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A Test for restaurant mathers the Anti-Trump Movement. A Test for the Anti-Trump Movement. In the week leading up to the presidential election, like hockey players who refuse to shave during the playoffs, the women of the Weiss family lived in their “Pussy Grabs Back” T-shirts. For months, our family texts had buzzed day and Population, the Confederacy Survived to 1865 night with emoji-laden reactions to the latest Trump outrage, while my mother waged a very personal campaign against the Republican candidate. When the first Tuesday in November was upon us, my dad, who has a giant poster of William F. Buckley in his office, bowed to shalom bayit and wrote in restaurant Steph Curry. All of this camaraderie put me in a strange position. Since the crucible of my college years—in which being an outspoken Zionist made you fascist, supporting the war in Iraq made you an imperialist, and believing that some cultures are indeed more enlightened than others a hegemon—I’ve gotten used to feeling politically homeless. I’m typically the hardass among the squishes. Resources. All of a sudden, I found myself making common cause with those whom I disagree with vehemently on, say, the Iran deal (bad), the mathers, necessity of teaching Western Civ. (good), and most certainly Israel. It is the difference on the Jewish state that has been the starkest and the most painful, as anyone who has paid any attention to the increasingly leftward tilt of the Democratic Party will not be surprised to learn.
One of the rising stars of this new generation of of a god progressive politicos is Linda Sarsour, who was honored as a “champion of change” by restaurant mathers, the Obama administration and is now one of the anti-Trump movement’s most visible leaders. Sarsour, a longtime Arab-American community organizer, was one of the heads of the vs hearing, Women’s March in Washington and is the named plaintiff in the high-profile lawsuit against Trump’s immigration ban. The image of her, hijab-clad and flashing a defiant smile, rivaled the pink knitted hat as the unofficial symbol of the restaurant mathers, march. She is also a proudly outspoken supporter of BDS. “Nothing is creepier than Zionism,” she has tweeted, a remark that, along with the fact that in December she posed for a photo with a former Hamas operative, stirred a series of determination critical pieces on right-wing websites in the days following the march on the capital. Within hours, Sarsour’s newfound friends and supporters—do I even need mention that Mark Ruffalo and Susan Sarandon were among them?—burst forth with a social-media-driven campaign dubbed #IMarchWithLinda, in which the stories about her background and views were presented as vicious hatchet jobs by pro-Trump legions determined to slow the momentum of the restaurant, anti-Trump brigades. Indeed, how could a woman who last week made headlines for organizing a fundraising drive that raised more than $56,000 to repair the desecrated Jewish cemetery in St. Louis harbor hostility to Jews? Among those who have pledged allegiance to Sarsour are prominent Jewish leaders and rabbis. Criticism of the listening vs hearing, Muslim activist was nothing but “a deliberate smear campaign from the restaurant, far right to delegitimize the march itself,” said Los Angeles Rabbi Sharon Brous, expressing the view of many other anti-Trump Jews. Three Types. “This is a time for serious coalition-building, for mathers standing beside other minority populations that are targeted.
It is time for people to stand for and with each other. There will be in of a the mix a number of different perspectives. I don’t feel at all uncomfortable about that,” Brous has said. “A much greater problem would be if the restaurant mathers, Jewish community stepped out of activism because we’re afraid that someone on the stage has a position on BDS different than our own.” This was something of a dodge, because, as Brous and others must know, Sarsour’s odious views aren’t limited to BDS, and god stretch particularly into issues that directly relate to the systemic oppression of women. “You’ll know when you’re living under Sharia Law if suddenly all your loans credit cards become interest-free. Mathers. Sound nice, doesn’t it?” Sarsour tweeted about the Islamic law code that justifies beating women and considers the testimony of self determination in sport a woman half that of a man. She has also denigrated the anti-Islamist feminist Ayaan Hirsi Ali in astonishingly vulgar terms, insisting that Hirsi Ali is restaurant mathers “not a real woman” and Population, How the Confederacy Survived to 1865 joking that she wishes she could take away Ali’s vagina—a particularly vicious bon mot , given that Hirsi Ali was well-known as a victim of genital mutilation in her native Somalia.
Still, anti-Trumpers argued, Sarsour’s personal imperfections didn’t come close to restaurant, forcing Jews to disavow her and her movement. Echoing Brous, Yehuda Kurtzer, president of the The Role of Women Essay, Shalom Hartman Institute of North America, pushed back against those who use support of Israel as a single-issue litmus test. Restaurant. In a piece in the Jewish Journal , he made the case that American Jews should stick to what he dubbed the “two-thirds and 51 percent” rule: “We identify in political communities, or organize for particular causes, with people who share, or at least do not operate in contradistinction to, two-thirds of our core moral imperatives, and with whom we agree on a minimum of 51 percent of our moral concerns,” he writes. By this standard, Sarsour’s leadership role is not a deal breaker. “Rotten compromise, the kind we must not do,” wrote Kurtzer, “entails making common cause with evil.” So what does boundary-crossing evil look like? Is it OK, for example, to support the civil rights of Palestinians, undocumented immigrants, and women who wear hijab while also calling for self theory the denial of the national and indigenous rights of Jews, and rejecting the rights of women in Muslim-majority countries to control their own bodies? Is that a fair definition of Kurtzer’s 51-percent rule? If you call for the death of restaurant Zionists but support Palestinian nationalism, is being against three types of love Donald Trump the moral tie-breaker that makes you a legitimate ally of American Jews like me—and immune from mathers our criticism? Kurtzer doesn’t say, but the assumption was that nothing had thus far emerged in three of love the anti-Trump movement to mathers, meet the rotten compromise test. That logic resonated with almost all the of love, anti-Trump Jews I know, who either actively rallied around Sarsour, or—like me—held their tongues. I justified it by telling myself that no political movement is perfect, no coalition entirely pure. Opposing this president, I reasoned, is too critical a priority.
Now, unhappily, the anti-Trump movement has produced a leader far worse than Sarsour: a woman whose actions must surely qualify as evil. If they don’t, the problem doesn’t belong to restaurant mathers, Zionists or Jews, but to of love, the movement itself—and even more so to the spiritual health of the political party angling to mathers, benefit from it. The names Leon Kaner and Edward Jaffe are now lost to history, but Rasmea Odeh surely remembers them well. Determination Theory. Kaner and Jaffe are the restaurant, 21-year-old and 22-year-old who went to self in sport, a Jerusalem supermarket on restaurant Feb. 21, 1969 to pick up food for a trip and The Role Essay were blown up thanks to a bomb that Odeh and mathers an accomplice had placed there.
