-16, See DISPERSION, 16, and Trauma in Art Harnack s Ausbreitung, 133-135. As the context implies (2 Cor. 12:15-17), 2 Cor. 12:17-18 (eweove icTTjcra [epleonektesa]) refers to the collection ; neither in person, nor by my agents (Paul retorts), did I overreach you. In view of marx and feminism, this it seems inadequate to deny (with Zahn, Einl. 1:244-245) that the collection is the topic of 2 Cor. Trauma In Art! 8:6.
As Titus had previously made a beginning (n-poei^pf arc [proenerxato]) with this bounty, so (Paul urges) let him complete it now in addition to (eai [kai]) the other local tasks - such as that of acting for Paul during the estrangement - which, as 2 Cor. Romeo And Juliet Modern! 1-9 implies, he had brought to a happy issue. Then and Essay there he won the esteem of the Corinthians. Along with some other agent, he supported himself as Paul had done, thereby putting his disinterested zeal beyond suspicion ; as Paul s language indicates (2 Cor. 12:18), he was evidently the last man in the world whom the cognition, Corinthians would have dreamed of accusing (cp J. H. Kennedy, The Second and Third Epistles of and Recovery in Art, Paul to the Corinthians, 1900, p. 4 Analysis! 119). The business of the and Recovery in Art, collection prospered famously (2 Cor.
9:1-2). But it was rudely interrupted by the painful, discreditable, and contemptible affair which led to a rupture beween Paul and social the Corinthian church. In Art Essay! At this outbreak of bad feeling Titus in all likelihood returned to Ephesus, although this is one of several details which are far from luminous or coherent. It is possible that he contented himself with simply reporting the crisis. At any rate, he seems to have borne somewhat later to Corinth from Ephesus the vehement, severe letter (preserved in whole or part in 2 Cor. 10-13:10) which Paul precipitately wrote with caustic and passionate indignation, his aim being to test their loyalty and bring them to their senses (2 Cor. 2:13, 7:6-7, 7:13-14). The misgivings and apprehensions 1 of Titus on this errand proved happily unfounded. He was received and obeyed heartily by the majority, and eventually found himself able to rejoin Paul with good news of the Corinthians repentance and affection. Some delay occurred, however, and marx meantime the outbreak at Ephesus (PAUL, 25) had driven the apostle to Trauma and Recovery in Art Essay, Troas.
Dismayed to hear at Corinth of the grief produced by romeo modern his sharp letter (2 Cor. 7:8), he felt driven by Trauma and Recovery in Art restless eagerness for further news across to Macedonia. There at model last he met his friend returning by land, and in an access of delight and relief at his favourable report composed 2 Cor. 1:1-9, 13:11-13, which he concludes by planning to Trauma and Recovery in Art Essay, have the collection resumed and social completed under charge of Titus accompanied by two anonymous but able subordinates. The former was not only in Art, willing but eager to return to Corinth (2 Cor. Of The After Essay! 8:16, 8:23), so satisfied had he been with his recent experience of the church's temper (2 Cor. 7:6-7, 7:13-15). Thus Titus disappears from the scene. He probably returned with the letter to Corinth and reorganised the Trauma in Art Essay, Xoyia [logia] or voluntary assessment throughout Achaia.
For although no Corinthian deputies are mentioned among those named in Acts 20:4, it is evident from Rom. Approach To Learning! 15:26 that the long-promised liberality of the Corinthians (2 Cor. 9:5) had not been withheld, and that the financial labours of Titus (2 Cor. 8:6, 9:2) were crowned with success. Curiously enough, among the virtues of the Corinthian church celebrated some forty years later, liberality (ijdiov didovres f) Xo,ufidvovTfs [edion didontes e lambanontes]) is and Recovery Essay, reckoned as one of its leading and traditional characteristics (Clem. Social Model! Rom. 1:1, 2:1). 1 As a personal friend of Trauma and Recovery in Art, Paul and as a Gentile Christian over whom an acrimonious feud had been already waged (Gal. 2:3), Titus cannot have felt comfortable at the prospect of confronting the Jewish Christian intriguers who were busy at Corinth.
Probably it was dislike of them, if not their active malice, that had driven him away. Hamlet Act 3 4 Analysis! At the same time his diplomatic qualities, no less than his organising capacity, made him evidently a more capable man than Timothy to Trauma and Recovery Essay, deal with a difficult situation of this kind, and Paul's generous confidence in the sterling qualities of the Corinthian church (2 Cor. 7:14), as well as his sagicity in the choice of a new envoy, must have been amply justified by events. The genuine fragment incorporated in Tit. 3:12-13 (cp CHRONOLOGY, 68-69, TIMOTHY AND TITUS [EPISTLES], 13) probably belongs to the period after the After Life, composition of 2 Cor. 1-9, written either from Macedonia (see NICOPOLIS, 3) when Paul was on his way to Corinth or on his way back (Acts 20:3). How the connection with Crete arose, and whether Titus managed to rejoin him or not, it is impossible to say. The only light thrown upon his subsequent movements is afforded by a remark two years later in a genuine Pauline fragment preserved in 2 Tim. 4:10, from which it appears that Titus, who must have turned up during Paul's captivity in Rome, had left (on a mission?) for DALMATIA (q.v.).
The trustworthiness of this notice need not be doubted, although the phrase 'this present world' (T OV vvv aiiava. [ton nyn aioona], cp 1 Tim. 6:) is un-Pauline. Trauma! Nor is a substantial basis to be denied to the tradition (reflected in Tit. 1:5) that links Cretan Christianity to Titus at any rate (whatever may be thought of the allusion to Paul), although the tendency and object of the sub-Pauline author is naturally to hamlet act 3, suggest that the and Recovery in Art Essay, anarchic condition of the local Christians 'was one considerable cause of the evidently low moral condition to which they had sunk' (Hort, Christian Ecclesia, 176), and of the characteristically to Trauma in Art, lay stress upon romeo and juliet modern, organisation as a safeguard. Titus has been occasionally, but unconvincingly, regarded as the author of the 'We-journal' in Acts (ACTS, 9b) - e.g., by Krenkel, Kneucker, Seufert, Jacobsen, O. Holtzmann (ZWT, 1889, p. In Art! 409), and Bartlet (Apost. Cognitive To Learning! Age, 69, 100 ). And Recovery! But all that the curious silence of Acts enables us to cognition model, adduce in Trauma favour of such a conjecture is the wholly inadequate fact that Titus was a companion of Paul, possibly - though only possibly - during part of the time covered by the diary in question. Besides, it is significant that no writing, canonical or extra-canonical, is assigned to him in tradition, which is content to elaborate his connection with Crete and - by a strange shift of fortune, after the Venetian regime - with Venice. The meagre allusion to Crete which happens to occur in the Epistle to Titus, may quite well rest upon a nucleus of historical fact ; but the luxuriant fancy of Life Essay, later generations proceeded among other developments to make him the first bishop appointed by in Art Essay Paul over Crete (Ap. Const.
7:46, Euseb. Marx! HE 34, Theod., Theophylact, Jerome, etc.), dying indeed at Candia, as archbishop of Gortyna, in his ninety-fourth year (Fabric. Cod. Apocr. NT 2:831-832). Essay! Cp Tozer, Islands of the Aegean, 65-66.
In the Roman legends of the gnostic Trpcif ei5 II av Aou [praxeis paulou], Titus is connected with Paul, and plays along with Luke a role in the Passio sancti Pauli Apostoli and Martyrium Pauli, 114-117 (cp Lips. Acta Apost. Apocryph., 1891, 123-44). Like Timothy he is of course reckoned among the seventy disciples by Chron. Pasch.
420 (ed. Bonn), and, according to Acta Pauli et Theclae, 2-3, he gives information regarding Paul to modern movies, Onesiphorus at Iconium. In Art Essay! One of the epistles of the pseudo-Dionysius Areopagita is addressed to Titus as bishop of Crete. The rather slight contents of the Acta Titi (see Lips. Apocr. Ap.-gesch.
3;401-406) are as legendary as the panegyric on Titus pronounced by Andreas of Crete (ed. Paris, 1644). Like Timothy, Titus also has had some ado to preserve his individuality. Approach! But it seems needless to do more than chronicle even the attempts made to identify him (see Wieseler) with the Titius (TtVov [titou] [XE]) Justus of Acts 18:7 or with Silas (Silvanus) ; against the latter as advocated especially by Zimmer, see the conclusive statement of Julicher, JPT, 1882, pp. 528-552 [, also SILAS, 5-6]. See TIMOTHY AND TITUS (EPISTLES).
(TITIOC loycroc [Ti. WH]), Acts 18:7 RV, AV JUSTUS (q.v., ii.). RV Titus Manius (TITOC MANIOC). 2 Macc. 11:34 . Trauma And Recovery In Art Essay! See MANLIUS. rynri; o leAcei [BN], o ecoc^ei [A], o [L] ; ThosaitesVg. , all presupposing the form 'yijnn [HThVTsY]; a gentilic attached to the name JOHA (1 Ch. Marx! 11:45). David's warriors were presumably, like himself, [not] from the in Art Essay, Negeb. Shimri, the approach to learning, name of Joha's father, also favours this. If TIRZAH (q.v.) was really a place in in Art the Negeb, we might suppose corruption from -ni^n a Tirzathite. (niPl), 1 Ch.
6:34 [6:19]; in 1 S. 1:1, TOHU. (3112 ; rcoB [BAL]), a region in which Jephthah 'the Gileadite' took refuge (Judg. 11:3, 11:5), and whence the Ammonites obtained allies in their war against social cognition model, David (2 S. 10:68, RV ; cp ISH-TOB). Sayce plausibly identifies it with Tubi, a place conquered by Thotmes III., and mentioned a little before Astiratu - i.e.. Tell Ashtera (RP(2) 545 ; cp Maspero, AZ, 1881, p. 124). This does not, however, suit the original story which underlies Judg. 11:1-33 (see JEPHTHAH); a district of Hauran is not to be expected here. Tubihi is much more appropriate (see TIRHATH) ; this very ancient city was probably in the Lebanon district, NW. of Damascus. The identification also suits the mention of Trauma, Tob in 2 S. 10:68 in connection with ZOBAH (q.v. ). The same region may be meant by the land of TUBIAS (AV TOBIE; LXX Toi /Stoi [toubiou] ) in hamlet 4 analysis 1 Macc.
5:13, the people of which appear to be called TUBIENI (2 Macc. 12:17 ; see CHARACA) - i.e., the Trauma, men of Tub or Tob. These identifications, however, only suit a fairly conservative view of the MT. 4 Analysis! If the Gilead originally meant in Judg. 11 and in 1 Macc. 5 be a southern Gilead in the Negeb, and if the Zoba originally meant in 2 S. 10 be Zarephath in the Negeb, we must consider whether 3f0 may not be a mutilated form of Trauma Essay, ^am (see TUBAL). The n in the Gk. and Syr. forms (roujSeicov? [toubeinous] [A], Tov/3iacous [toubianous] [V], jkl*2aJ) is clearly not radical. Cognitive Approach! See GASm. HG 587, n. In Art Essay! 5, who agrees, it may be added, with Conder (Heth and Moab, 176) in identifying Tob with mod. et-Tayyibeh, NE. of Pella.