Nine others were injured in the blast. Four days later, a second bomb that the duo planted exploded at the British Consulate. Odeh was sentenced to life in prison by Israel but was released in a prisoner exchange in the early 1980s. This convicted terrorist has surfaced since the god, march on Washington as a new leader of the women’s movement, announcing its next global action in the pages of the Guardian : a worldwide women’s strike on restaurant March 8. Along with Angela Davis and several others, Odeh called for a day of “striking, marching, blocking roads, bridges, and of Women Essay squares, abstaining from domestic care and restaurant mathers sex work, boycotting, calling out misogynistic politicians and companies, striking in educational institutions.” And the organizers of the Washington March followed Odeh’s lead, recently announcing their participation in this international “day without women.” The political stupidity of embracing Odeh is plain. What better ammunition could there possibly be for a White House all too keen to dismiss a genuine grassroots movement as paid professional protestors and anti-American anarchists than the public participation of theory in sport a bona fide terrorist? If the restaurant mathers, anti-Trump movement is going to stand for tolerance, genuine liberalism, civility, and decency—everything we disdain Trump for The Role of Women in Great Essay disdaining—Odeh and her ilk can have no place in restaurant mathers it. But there is a deeper, darker point here beyond strategy: It concerns the alarming cheapness of Jewish blood. A movement that has so much to listening vs hearing, say about the value of black lives, of transgender lives, of women’s lives, of Latino lives, of Muslim lives, of the lives of the disabled and mathers the poor and the weak, but becomes mealy-mouthed and contingent about the lives of Jews when those Jews happen to live in the land of determination theory Israel should make any person of restaurant mathers conscience question the sincerity of that movement.
Indeed, what’s perhaps even more disturbing is the The Role Essay, increasing tendency on the part of Jews to silence themselves on these fundamental moral matters to fit in restaurant or to avoid accusations of being soft on Trump. Self Determination Theory. On this, our leaders must do better, even though it will surely mean fewer likes and retweets from restaurant mathers popular progressives. Population, Industry, And Generals:. It’s incumbent upon those who assert themselves as representatives of the Jewish community not to paper over this disturbing hypocrisy—especially if what they are trying to do is restaurant mathers convince amcha that it’s still in their best interest to be at the anti-Trump table. Somehow it seems that Jews are always the ones being asked to check their identity at the door in movements driven by Industry, How the Confederacy to 1865, identity politics. We may assiduously follow the “two-thirds and 51 percent” rule, but our partners often do not. If asking for something so minimal—to disassociate and condemn a woman who murdered innocent Jews—seems impolite or greedy, then perhaps the compromise we have made is rotten. Restaurant Mathers. Bari Weiss is an associate book review editor at definition god, The Wall Street Journal. Monthly rate: $18. Yearly rate: $180. Restaurant. WAIT, WHY DO I HAVE TO PAY TO COMMENT?
Tablet is committed to bringing you the best, smartest, most enlightening and entertaining reporting and writing on Jewish life, all free of charge. We take pride in our community of readers, and are thrilled that you choose to engage with us in a way that is types of love both thoughtful and thought-provoking. But the Internet, for all of its wonders, poses challenges to civilized and constructive discussion, allowing vocal—and, often, anonymous—minorities to drag it down with invective (and worse). Starting today, then, we are asking people who'd like to post comments on the site to pay a nominal fee—less a paywall than a gesture of your own commitment to the cause of great conversation. All proceeds go to helping us bring you the ambitious journalism that brought you here in mathers the first place. I NEED TO BE HEARD! BUT I DONT WANT TO PAY.
Readers can still interact with us free of charge via Facebook, Twitter, and our other social media channels, or write to us at Expectations Essay, email@example.com. Mathers. Each week, we’ll select the best letters and publish them in a new letters to the editor feature on the Scroll. We hope this new largely symbolic measure will help us create a more pleasant and cultivated environment for all of our readers, and, as always, we thank you deeply for your support. Evidence abounds that Trump and, increasingly the GOP (with some exceptions), are an existential threat to the big three #8212; liberty, prosperity, and security. Three Types. For me, that puts fighting Trump at the base of Maslow#8217;s hierarchy of needs.
I draw moral clarity by engaging with others, whether the restaurant, adoration of Angela Davis or the Sarsour tweets you cite (the one about Ayann Hirsi Ali is repellent). Yet, for me, they don#8217;t obviate Sarsour#8217;s fundraising for desecrated Jewish cemeteries. I once worked with a politically active conservative man who said vicious things about three types of love gay people. Mathers. These views were an essential part of his identity. I wasn#8217;t going to change that but, by indicating that I know and love gay people, I did not provide silent assent.
The point is, life requires a constant calculation #8212; where is my line? When should there be a line? It is all these things that Trump is taking a sledgehammer to American ingenuity, the idea of a common humanity the Population, and Generals: How the Confederacy Survived, ability to bring heart and mind to everything from the restaurant mathers, simple to the complex. We must fight this with everything we#8217;ve got. Believe me, just as I#8217;m evaluating my bedfellows in this fight they#8217;re evaluating me. Self Determination In Sport. Let#8217;s take it step by restaurant, step, with an eye toward the big threat. I never duck my Judaism and Zionism; I also don#8217;t always lead with them.
It depends on the situation. It#8217;s the bit by bit engagement with others with whom we have differences, even virulent ones, that has intrinsic value. Are there bright lines? Yes, there must be. It#8217;s up to us to identify them. Self Determination In Sport. Will Trump supporters do the restaurant, same? I#8217;m amazed, I have to admit.
Seldom do I encounter a blog that#8217;s both educative. and listening entertaining, and without a doubt, you have hit the nail. on the head. The problem is something that not enough people are speaking intelligently about. I#8217;m very happy that I found this in restaurant my hunt for listening something regarding this. A Test for the Anti-Trump Movement. Sabermetrician Ari Kaplan Uses the Science of Balls and Strikes to Illuminate the Fate of Holocaust Rescuer Raoul Wallenberg.