(Pl3n* 3iO; TU)B6.AcoBei [toobadoobeia] [B], -A IONIA [doonia], [AL]), a Levite temp. Jehoshaphat (2 Ch. 17:8). Note that Pesh. omits the name and that of the preceding Adonijah and Tobijah ; LXX omits the second. If not a corruption (e.g. Cognitive Approach! , for ITHDJ? [ABDYH = Abdiah] or DIN naj;[ABD 'DM] - y [ayin] and 13 [taw] are very similar in Samaritan script) the name should probably be omitted ; a scribe may have begun to rewrite irraia [TVBYHV = tobijah] and then invented the most suitable name he could think of. [But cp Crit. Bib., ad loc. (rVTlD), Ezra 2:60; see TOBIJAH, 2. 1. And Recovery Essay! The son of TOBIT (q.v.). 2. The father of HYRCANUS (q.v.). (royBiOY [ A ^ v ]).
1 Macc. 5:13 AV, RV TUBIAS. See TOB. ,
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a103 essay Digital Outback Photo - Photography using Digital SLRs. Reader's Workflow Session: Editing with LightZone. essay by Ed Wolpov (notes and Trauma in Art editing by Uwe Steinmueller) image Bettina + Uwe Steinmueller. Manage the Digital Workflow. Note by Uwe Steinmueller (Editor): Ed Wolpov sent in an entry for our RAW contest #21 LightZone contest #1 . Scene? Even if all our readers can see all editing steps that were performed by Ed it seemed to be nice to also understand the motivation for all editing operations. Trauma In Art Essay? We thank Ed Wolpov a lot that he wrote down his personal ideas while editing this picture (the picture is movies Bettina + Uwe Steinmueller). Trauma In Art Essay? The rest of the text is by Ed Wolpov. I'm always amazed at the ease and infinite variety of social cognition model, intuitive options I have at Trauma and Recovery in Art my disposal when I modify photos in about house, LightZone.
Instead of in Art Essay, trying to decipher numbers, curves, levels, and histograms as I would in Photoshop, LightZone allows me to work in a more visual, natural-feeling environment much like I did in the darkroom. Before beginning a project, I take a few moments to look over the original image and plan out a course of action. In the original photo I see a number of things that appeal to cognitive approach to learning my aesthetic senses. There's the foreground foliage, the two large buildings, the near mountain range, the receding mountains, and Trauma and Recovery Essay the clouds/haze. All of these areas can easily be worked on independently if I wish, but what I actually do is the result of an iterative process#8230; things will develop as the image takes shape. I often start by applying a mid-tone contrast enhancement layer. I do this by adding a Sharpness layer across the entire image (re-labeled as Midtone Contrast). By setting the Amount to a value of 20 and the Radius to 50, the marx and feminism, depth of the lower mid-tones is increased without actually affecting the sharpness.
This technique works equally as well in and Recovery in Art Essay, Photoshop through the use of the Unsharp Mask filter. The values given above are just a starting point, so feel free to to learning experiment#8230; just remember that the relatively large Radius amount is what makes this technique work. Trauma And Recovery? You'll note that this technique has no effect on the upper mid-tones or highlights. My second layer is almost always an adjustment to the shadows. By adding a ZoneMapper layer (I call it, Shadow Adjustment) and running the cursor through the lower zones of the step-wedge, the ZoneFinder's yellow highlight shows the first area representing the lowest (darkest) zone. I then move to movies the next lower zone in the ZoneMapper and pull it down to the bottom. This brings the in Art, lowest zone to the bottom of the scale and spreads out the remaining tones above it. Looking at the results in the image window, I see an increase in depth to the entire photo. Region used for ZoneMapper. I've pretty much got my foundation looking the way I envisioned; now I can concentrate on the mid-tones and highlights.
In this case I'll add another ZoneMapper (Mid-Highlight Balance) and adjust the mid-tones and highlights by pulling down various zones to help balance the near mountain range, the receding mountains, and the clouds/haze. In order to affect only the upper portion of the Inception Life Essay, photo to confine my adjustments, I first set a Region with a moderately wide feather around the area of interest. Satisfied with the way things are progressing, it looks like I can finish up by adding a Sharpen layer across the Essay, entire photo. And Juliet Movies? My settings are an Amount of in Art, 121 with a Radius of 1.8. This gives me a modest amount of sharpening without going overboard. Done. And Juliet? Well, not quite. Spending a little time looking at the final image, I ask myself if there's anything I can do to improve the feel or mood of the shot. Maybe a little more saturation and a bit more luminosity would do it some justice, so I add a Hue/Saturation layer and Trauma Essay pump things up until it looks right. Okay, just one more tweak, the color is just a little too warm for me. Hamlet 4 Analysis? The whites are not cool enough, and the distant mountains could be bluer.
I add a White Balance layer and adjust the temperature until I feel comfortable with the overall color. That's it, much better! Back in the days of yore, when I spent my weekends in Essay, the darkroom (remember the darkroom?), I would often do a little edge burning or corner burning to a print in order to surreptitiously bring the descriptive, viewer's attention to the main theme of the photograph. To do this in Trauma in Art Essay, LightZone, I first add another ZoneMapper (and call it Darken Corners). Then all I have to do is cognition select an oval-shaped region over the entire image with the Region tool, invert my selection, and drag out the feather to smoothly blend the Trauma in Art, effect. By selecting the highest (lightest) zone and dragging it down slightly, I'm able to darken the corners. A little goes a long way; so I darken until it's just barely noticeable, then back off a bit.
Just when I thought this version would be my entry into Outback Photo's Contest #021, I realized that I'd probably have a better chance of being unique if the romeo movies, image was in black white. Back to the drawing board! In order to Trauma Essay accomplish my black white conversion, I use a technique of applying two layers; one Channel Mixer layer (I call it Black White Filter) and and feminism one Hue/Saturation layer (called Color of Filter/+ Grain). To use this technique, in the Channel Mixer, I set the red channel to Trauma and Recovery in Art a value of cognitive approach, 1.0 and the green and blue channels to 0.0. Now, in combination with the Hue/Saturation layer, as I change the Hue, it acts like a colored filter that allows me to swing through the entire spectrum of colors. By looking at the image and adjusting the hue, I was able to Trauma in Art Essay achieve the effect I wanted. Descriptive Text House? Pumping up the and Recovery in Art Essay, saturation increased the intensity of the filter effect and added a grainy look to the image.
This rendition of the photo was the one I used to enter into the contest. It was pointed out to me that there were a few areas of marx, pure white in my final image, so it's important to at least do a cursory check of the highlight values. In LightZone, I was able to look at the numeric values in the highlights by entering the Sampler (Command 2 on a Mac) and placing the cursor over and Recovery in Art, the suspected areas. Because the marx and feminism, highlights were at a value of 255, they would have printed as pure paper white. By adding a new ZoneMapper (Highlight Touch up) I was able to globally bring down this value to a more respectable 243. I did this by anchoring the and Recovery, second highlight from the cognition, top of the step-wedge and Trauma in Art slightly dragging down the very top zone until my measured value was 243. Although the steps necessary to accomplish the final photo seem complex, in actual practice it only took me about an hour to complete.
The beauty of using LightZone is the ease at which I can quickly make aesthetic judgments on the fly and see the results; much in the same way I would if I had been working on a print in the darkroom. It's a visual, almost tactile way of working!
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ACT/SAT Essay Prompts and Sample Essays with Comments Grades. ACT and SAT essays are scored on a scale of 1 to 6 (6 being the best) by at least two graders. The scores are then added together for a final composite score. If the scores of the graders differ by more than one point, then a third grader grades the essay, providing a score which is then doubled to compute the final composite score. The following are examples of ACT and SAT essays written by our students and the comments they received from Trauma and Recovery, our Expert On-Line Essay Graders.
All essays are graded according to the College Board and ACT essay scoring rubric. Review sample essays, critiques, and descriptive text house grades. As you read the Trauma and Recovery Essay passage below, consider how Paul Bogard uses evidence, such as facts or examples, to support claims; reasoning to develop ideas and to of the After connect claims and evidence; and stylistic or persuasive elements, such as word choice or appeals to emotion, to add power to the ideas expressed. Adapted from Paul Bogard, “Let There Be Dark.” ©2012 by Los Angeles Times. 1 At my family’s cabin on Trauma and Recovery Essay, a Minnesota lake, I knew woods so dark that my hands disappeared before my eyes. I knew night skies in which meteors left smoky trails across sugary spreads of stars. But now, when 8 of 10 children born in the United States will never know a sky dark enough for the Milky Way, I worry we are rapidly losing night’s natural darkness before realizing its worth. This winter solstice, as we cheer the social cognition model days’ gradual movement back toward light, let us also remember the irreplaceable value of darkness. 2 All life evolved to the steady rhythm of and Recovery in Art bright days and dark nights.
Today, though, when we feel the closeness of nightfall, we reach quickly for a light switch. Descriptive. And too little darkness, meaning too much artificial light at night, spells trouble for all. 3 Already the World Health Organization classifies working the night shift as a probable human carcinogen, and the American Medical Association has voiced its unanimous support for “light pollution reduction efforts and glare reduction efforts at both the national and state levels.” Our bodies need darkness to in Art Essay produce the hormone melatonin, which keeps certain cancers from developing, and our bodies need darkness for sleep. Sleep disorders have been linked to diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease and depression, and recent research suggests one main cause of “short sleep” is and feminism, “long light.” Whether we work at night or simply take our tablets, notebooks and smartphones to in Art Essay bed, there isn’t a place for this much artificial light in our lives. 4 The rest of the world depends on darkness as well, including nocturnal and crepuscular species of birds, insects, mammals, fish and reptiles. Some examples are well known—the 400 species of birds that migrate at night in North America, the sea turtles that come ashore to lay their eggs—and some are not, such as the bats that save American farmers billions in pest control and the moths that pollinate 80% of the hamlet world’s flora. Ecological light pollution is like the bulldozer of the night, wrecking habitat and Essay disrupting ecosystems several billion years in the making. Simply put, without darkness, Earth’s ecology would collapse. . Hamlet Scene. . . 5 In today’s crowded, louder, more fast-paced world, night’s darkness can provide solitude, quiet and stillness, qualities increasingly in short supply. Trauma And Recovery In Art. Every religious tradition has considered darkness invaluable for a soulful life, and Inception of the Life Essay the chance to witness the universe has inspired artists, philosophers and everyday stargazers since time began. In a world awash with electric light . . . howwould Van Gogh have given the Trauma Essay world his “Starry Night”? Who knows what this vision of the night sky might inspire in each of cognitive us, in our children or grandchildren?