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Nazi-Duitsland en de jodenvervolging: confrontatie met de slachtoffers. Historicus Melching beoordeelt het boek Nazi-Duitsland en de joden van Saul Friedlander op zijn merites. Friedlanders historische visie op de holocaust en Hitler is mathers tamelijk gangbaar en niet origineel, ontdekt Melching, maar ‘door het intensieve gebruik van primaire bronnen is de wijze waarop hij het verhaal vertelt wel bijzonder en zeker origineel te noemen.’ We worden door Friedlander tot in de kleinste details geinformeerd over in Great Expectations de Duitse jodenpolitiek en tegelijkertijd op de huid gezeten met verhalen van de slachtoffers 1 . Het beroemde magnum opus van Saul Friedlander, de tweedelige geschiedenis van Nazi-Duitsland en de joden is mathers onlangs in een eendelige turf op de Nederlandse markt gekomen. Het is in alle opzichten een intrigerend werk en een wonderlijk boek. Enerzijds is het onleesbaar, anderzijds kun je het haast niet wegleggen. Theory In Sport! Dat is mathers een merkwaardige en tamelijk zeldzame ervaring. De verklaring voor deze leeservaring ligt in definition of a god de keuzes die de auteur heeft gemaakt. Mathers! Friedlander wil niet alleen tot in definition of a de kleinste details uitleggen hoe de Duitse jodenpolitiek tot stand kwam en werd uitgevoerd, maar hij wil de lezer ook confronteren met de ervaringen van de slachtoffers. Door uitvoerig uit dagboeken en andere getuigenissen te citeren, ervaren de lezers hoe diep de bureaucratische verordeningen en de misdaden ingrepen in restaurant mathers de levens van de joden.
Aanvankelijk alleen in Duitsland en later herhaalde zich dit proces in determination in sport heel Europa. Deze aanpak vergt veel van de lezer. Restaurant! Friedlander wisselt niet alleen voortdurend tussen het ‘historische’ en het ‘persoonlijke’ verhaal, maar ook tussen de grote politiek en de individuele daders en slachtoffers. Listening! Problematisch hierbij is dat hij de lezer vrijwel nergens een kort en duidelijk overzicht biedt. Restaurant Mathers! Hij blijft zo dicht op de gebeurtenissen dat je als lezer soms door de bomen het bos niet meer ziet. Ook verplaatst hij zijn ‘camera’ in hoog tempo door heel Europa. Ik vermoed dat hij deze stijlmiddelen met opzet toepast. Op deze manier probeert hij de ondoorzichtigheid van de nazi-politiek voor de slachtoffers en de bijbehorende beklemming over self te brengen.
De lezer krijgt het verhaal dus niet cadeau. Wie in kort tijdsbestek op de hoogte wil raken van het ontstaan van de holocaust kan andere boeken raadplegen. Het werk van Christopher Browning, The Origins of the restaurant mathers, Final Solution, is types of love daarvoor veel geschikter. Restaurant! Wie kennis wil maken met de grote lijnen van de uitvoering van de holocaust kan goed terecht bij het klassieke werk van Raul Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, dat in talloze edities verkrijgbaar is. The Role Of Women Expectations Essay! Maar wie bereid is zich onder te dompelen in het verhaal van Friedlander en zich meer dan 1000 bladzijden te laten meeslepen wordt zeker beloond. Restaurant Mathers! De inspanning wordt beloond met een verhaal waarin ook ruimte is of Women Expectations gemaakt voor de ervaringen en emoties van de slachtoffers. Friedlander is in mathers dit boek meer een verteller en een chroniqueur dan een analist. Vs Hearing! In verhouding tot de omvang van het werk zijn de theoretische bespiegelingen over mathers de oorzaken en verklaringen voor de holocaust relatief beknopt.
Zijn analyse van de motieven van de nazi’s wijkt niet sterk af van de gangbare visies over the Confederacy Survived dit onderwerp. Restaurant Mathers! In de inleiding en conclusie vat Friedlander zijn opvattingen samen. Definition! Hij ziet in feite een viertal oorzaken en daarnaast nog als aparte categorie de persoon Hitler. Mathers! Deze oorzaken zijn niet meer dan een beschrijving van de modernisering van de Europese samenleving, namelijk: politieke radicalisering, de industri-ele en bureaucratische mogelijkheden van de moderne staat, en de grote rol van ideologie als ‘seculiere godsdienst’. In zijn conclusie spreekt hij over self determination theory ‘gesacraliseerd modernisme’ als de bron van de uitroeiingspolitiek. Restaurant! Dit is listening een tamelijk gangbare visie die echter niet verklaart waarom de holocaust vanuit Duitsland begon.
Deze factoren gelden namelijk voor vrijwel alle moderne Europese landen. Daarnaast geeft de auteur veel ruimte aan de persoon van Hitler. Restaurant Mathers! Volgens hem is Population, Industry, the Confederacy to 1865 de holocaust ondenkbaar zonder Hitler, ook dat is een weinig verrassend inzicht. Het opmerkelijke van Hitler is mathers dat hij na de machtsovername van 1933 niet alleen zijn principes trouw bleef, maar ze ook nog voor een belangrijk deel wist te realiseren. Friedlander formuleert het aldus: ‘Hitlers besluiten waren de uitkomst van een voortdurende wisselwerking tussen ideologisch fanatisme en pragmatische berekening’. Resources! Uiteindelijk blijven de persoon van Hitler en de gewilligheid van het Duitse volk als oorzaken over.
Drijfveren van de Duitsers. Friedlander gaat kort in restaurant op een aantal grote historische discussies over de holocaust. Population, Industry, And Generals: How The Confederacy Survived! Als eerste bespreekt hij de Goldhagen-Browning discussie. Restaurant! Deze ging over definition god de vraag of mathers, het Duitse volk tot zijn daden kwam onder invloed van een bijzonder moordzuchtige variant van het antisemitisme. Deze bewering van Goldhagen wordt door Friedlander terzijde geschoven. The Role Of Women In Great Essay! Veel Duitsers waren weliswaar antisemitisch, maar daarin verschilden zij in restaurant 1933 niet veel van andere Europeanen.
Wel ziet Friedlander een grote invloed van de nazi-propaganda, zodat de Duitsers na het uitbreken van de oorlog met opvallend gemak tot moorden overgingen. Definition! Niet alleen de keurkorpsen van de SS, maar ook de ‘gewone’ soldaten van de Wehrmacht. Dit is een niet erg overtuigende verklaring want ook andere nationaliteiten deden vrolijk aan deze moordpartijen mee, zonder dat ze door Goebbels daartoe waren aangezet. Restaurant! Bovendien speelde het antisemitisme een relatief geringe rol in de nazi-propaganda en waren antisemitische films lang niet altijd een succes. De beruchte rolprent Der ewige Jude was zelfs een regelrechte commerciele flop. In Great! Browning stelt in zijn boek Ordinary Men dat in mathers feite iedereen in asda human resources een massa-moordenaar kan veranderen.
Propaganda en ideologie spelen daarbij nauwelijks een rol. Mathers! Druk vanuit de peer-group en verruwing aan het front zijn daarbij van veel grotere betekenis. Definition! Het is restaurant mathers jammer dat Friedlander niet dieper op deze huiveringwekkende theorie van Browning in vs hearing gaat. Een tweede discussie waarop hij ingaat is restaurant die over intentionalisme en functionalisme. In Great Expectations! Hierbij staat de vraag of mathers, de holocaust in resources 1933 of restaurant mathers, eerder al op het programma stond. Industry, And Generals: How The Confederacy Survived To 1865! Hij sluit zich aan bij de functionalisten, die juist geen vooropgezet plan zien maar een ‘wisselwerking tussen intenties en onvoorziene omstandigheden, tussen waarneembare oorzaken en toeval’. Het moge duidelijk zijn dat volgens Friedlander Hitler in restaurant mathers de besluitvorming een beslissende rol speelde. Types! Het antisemitisme was het belangrijkste onderdeel van Hitlers Weltanschauung. De joden hadden in restaurant mathers zijn visie de afgelopen millennia telkens kans gezien om grote wereldrijken te gronde te richten. Population, Industry, How To 1865! Daarmee moest nu voor eens en altijd worden afgerekend. Voor joden was geen plaats in de Volksgemeinschaft.
Overigens betekende deze mening niet automatisch uitroeiing van de joden, ook evacuatie en emigratie waren geschikte middelen. Friedlander noemt in restaurant het voorbijgaan ook nog de nieuwste inzichten, zoals van de West-Duitse historicus Gotz Aly. Deze heeft de provocerende stelling gelanceerd dat de holocaust een methode was om de kostbare sociale politiek van de nazi’s te financieren. Daarmee raakt het antisemitisme als motief op de achtergrond en komt roof uit naam van de Volksstaat naar voren. Friedlander verwerpt deze visie, maar geeft betrekkelijk weinig argumenten daarvoor. Of A God! Ook elders in restaurant het boek blijkt hoe baanbrekend Aly’s inzichten zijn. Zo komt uit dit boek een tamelijk traditioneel beeld naar voren.
De holocaust kende vooral ideologische motieven, was niet al in self 1933 gepland, maar kreeg definitief vorm in restaurant de loop van 1941 en de rol van Hitler in Population, and Generals: How the Confederacy Survived dit proces was doorslaggevend. Het bijzondere van Friedlanders boek ligt dus zeker niet in restaurant zijn historische opvattingen of in nieuwe originele vergezichten. Maar door het intensieve gebruik van primaire bronnen is de wijze waarop hij het verhaal vertelt wel bijzonder en zeker origineel te noemen. Deel een begint in types of love 1933 en Friedlander laat haarscherp twee ontwikkelingen zien. In de eerste plaats laat hij zien hoe de nazi’s vanaf de eerste dag maatregelen namen die gericht waren op het isoleren en segregeren van de joden. In de tweede plaats, en Friedlander herhaalt het keer op keer, krijgen we het onthutsende gebrek aan solidariteit met de joden te zien. Restaurant Mathers! Overigens zou dit proces zich tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog ook elders in theory in sport Europa herhalen. Aan de hand van individuele lotgevallen laat Friedlander zien hoe stapje voor stapje joden werden geisoleerd. In allereerste instantie vooral kunstenaars en wetenschappers.
Het is schokkend om te lezen hoe een filosoof als Martin Heidegger zich haastte om zijn joodse collega’s te ontslaan. Joodse promovendi weigerde hij verdere begeleiding. Restaurant! (Wellicht dat er toch enige relatie bestaat tussen Heideggers anti-joodse overtuigingen en de warrigheid van zijn filosofie.) Al snel kwamen er wetten en verordeningen die grotere groepen als doelwit hadden. In 1935 werd de eerste fase van dit proces afgesloten met de Neurenberger wetten en de daarbij horende commentaren. Industry, And Generals: How! De volledige joodse gemeenschap was vanaf dit moment feitelijk rechteloos. Vanaf het begin stonden de joden er alleen voor. Restaurant Mathers! De RK-Kerk was bang dat protesten het concordaat met de Duitse staat in vs hearing gevaar zou kunnen brengen. Restaurant Mathers! Alleen daar waar de autonomie in eigen kring in self gevaar was, wilden de bisschoppen nog wel eens van zich laten horen. Restaurant Mathers! In de protestantse kerken was de situatie al niet veel beter. Population, Industry, How Survived To 1865! Grote delen van de kerken waren zelfs onder directe nazi-invloed gekomen. Ook de vertegenwoordigers van de Bekennende Kirche 2 waren nauwelijks te horen.
Hoogstens namen zij het zwakjes op voor tot het christendom bekeerde joden. Restaurant! Friedlanders conclusie is listening vs hearing even hard als helder: ‘De joden als joden werden aan hun lot overgelaten’. De enige rem op Hitlers beleid was de buitenlandse opinie en eventuele economische schade die daaruit zou voortvloeien. Restaurant! Typerend voor het pragmatisme van de nazi’s is the Confederacy Survived to 1865 het opschorten van anti-joodse acties ten tijde van de Olympische Spelen van 1936. Mathers! Duitsland moest zich toen van zijn beste kant laten zien.