6 Yet all over the world, our nights are growing brighter. In the United States and Western Europe, the amount of light in Trauma in Art Essay, the sky increases an scene 4 analysis, average of about 6% every year. Computer images of the United States at night, based on Essay, NASA photographs, show that what was a very dark country as recently as the 1950s is now nearly covered with a blanket of light. Much of this light is wasted energy, which means wasted dollars. Those of us over 35 are perhaps among the of the After Life last generation to have known truly dark nights. Even the northern lake where I was lucky to spend my summers has seen its darkness diminish. 7 It doesn’t have to be this way. Light pollution is readily within our ability to solve, using new lighting technologies and shielding existing lights. Already, many cities and towns across North America and Europe are changing to LED streetlights, which offer dramatic possibilities for controlling wasted light.
Other communities are finding success with simply turning off portions of their public lighting after midnight. Even Paris, the famed “city of light,” which already turns off its monument lighting after 1 a.m., will this summer start to require its shops, offices and public buildings to turn off lights after 2 a.m. Though primarily designed to save energy, such reductions in light will also go far in addressing light pollution. But we will never truly address the problem of light pollution until we become aware of the irreplaceable value and beauty of the darkness we are losing. Write an essay in in Art, which you explain how Paul Bogard builds an argument to descriptive house persuade his audience that natural darkness should be preserved. In your essay, analyze how Bogard uses one or more of the features listed in the box above (or features of your own choice) to strengthen the logic and persuasiveness of his argument. Be sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant features of the passage. Your essay should not explain whether you agree with Bogard’s claims, but rather explain how Bogard builds an Essay, argument to persuade his audience.
Paul Bogard’s “Let There Be Dark” employs a wide range of rhetorical techniques to craft one important message: humans must initiate efforts to preserve natural darkness before darkness’ extensive list of Inception benefits is permanently lost. Bogard’s argument is built upon in Art his appeal to marx the broad spectrum of benefits offered by and Recovery, natural darkness, including those pertaining to health, the environment, and the economy. Utilizing outside sources to back the validity of these benefits, Bogard completes his message with a tone of and feminism hope, imploring his audience to join him in his course. Bogard begins his argument with a personal anecdote to Essay juxtapose his personal experiences with the beauty of darkness against the modern trend of children never witnessing true natural darkness. His powerful image of text “woods so dark that [his] hands disappeared before [his] eyes” captivates his audience with a striking visual. Also, Bogard’s use of the statistic of “8 of 10 children… never know[ing] a sky dark enough for the milky way” reinforces the sense of Trauma and Recovery Essay urgency for preserving darkness that he builds through out the social cognition passage. After opening with his sensory story, Bogard pivots to assemble the bulk of and Recovery in Art Essay his argument, barraging the reader with examples of the benefits of darkness. Approach To Learning. His first piece of Essay evidence involves the health benefits of natural darkness, particularly its role in preventing cancer. After beginning his point by including the support of two highly reputable health organizations, the WHO and AMA, to provide a sense of validity to his argument, Bogard highlights the benefits of romeo and juliet modern movies darkness and a good night’s sleep. He then moves from the health of humans to Trauma and Recovery in Art Essay the health of nature and the natural environment. Appealing to a desire for ecological preservation, Bogard lists animals that depend on darkness, then explains the critical role these animals play in our lives, such as bats that assist in pest control and moths that polinate the world’s flowers.
The utilization of the simile relating light pollution to “the bulldozer of the night” encapsulates the destructiveness of Inception Essay light pollution that Bogard wishes to convey. Bogards next piece of and Recovery in Art evidence revolves around the economic benefits of darkness preservation. First using NASA as a source for backing the rate at which darkness is being lost, Bogard’s logic of excess light being “wasted energy, which means wasted dollars” provides the reader with a simple benefit of reducing light pollution: saving money. After stringing together his extensive range of benefits of preserving natural darkness, Bogard turns to the future, Including current efforts for preservation such as those in house, Paris. His final line completes his argument with his original appeal, that to the “beauty of the darkness”. Overall, Paul Bogard’s argument is carefully constructed, consisting of support from a wide range of sources, examples of the many benefits of darkness, and the interweaving of Trauma and Recovery in Art techniques such as similes to and juliet movies embellish his argument. Overall, this excellent essay displays that the writer did a very close reading of Bogard’s essay and understood the and Recovery in Art central ideas as well as the interrelation of ideas as Bogard builds his argument. The student discusses most of the persuasive and stylistic elements Bogard uses, with a few exceptions—paragraph 5 is never addressed, which addresses the more meditative, soulful aspects of darkness: for example, as a source of approach inspiration for art (Van Gogh’s “Starry Night”).
Although the use of a simile is noted, the almost magical language Bogard uses to describe a night sky (“meteors left smoky trails across sugars spreads of stars”) could have been explored in more depth. Finally, the student quotes fairly effectively from the text to support his claims. In terms of analysis, the two main weaknesses in this essay are the omission of the analysis of paragraph 5 from Bogard’s essay and the student’s lack of analysis in the second-to-last paragraph (beginning with “After stringing together…”) about why Bogard turns toward the future. It’s not enough just to say that the author “turns to Trauma in Art the future.” What is his purpose in cognitive to learning, doing so? What effect does that have on the reader? What emotion is he trying to tap in the reader? This second-to-last paragraph consists of just two sentences and basically paraphrases rather than analyzes.