Een voorlopig dieptepunt in listening het bestaan van de Duitse joden was de zogenaamde Reichskristallnacht in november 1938. Restaurant Mathers! Friedlander schetst overtuigend hoe Hitler en Goebbels in uiterste berekening de zogenaamde volkswoede regisseerden. Uit het relaas wordt echter niet erg duidelijk wat de mening van de Duitse bevolking over deze acties was. Asda Resources! De auteur heeft hier blijkbaar geen eigen onderzoek naar verricht, maar citeert twee andere studies. Beide zijn zeer negatief over de Duitse bevolking. Restaurant Mathers! Als de Duitsers al niet meededen, dan waren ze tenminste tevreden over The Role of Women Essay het resultaat. Kritiek was er alleen op de mogelijke beschadiging van de Duitse reputatie in het buitenland. Van enig medelijden of zelfs maar solidariteit was in het geheel geen sprake.
Ik vraag me af waarom Friedlander op dit belangrijke punt geen eigen onderzoek heeft gedaan. Er zijn ook bronnen waaruit blijkt dat de bevolking de gewelddadigheden tegen de joden juist afkeurde. Mathers! Zeker is in ieder geval wel dat organisaties zoals de kerken niets van zich lieten horen. Types Of Love! Een enkele geestelijke, zoals Bernhard Lichtenberg uit Berlijn, protesteerde, maar dit waren niet meer dan individuele acties. Meestal liep het niet goed met deze personen af. Restaurant Mathers! Lichtenberg kwam later om tijdens een transport naar Dachau. Van emigratie naar genocide.
Al in The Role Expectations de jaren dertig, maar ook nog na het uitbreken van de oorlog bleef emigratie mogelijk. Veel Duitse joden maakten van deze gelegenheid gebruik. Mathers! Van de ruim half miljoen waren er in asda human 1939 nog 190.000 over. Meer dan de helft was geemigreerd. Restaurant Mathers! Het beleid ten aanzien van emigratie was dubbelzinnig en chaotisch. Joods bezit werd zo veel mogelijk in asda resources beslag genomen, maar daardoor waren de berooide joden nog minder welkom in restaurant de weinig gastvrije reisdoelen. Ook emigratie naar Palestina was mogelijk, maar het Britse beleid was afhankelijk van de internationale en vooral de Arabische publieke opinie. De vraag is asda human wanneer het beleid van de nazi’s omsloeg van het stimuleren van emigratie naar het actief vervolgen en uitroeien. Restaurant Mathers! Het antwoord op deze vraag ligt besloten in self de aanval op de Sovjet Unie in mathers juni 1941. Asda Human! De verovering van het Oosten ontsloot een immens gebied waar Hitlers fantasieen over mathers een ‘etnische herordening’ van Europa de vrije loop kregen. Vs Hearing! Tegelijkertijd ontketende het Duitse leger en de SS een ware kruistocht tegen joden, communisten en andere ‘minderwaardige groepen’.
Vanaf de eerste dag van de veldtocht sloegen de Duitse troepen aan het moorden. Restaurant! Miljoenen joden kwamen binnen de Duitse invloedssfeer. Door de combinatie van dit machtsgevoel, de grote aantallen joden en de totale gewelddadigheid en morele verloedering aan het front ontstond de gedachte dat het nu ook mogelijk was de joden fysiek uit te roeien. Self Determination Theory! Deze wending in de politiek was niet gepland. Restaurant Mathers! Bovendien was het een gedachte die zich langzaam ontwikkelde in de zomer en herfst van 1941. Friedlander beschrijft dit proces gedetailleerd en vanuit talloze perspectieven. Listening! Wie het kort en bondig wil lezen moet Browning raadplegen, wie het stap voor stap wil volgen wordt door Friedlander goed bediend. Restaurant Mathers! Historici spreken wel van de twisted road to Auschwitz, in determination theory dit boek komt die kronkelweg uitgebreid ter sprake. Elke afslag en elk dwaalspoor worden belicht. De weg naar Auschwitz begint met het bevel aan de Einsatzgruppen om op grote schaal communisten en joden te vermoorden.
Deze uiterst gewelddadige operatie vergde echter veel van de troepen. Daarom gingen de Duitsers op zoek naar andere methoden. Restaurant! Het beleid kreeg een nieuwe wending op 31 juli 1941 door de benoeming van de jonge en ambitieuze Reinhard Heydrich. Human! Zijn taak was het inventariseren en coordineren van alle initiatieven ten aanzien van het ‘joodse probleem’ om zo tot een Endlosung te komen. Op dat moment liepen er drie verschillende praktijken door elkaar: vermoorden door dwangarbeid en honger in mathers getto’s en fabrieken, executies door Einsatzgruppen, en drieste emigratie- en volksverhuizingsplannen zoals het wonderlijke Madagaskar-project. Het toeval wilde dat in and Generals: How to 1865 het Oosten een groep ‘experts’ van het euthanasie-project T4 opereerde. Restaurant! Zij experimenteerden in definition of a de herfst van 1941 met het op grote schaal ombrengen van psychiatrische patienten en gebruikten daarvoor onder meer de uitlaatgassen van vrachtwagens. Restaurant Mathers! Deze ‘rijdende gaskamers’ vonden navolging. Op verschillende plekken werd geexperimenteerd met gas. Zo vonden in Auschwitz in of Women in Great september 1941 de eerste proeven plaats met het beruchte insecticide Zyklon B. Een duidelijk en formeel besluit tot vernietiging ontbreekt.
Daarom proberen historici op andere manieren de omslag van de emigratie-optie naar de vernietigingsoptie te dateren. Mathers! Friedlander veronderstelt dat Hitler lange tijd met het probleem heeft geworsteld. Listening Vs Hearing! Op grond van een gedetailleerde studie van Hitlers redevoeringen, tafelgesprekken, bevelen en andere uitlatingen komt de auteur tot de conclusie dat Hitlers definitieve besluit in mathers de maanden september-december 1941 is gevallen. Industry, And Generals: How The Confederacy To 1865! Diverse momenten accentueren dit proces. Mathers! Op 23 oktober 1941 vaardigden de Duitsers een emigratieverbod voor joden uit. Daarmee zaten de Europese joden definitief in vs hearing de val. Restaurant Mathers! De deportaties en aansluitende vernietiging konden beginnen. Het besluitvormingsproces wordt volgens Friedlander afgesloten met de oorlogsverklaring aan het verju-dete Amerika in Survived to 1865 december 1941. Restaurant Mathers! Haat tegen het door ‘joden gedomineerde Amerika’ zou tevens een verklaring bieden voor de op zich volstrekt zinloze oorlogsverklaring.
Op 4 december 1941 leden de Duitsers hun eerste echte nederlaag tegen de Sovjet Unie. Definition Of A God! Desondanks zette Hitler de vernietiging doelbewust voort. Hij was vastbesloten om tenminste nog een van zijn oorlogsdoelen - de kruistocht tegen het bolsjewisme en de joden - te realiseren. Nu het besluit eenmaal vast stond, moest de uitvoering worden geregeld. Restaurant! De logistiek van deze operatie was het onderwerp van een vergadering van hoge ambtenaren en technocraten van verschillende ministeries en instellingen. Of Women In Great Expectations Essay! Oorspronkelijk zou deze vergadering plaatsvinden op 9 december 1941, maar werd uitgesteld naar 20 januari 1942. Vaak wordt gedacht dat op deze vergadering in een chique villa aan de Berlijnse Wannsee het ‘formele besluit’ voor de holocaust is restaurant mathers genomen. Of Love! Dat is mathers om twee redenen onjuist. In de eerste plaats is vs hearing er in mathers het geheel geen ‘formeel besluit’ bekend. Three Of Love! Het is restaurant mathers een proces dat geleidelijk en informeel verliep.
In de tweede plaats was dit beslissingsproces reeds voltooid in of a god de zomer en herfst van 1941. Hier werden alleen nog de logistieke details en de bureaucratische competenties uitgewerkt. Restaurant! De aanwezigen vormden dan ook beslist niet de elite van het nazi-rijk. Types! Het waren veeleer volgzame ambtenaren zoals de jonge ambtenaar Adolf Eichmann. Restaurant Mathers! De conclusies van deze bijeenkomst waren duidelijk.
In de loop van 1942 moesten massale deportaties vanuit West-Europa naar Polen plaatsvinden. And Generals:! Deze deportaties kwamen met militaire precisie op gang. Restaurant! Nederland was in definition de zomer van 1942 aan de beurt. Restaurant Mathers! Het Nederlandse jodendom zou binnen een jaar vrijwel worden uitgeroeid. Ook nu weer was de houding van Duitsers en de meeste Europeanen in de bezette gebieden er een van passiviteit of three types of love, zelfs collaboratie. Ambtenaren en talloze maatschappelijke instellingen (spoorwegen!) verleenden alle mogelijke hulp aan de Duitse deportatie-machinerie.
Friedlander spaart niemand. Het is mathers opmerkelijk dat hij ook vertegenwoordigers van de Bekennende Kirche en prominente katholieken als kardinaal Faulhaber er flink van langs geeft. De ‘dissidente’ protestanten bekommerden zich volgens hem alleen om bekeerde joden, maar niet om alle joden. Types! In de Bondsrepubliek wordt de Bekennende Kirche graag als ‘bewijs van goed gedrag’ naar voren geschoven, maar Friedlander betoont ze weinig respect. Ook in de bezette gebieden werd de druk op de joden groter. Restaurant! Wie zich niet in of love veiligheid kon brengen, kwam via doorgangskampen zoals Westerbork onherroepelijk in het Oosten terecht. Mathers! Beklemmend daarbij was dat langzaam maar zeker de waarheid over de ‘werkkampen’ tot de Europese bevolking begon door te dringen.
Eind 1942, begin 1943 was volgens Friedlander de uitroeiing een publiek geheim. Wellicht nog niet in heel Europa, maar zeker in Duitsland kon iedereen het weten. Ook de geallieerden waren op de hoogte, maar zij konden met hun kennis weinig doen omdat ze daarmee zouden prijsgeven dat ze de Duitse codes konden kraken. Overigens weigerden ze bombardementen op concentratiekampen omdat ze nu eenmaal besloten hadden om geen ‘humanitaire’ acties te ondernemen. De oorlogvoering had de absolute prioriteit. Listening! Pas met de opmars van het Rode Leger kwam er geleidelijk een einde aan de vernietiging in de kampen. Restaurant Mathers! Op 27 januari 1945 werd Auschwitz bevrijd. Pas met de dood van Hitler op 30 april 1945 kwam er een einde aan het Duitse schrikbewind. The Role Of Women In Great Essay! Fijntjes merkt Friedlander nog op dat kardinaal Adolf Bertram de priesters in zijn diocees opdracht gaf een ‘plechtig requiem ter herinnering aan de Fuhrer op te dragen’. Een nieuwe episode in restaurant de Duitse en joodse geschiedenis kon beginnen.
Saul Friedlander, Nazi-Duitsland en de Joden. Deel 1: De jaren van vervolging 1933-1939. Deel 2: De jaren van vernietiging 1939-1945. Definition Of A! Amsterdam: Lannoo, 2007. 1 Friedlander baseert zich in hoofdzaak op de dagboeken en getuigenissen van de slachtoffers. Mathers! De daders komen relatief weinig aan het woord.
Maar wie de Duitse taal machtig is kan goed terecht bij het fameuze Das Echolot, een enorm dagboeken-project van de Duitse schrijver Walter Kempowski. 2 In 1933 werden de protestantse kerken gedwongen tot fuseren tot Deutsche Reichskirche, die het nationaal socialisme steunde. In september van dat jaar werd de ondergrondse Bekennende Kirche opgericht. WILLEM MELCHING is als historicus verbonden aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam.
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14 Skills and mathers Values Employers Seek in Jobseekers. by Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., and Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. Job Skills to list on your Resume. Deals with acting in a responsible and fair manner in Population, Industry, How to 1865, all your personal and work activities, which is seen as a sign of maturity and self-confidence; avoid being petty. How to restaurant mathers describe this skill on listening your resume: Conscientious go-getter who is highly organized, dedicated, and committed to professionalism. Employers probably respect personal integrity more than any other value, especially in light of the many recent corporate scandals. How to describe this skill on your resume: Seasoned professional whose honesty and restaurant integrity create effective leadership and optimal business relationships. Deals with openness to new ideas and concepts, to working independently or as part of a team, and to carrying out multiple tasks or projects. How to describe this skill on god your resume: Highly adaptable, mobile, positive, resilient, patient risk-taker who is restaurant mathers, open to new ideas. Employers seek jobseekers who love what they do and will keep at definition god it until they solve the problem and get the job done.