This student displays an excellent command of Trauma and Recovery in Art Essay language and is very adept at and juliet modern movies guiding the reader through most of the Trauma and Recovery in Art salient points in Bogard’s essay. There is a precise central claim presented in the introduction and a fairly strong conclusion. There is a lot of sentence variety, and the student’s word choice and tone strike the right chord for hamlet act 3 a formal essay. Trauma And Recovery Essay. Transitional phrasing is used effectively between paragraphs and to bridge ideas. A few typos appear in romeo modern movies, the essay that don’t detract from meaning (e.g., in and Recovery, the first sentence, possessive form should be “darkness’s”; in paragraph 2, “throughout” is one word; in and feminism, paragraph 3, the correct spelling is “pollinate”; in the first sentence of paragraph 4, the possessive form is “Bogard’s”; in paragraph 5, “Including” should not be capitalized). In our modern day society we think of light polution as a side effect of living. However, Paul Bogard makes the compelling argument that light polution is and Recovery Essay, actually destroying our sleep. Approach To Learning. Bogard takes from NASA and other trusted organizations to prove his point, though not all of Bogards refrences are strickly based on information. Bogard tells stories of sleeping under starfilled skies during his childhood.
These nostalgic stories bring out emotion in readers, causing them to rethink their stances. Bogard uses facts, figures and emotions to build a touching and compelling argument against light polution in our society. The human body is not a machine that can function perfectly during both night and day. In the thrid paragraph of Paul Bogard’s essay “Let There Be Dark,” it is stated that the Trauma and Recovery lack of about house darkness can lead to cancer. “Our bodies need darkness to produce the in Art hormone melatonin, which keeps certain cancers from developing, and our bodies need darkness for sleep.” (3) Without darkness, the body cannot sleep. Some people have tried to work around that fundamental rule, but failed.
Bogart brings up the point that a lack of sleep can cause some sevear medical problems, such as: depression, diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Read big, threatening words like diabetes and depression are enough to snap any reader into attention. Marx And Feminism. fear always has, and always will be a great motivator for the human race. Bogard uses these threatening medical facts as a way to grab the Trauma reader’s attentions through their emotions. There is constant talk of how our society is ruining the of the After Essay world, and themselfs, through technological advancements. In the seventh paragraph of “Let There Be Dark” Paul Bogard mentions that light polution is not an unstoppable force. “Light Polution is readily within our ability to solve, using new lighting technologies and shielding existing lights.” (7) Bogard brings up his ideas on how to stop the light epidemic. Rarly do you find someone ready with well thoughtout ideas to solve the very problem they are complaining about. Bogart proves to his readers that he is and Recovery in Art, more that just a man with hatred rooted inside of and feminism him.
Instead, Paul Bogard is Trauma in Art Essay, a man who ready and willing to solve the social problems that lay before him. Bogard gains the trust of his readers, by showing them there is a way to fight the light epidemic. As more advancements are made by our society more problems arise as well. For the most part, technological advancements have made day to in Art Essay day life easier Though, our day to day lifes have also been filled with countless arguments of how we are ruining our planet. It can be hard for the average person to understand how technology is affecting our planet. Approach. Paul Bogard tries to explain to the public the new challenges we face, in a comprehensible way.
In the Trauma third paragraph of “Let There Be Dark”, Bogard explains how we keep ourselfs from sleep by spending too much time on technology. “Weathe we work at Inception of the After night or simply take our tablets, notebooks and smartphones to bed, there isn’t a place for this much artificial light in Trauma in Art Essay, our lives.” (3) Nowadays, almost everyone obtains some sort of “smart” device that they like to use before bed. Breaking down problems into everyday life is social, what makes them understandable to the public. Bogard is able to Trauma Essay connect with his audience by using everyday examples for his argument. Most members of the average public are not science or english majors. It is important to realise that when making an scene 4 analysis, argument, even everyday people should be able to understand. Paul Bogard perfects the idea of Trauma and Recovery in Art Essay crafting an hamlet scene, complex argument that is easy to understand. By making different thoughts and ideas more accesible, more people can join in on changing the world. This essay shows some understanding of the original text but lacks a strong thesis to and Recovery in Art really hook ideas onto. The writer starts off by saying the author’s argument is that “light pollution is destroying our sleep,” but, by the end, the student is social cognition model, down to “more people can join in on changing the Essay world,” which shows that he’s lost the thread of the movies argument in and Recovery Essay, an effort to use evidence from the text.
Although it has a few strong quotes, the explanations tend to drift into vagueness: “big, threatening words;” “Instead, Paul Bogard is a man who ready and willing to solve the problems that lay before him.” (this is an empty platitude and to learning says nothing about the text); “our day to day lifes have also been filled with countless arguments of how we are ruining our planet” (filler; off topic to the essay). And Recovery In Art. Additionally, the introduction gives an example of an to learning, emotional appeal to which the essay never returns. Trauma Essay. The writer should avoid giving examples in the introduction; he can list the types of techniques the author uses to do his job but should wait for the body for the examples. In terms of formatting, the student does not need to start a new paragraph before every quotation. Most of the very short introductory paragraphs can lead right into the quotes that follow without a paragraph break. And Feminism. Transitions between the paragraphs need some work; the essay jumps from one idea to Trauma the next. The essay could benefit from phrases like “in addition,” “another technique the author uses,” or “in the next few paragraphs of the passage.” “Pollution” is misspelled every time. Hamlet. A writer should be extra careful about correct spelling of words used in the prompt. “Themselfs” and and Recovery in Art Essay “ourselfs” should be “themselves” and romeo modern “ourselves.” The write should have left time at the end to read over his essay and check for minor errors. READING: 2, ANALYSIS: 2, WRITING: 3. critiques, and grades. Parental Expectations Based on Gender. For every 10 Google searches about boys being overweight (Is my son overweight?) there are 17 about girls (Is my daughter overweight?).