How to describe this skill on your resume: Productive worker with solid work ethic who exerts optimal effort in successfully completing tasks. 5.Dependability/Reliability/Responsibility. There#8217;s no question that all employers desire employees who will arrive to mathers work every day? on time? and ready to work, and who will take responsibility for their actions. How to vs hearing describe this skill on your resume: Dependable, responsible contributor committed to excellence and success. Employers want employees who will have a strong devotion to restaurant the company? even at times when the company is not necessarily loyal to its employees. How to describe this skill on your resume: Loyal and dedicated manager with an theory in sport, excellent work record. 7.Positive Attitude/Motivation/Energy/Passion. The jobseekers who get hired and the employees who get promoted are the ones with drive and passion? and who demonstrate this enthusiasm through their words and actions.
How to describe this skill on your resume: Energetic performer consistently cited for unbridled passion for work, sunny disposition, and upbeat, positive attitude. Look at it this way: if you don#8217;t believe in yourself, in your unique mix of restaurant skills, education, and abilities, why should a prospective employer? Be confident in three, yourself and what you can offer employers. How to describe this skill on your resume: Confident, hard-working employee who is committed to achieving excellence. 9.Self-Motivated/Ability to Work Without Supervision. While teamwork is always mentioned as an important skill, so is the ability to restaurant mathers work independently, with minimal supervision.
How to describe this skill on your resume: Highly motivated self-starter who takes initiative with minimal supervision. Listening Vs Hearing! No matter what your age, no matter how much experience you have, you should always be willing to restaurant learn a new skill or technique. Jobs are constantly changing and evolving, and self determination theory you must show an restaurant mathers, openness to grow and learn with that change. How to describe this skill on The Role in Great Expectations Essay your resume: Enthusiastic, knowledge-hungry learner, eager to meet challenges and quickly assimilate new concepts. While there is some debate about whether leadership is something people are born with, these skills deal with your ability to take charge and manage your co-workers.
How to describe this skill on your resume: Goal-driven leader who maintains a productive climate and confidently motivates, mobilizes, and restaurant mathers coaches employees to meet high-performance standards. Human Resources! 12.Multicultural Sensitivity/Awareness. There is possibly no bigger issue in the workplace than diversity, and jobseekers must demonstrate a sensitivity and awareness to other people and cultures. How to describe this skill on your resume: Personable professional whose strengths include cultural sensitivity and an ability to build rapport with a diverse workforce in multicultural settings. Restaurant Mathers! Deals with your ability to design, plan, organize, and implement projects and tasks within an allotted timeframe. Also, involves goal-setting. In Great Essay! How to describe this skill on your resume: Results-driven achiever with exemplary planning and organizational skills, along with a high degree of mathers detail orientation. Because so many jobs involve working in one or more work-groups, you must have the ability to work with others in a professional manner while attempting to achieve a common goal. How to describe this skill on your resume: Resourceful team player who excels at building trusting relationships with customers and colleagues. Final Thoughts on Employment Skills and Values. Employability skills and personal values are the critical tools and traits you need to succeed in the workplace? and they are all elements that you can learn, cultivate, develop, and maintain over your lifetime.
Once you have identified the sought-after skills and The Role of Women in Great Expectations Essay values and assessed the restaurant, degree to which you possess them, begin to market them by determination theory, building them into your resume, cover letter, and interview answers) for job-search success. See also our Transferable Job Skills for Jobseekers.Click here to begin building your own resume! More Information about Employability Skills: Skills Employers Seek, reporting on annual results from the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) survey of restaurant employers to determine the three, top 10 personal qualities/skills employers seek. From the Career Development Center at Binghamton University. Skills Employers Seek, from restaurant Loughborough University. Skills Employers Seek, from Psych Web Top 10 Soft Skills in Demand, from LiveCareer Resume Skills Section, from LiveCareer.
Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Asda Human! Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of restaurant mathers career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want. Dr. Randall S. Hansen. Dr. Randall S. Hansen is founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of EmpoweringSites.com. He is also founder of MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. Asda Human Resources! He is publisher of Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine.
Dr. Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and hundreds of articles. Mathers! He’s often quoted in the media and conducts empowering workshops around the country. Industry, How Survived! Finally, Dr. Hansen is also an educator, having taught at the college level for more than 15 years. Visit his personal Website or reach him by email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
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Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in types of love, your current career for a long time, but you do not have to go through the process alone or  Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and job-search news, trends, and restaurant scoops for job-seekers, compiled by the staff of Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an archive of resources our previous blog posts. Please check out the new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and Careerists. Interview Advice Job  The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to restaurant go straight to the career and employment section of the types,  Quintessential Careers: I am a Career Coach or Counselor. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to the job/career/employment section of a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and restaurant mathers employment section of the  Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter. Customer Service Customer Service. 800-652-8430 Mon- Fri 8am - 8pm CST.
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congo photo essay Paul Bowles in the medina of Tangier, Morocco in 1987. An inveterate traveler, composer and writer, Paul Bowles was a truly remarkable figure whose life and work embodied and responded to mathers major impulses of the twentieth century. His life would be of considerable interest even had he not produced numerous musical scores, four novels, more than sixty short stories, many travel pieces, an unrevealing autobiography and vs hearing, dozens of translations of stories by Moroccan storytellers. His autobiography, Without Stopping , published in restaurant, 1972, reads like a who’s who of twentieth-century arts and letters. Among those whose lives intersected with Bowles’ are Aaron Copland, Gertrude Stein, Djuna Barnes, Kurt Schwitters, Claude McKay, W. H. Auden, Tennessee Williams, Truman Capote, William S. Burroughs, Allen Ginsberg and Patricia Highsmith. During the thirties, forties, and fifties Bowles journeyed—always by ship or overland—relentlessly, almost frantically, to and from New York, into types of love, the heart of North Africa’s deserts, into the depths of the restaurant mathers, tropical forests of theory, Latin America, and around the globe to mathers the small island of Taprobane off the coast of Sri Lanka, an island he bought and owned for a number of to 1865, years. These landscapes became backdrops for Bowles’ fiction, giving it a distinctive, unique flavor. Bowles’ fictional worlds typically feature American travelers in exotic and hostile foreign settings who experience disease, psychological disintegration or terror. Man is adrift in an endless existential quest to piece together meaning in an increasingly chaotic, ugly, barbaric, horrifying world. Bowles’ music, on mathers the other hand, is more cheerful and definition of a god, benign.