For every 10 Google searches about Trauma and Recovery in Art, daughters being gifted, (Is my daughter gifted?), there are 25 for boys (Is my son gifted?). This recent study of Internet search data suggests that parents may hold different expectations for social cognition their children based on gender; it appears that parents may be want their girls thinner and their boys smarter. The data on in Art Essay, the search is accurate, but is the approach explanation? Do parents hope for in Art Essay different things for their sons and daughters? Read and carefully consider these perspectives. Each suggests a particular way of thinking about parents' expectations of Inception of the After Life Essay their children. Even though parents are more worried more about their daughters being overweight than their sons, it doesn't mean they want less for their daughters. They just realize that kids can be crueler to girls than boys when it comes to in Art Essay weight.
Because teachers are more likely to recognize giftedness in girls than in boys, who can appear to be less studious in school, parents aren't searching about girls. Marx And Feminism. Boys are often underestimated in the classroom, so parents have to Trauma in Art Essay pick up the slack. As a whole, parents hold different standards for their kids based on gender, but it's not done consciously. Social Cognition Model. Since society places so much pressure on girls to be thin and boys to be smart, those stereotypes get absorbed without the parents knowing it. Write a unified, coherent essay in and Recovery in Art Essay, which you evaluate multiple perspectives on marx and feminism, parents' expectations for their children based on gender. In your essay, be sure to: analyze and evaluate the perspectives given state and develop your own perspective on the issue explain the relationship between your perspective and those given. Your perspective may be in full agreement with any of the others, in partial agreement, or wholly different. Trauma Essay. Whatever the case, support your ideas with logical reasoning and detailed, persuasive examples. You may wish to scene consider the following as you think critically about the task:
Strengths and weaknesses of the three given perspectives. What insights do they offer, and what do they fail to consider? Why might they be persuasive to others, or why might they fail to persuade? Your own knowledge, experience, and values. What is Trauma and Recovery Essay, your perspective on this issue, and what are its strengths and weaknesses? How will you support your perspective in your essay? Parents may expect things from their children, depending on their genders. Genders have become stereotyped and it leads people to have expectations for each one of them. Sometimes, parents expect these things so that their child could be happy, but it could make the descriptive text house child upset and feel unwanted.
Society can put so much pressure on a girl’s weight and Trauma in Art Essay a boy’s intelligence that parents start to hamlet 4 analysis take in these thoughts. The pressure and expectations on a girl’s weight differs from the pressure on boys. Parents only and Recovery in Art Essay expect girls to be thinner to cognitive avoid seeing their daughter get bullied. And Recovery Essay. Peers can be more harsh to fat girls than they can be to fat boys. Because of social model this, parents might force their daughters to excersize more or eat less.
These kind of treatments from society and parents could lead to anorexia or depression, even if the girl may not seem fat. I don’t think anyone should care about the weight of anyone. People should only and Recovery in Art pay attention to themselves. Having different expectations about weight, boys have another quality that concerns parents. Seeming less studious in class, parents underestimate their sons and push them to do better. Teachers can see intelligence in of the After, girls because of their behaviour in class. The stereotype that boys do not behave as well as girls in class leads teachers to think that boys do not seem very smart.
Parents could see this too, but they may not consider how the Trauma in Art teacher treats their students. I think people should not judge someone’s intelligence based on their behaviour. There are many people who are very smart, but they may also like to have a good time. Hamlet Act 3. Expecting one’s son to Essay do better in school could lead to stress and anxiety. It is the stereotypes and pressure from society and peers that adds to the expectations from parents.
Parents can absorb thoughts from others without realizing it. Their standards start to hurt the child because of what peers think. The child could develop depression, but the parent would not realize because they are too focused on the standards. Parents should take the time to talk to modern their child and figure out any problems the child faces. Parents tend to put pressure on their children because of the in Art Essay way society thinks of fat girls and boys who have low grades. Parents want girls to cognitive approach to learning be thin to in Art avoid having the girls hurt, but it only leads to more trouble. A boy’s intelligence is pushed by parents so much and it becomes a bigger problem. Cognition Model. These are because of the way one’s peers thinks, and the ideas start to be pushed into other people’s heads. IDEAS AND ANALYSIS: 3. Overall, this essay discusses the issues presented in a fairly simplistic way and does not analyze the and Recovery Essay issues in depth or put forth the writer’s own viewpoint in a cohesive way. Each perspective is touched on, but the analysis of the third perspective especially veers off track because it focuses more on discussing one possible repercussion (depression) of pressuring one’s children (both genders) rather than focusing on whether parents hold gender-based expectations.
The final paragraph doesn’t feel like a conclusion, and the final sentence digresses into and feminism talking about peers rather than parents. Stay on message. DEVELOPMENT AND SUPPORT: 3. There is and Recovery in Art, some attempt on modern, the part of the writer to develop his ideas (e.g., that parents’ pressure on children to maintain a healthy weight could lead to Trauma and Recovery in Art eating disorders or depression, and that boys’ seeming less studious is not necessarily a true indicator of their actual intelligence), but the reasoning is also simplistic at times: e.g., “I don’t think anyone should care about the weight of anyone. People should only Inception of the After Essay pay attention to themselves”—this statement is too extreme and doesn’t take into Trauma and Recovery Essay account the parental duty of monitoring their child’s health. The essay uses a five-paragraph structure—an intro, three body paragraphs discussing each of the three perspectives, and a conclusion. There is very little attempt to transition between paragraphs or to link or contrast perspectives. Each body paragraph seems to stand alone.
There are some grammar errors: a dangling modifier in the 1 st sentence of the 3 rd paragraph, subject/verb agreement error in last sentence of 3 rd paragraph. A few typos, but they don’t distract from meaning—here are the correct spellings: behavior, exercise, stereotype. More generally, some word choices could be more precise (“may expect things” and marx and feminism “parents expect these things”—what things?) or more sophisticated (“parents start to take in Trauma and Recovery Essay, these thoughts” and “ideas start to be pushed into approach to learning other people’s heads”). Avoid wordiness. There are too many instances of and Recovery Essay vague pronouns or pronouns that don’t agree with the antecedent. More sentence variety is needed—too many start with “Parents…” The overall tone of the essay is appropriate. I agree with perspective three, parents do hold different standards based on gender, however these standards are subconscious and are more influenced by and feminism, todays society. It’s evident in our everyday lives that girls and boys are held to different standards. We see these different standards on magazines, tv, and in everyday interactions.
When you pick up a magazine it’s usually a model who has the “perfect body”; the perfect body in todays society is someone who is Trauma Essay, thin and of the After Life Essay tuned. And Recovery In Art. We also see the standard for boys to be smart in our everyday interactions. It’s mainly men who dominate the math and science fields, and those two subjects are seen as harder than English and social studies. Inception Of The After Essay. Also, even though times have changed it’s more common and “acceptable” to have the man at the house be the main provider. To be the Trauma and Recovery in Art main provider you must have the better job, which in theory if you have the better job you are smarter. Cognitive Approach To Learning. Parents want the and Recovery in Art best for their kids so they unconsciously hold their children to different standards based on society. As stated above today’s society places great emphasis on and feminism, girls being thin. Essay. From even before your child is born they are already being prejudiced based on their gender. If your expecting a girl you automatically decorated your childs room pink, princesses, ballarinas; a “girly” room. So as your little girl is growing up, she already has expectations if she looks on her walls she will see princesses and ballrinas on her walls, and of course they are all thin; nno has ever seen a “fat” princess or ballarina? So even before they have time to Life think for themselves they have a preconcived idea about what they should look like.
This “perfect image” continues on all throughout their lives; on billboards, magazines, and t.v. all the girls are thin and pretty. And Recovery. Girls don’t consider all the social cognition photoshopping that took place in order to produce that image. All they are focused on and Recovery, is what they can do to look like that. And since parents are influenced by hamlet scene 4 analysis, these images they will do whatever they can to facilitate their child “living up” to that image. In parents eyes they are helping that child if she is worried about Trauma and Recovery in Art Essay, her weight because if she’s thin she automatically won’t get picked on and will have great self esteem. Just like girls boys are held to different standards too, however these standards vary. Unlike girls, boys are held to higher academic standards. As your son is act 3 scene 4 analysis, gowing up he will probably see more men in charge than woman. In America’s society it is still expected that men will be the C.E.O’s at companies, bosses, and the man in charge of the house. So it isn’t a surprise that while raising your child you emphasis these standards. You want your child to be happy and successful.Therefore you will pressure the and Recovery Essay idea that boys should be smart, and obviously boys should be smarter than girls.
This idea is not done in a cynical way, in hamlet 4 analysis, fact it’s quiet the opposite. Parents don’t mean to belittle their daughter, or any girl, by assuming their son is smarter, they do it subconsciously to coinside with societies standards. Boys are expected to excel in the harder subjects in school, like math and science. All parents just want whats best for their kids so they will pressure their son to do better in school. Before a child is born the Trauma and Recovery Essay parents will place them in appropiate stereotypes, however this is not done consciously. Parents already know societies expectations, so they will subconsciously inforce these stereotypes on the children. Parents are not cynically trying to oppress their children by placing them in sterotypes. Instead they are looking out for their children.
It’s a harsh and critical world in cognitive, todays society. So the more your child is conforming the and Recovery in Art Essay less problems your child will have. No parent wants their child to stand out cognition negatively or get picked on so they see it has in their childs best interest to Trauma have them match up with societies expectations. Although the writer addressed point three, she neglected to and juliet modern address points one and two. Trauma In Art Essay. Failure to address all three points will not result in a high scoring essay; the descriptive text house writer must find some way to include the other two points in her argument. Trauma And Recovery In Art Essay. The ACT essay is not simply a persuasive essay but an argumentative essay.
The writer should consider how she would argue these points if she were doing an Inception After Life, in-class debate. The whole essay is spent defending why parents adhere to stereotypes. Trauma In Art Essay. Are there parents who don’t? Why don’t they? Is every girl focused on her looks and romeo modern uninterested in math and science? Do all mothers stay home? The writer could improve her analysis and support scores by and Recovery in Art Essay, broadening her response and hamlet act 3 4 analysis thinking about the other side of the issue. The essay is organized with a clear introduction and and Recovery conclusion and sufficient transitions, but it contains many language errors. Comma splices and semicolons need to be reviewed (e.g., the first sentence: “I agree with perspective three, parents do hold different standards based on gender, however these standards are subconscious and are more influenced by todays society.”) as well as possessive apostrophes (“todays society,” “childs room,” or “societies expectations”). “Ballerina” is and juliet modern movies, spelled three different ways and “quiet” was written instead of Trauma and Recovery Essay “quite.” The writer should leave time to Inception Life reread her essay and check for these small errors. IDEAS AND ANALYSIS: 3.
DEVELOPMENT AND SUPPORT: 3. Essay Prompts used with the permission of Summit Educational Group, College Prep Tips, Study Hints, Education News for the Parents and Students in the Philadelphia Area. Sign up to Trauma in Art receive weekly article updates . Improve your odds of descriptive about a better SAT or ACT score today! Find out more about our test prep and skill builder programs. To reserve your personal tutor, contact us today! Main Office/Mailing Address:
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