In his collection of essays Setting the restaurant, Tone , the composer Ned Rorem (who first met Bowles in Mexico in the forties) contrasts Bowles’ literary and musical styles, observing that while Bowles’s fiction is dark and cruel, clearly meant to horrify in an impersonal sort of way, his music is nostalgic and witty, evoking the the Confederacy Survived to 1865, times and places of its conception. An only child, Paul Frederic Bowles was born in New York, in mathers, Jamaica, Queens, on December 30, 1910, to Rena and Claude Bowles. Bowles fondly remembers his mother reading Poe to him in his early years, while he chiefly remembered his father, a dentist, as a strict disciplinarian. Self Theory In Sport? In his autobiography, Bowles recounts hearing his grandmother tell him that his father had tried to kill him when he was a baby, by leaving him virtually naked in a basket by an open window in the dead of winter. True or not, these impressions and feelings certainly had a profound effect on the artist as a young man and can be felt on occasion in his writing. Bowles began drawing maps and spinning fictions in restaurant, notebooks when he was quite young. At age seventeen, one of his poems, Spire Song, was accepted for publication in the twelfth volume of transition , a literary journal based in Paris that served as a forum for some of the greatest proponents of modernism—Djuna Barnes, James Joyce, Paul luard, Gertrude Stein and others. Human? In his late teens Bowles enrolled in the University of Virginia, conscious that Edgar Allan Poe had studied there nearly a century earlier.
In 1929, without telling his parents, he set sail for mathers, Europe on the Rijndam , taking with him a copy of Andr Gide’s The Counterfeiters (1926). Thus began a life of travel and expatriation that places him in a long tradition of American writers such as James Fenimore Cooper, Henry James, Gertrude Stein, Edith Wharton and so many others. After this first, short visit to Europe, Bowles returned to New York where he met the composer Henry Cowell who referred him to Aaron Copland for studies in composition. When Copland announced plans to go to Europe, Bowles was quick to human resources follow. In Paris, Bowles received advice on his life and career from mathers both Copland and Virgil Thomson. While in Paris the young Bowles, impeccably dressed and boyishly charming, found that doors opened easily before him. Among those he called upon was Gertrude Stein, who had set up residence in Paris two decades earlier and lived, with her lover Alice B. Toklas, on of Women Essay rue de Fleurus. This meeting and subsequent association with Stein was to restaurant have considerable effect on Bowles’ life and Essay, work.
It was Stein who questioned his talents as a poet and first suggested he go to Morocco. Bowles could hardly have imagined that his first visit to Africa with Copland, in 1931, would lead to such a long-term relationship with that continent. In North Africa Bowles found a place where magic, storytelling, djenoun (genies), the power of the curse and mathers, a kind of primitive spirit were alive and vibrant. Throughout the thirties and the early forties Bowles lived nomadically, using New York (a city for which he often expressed his disdain), as a base. The Role Essay? During this time he did a considerable amount of composing. Restaurant Mathers? His early compositions include: a sonata for oboe and of love, clarinet; a sonata for flute and piano; a cantata for soprano, chorus, and harmonium, Par le Dtroit ; a chamber work, Scnes d’Anabase , based on a piece by the French poet Saint-John Perse; the score for Lincoln Kirstein’s ballet Yankee Clipper ; various songs including Letter to Freddy that set words from restaurant mathers a letter Stein had written to him (she had determined that the name Freddy suited him better than Paul); and types of love, music for Orson Welles’ Federal Theatre Project production Horse Eats Hat . In 1937 Bowles met Jane Auer, whom he married the restaurant, following year. He was then twenty-seven; she was twenty.
The ensuing marriage was, by vs hearing, all accounts, unconventional. Each while maintaining close ties to the other, developed intimate relationships with friends of restaurant mathers, their own sex. Of Women In Great Essay? Jane herself was, at the time the restaurant, two met, an aspiring writer. Her first novel, Two Serious Ladies , published in 1943, is Industry,, still seen as an important and innovative work, along with her play In the Summer House and a handful of short stories. During the first years of their marriage, Paul’s musical output was prodigious. One of his best-known works, Music for a Farce , came from another collaboration with Orson Welles, Too Much Johnson , in 1938. Mathers? In 1939, he composed the score for William Saroyan’s My Heart’s in the Highlands and wrote an opera called Denmark Vesey . In 1940 he produced incidental music for productions of Saroyan’s Love’s Old Sweet Song and definition of a, Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night as well as the score for a Soil Erosion Service film, Roots in the Soil . Mathers? In 1941 he wrote music for Philip Barry’s production of Liberty Jones and determination in sport, Lillian Hellman’s Watch on the Rhine ; the same year he composed the score for Kirstein’s ballet Pastorela . Two years later, the Museum of Modern Art in New York put on a performance of Bowles’ zarzuela , The Wind Remains , the libretto of which was adapted from a play by Federico Garcia Lorca; it was conducted by Leonard Bernstein and choreographed by mathers, Merce Cunningham.
In 1944 Bowles scored the film Congo and self theory, the ballet Colloque Sentimental , a ballet with sets designed by mathers, the surrealist artist Salvador Dal. The Role In Great Expectations Essay? Bowles composed his Sonata for Two Pianos in 1946 and his Concerto for mathers, Pianoforte, Winds, and Percussion in 1947. Of Women In Great Essay? Altogether he wrote incidental theater music for thirty-three shows, including several plays by Tennessee Williams. Collaboration between the two began with Glass Menagerie in 1944, and mathers, later Bowles set Williams’ lyrics to music in a song-cycle called Blue Mountain Ballads (1946). And Generals: The Confederacy To 1865? He also provided scores for Williams’ plays Summer and restaurant, Smoke (1948) and Sweet Bird of Youth (1959). As Virgil Thomson put it, Paul had a unique gift for asda resources, the theater. It’s something you either have or you don’t, and Paul did.
During the forties, at the same time he was so thoroughly engaged with his musical compositions, Bowles was turning his attention increasingly to writing. In 1942 he took the job of a music critic for restaurant mathers, the New York Herald Tribune arranged by Thomson, the paper’s chief critic. Over the next several years he wrote hundreds of reviews, on of love jazz and folk music as well as performances of classical music. In 1945 made what he later called an undistinguished translation of mathers, Jean-Paul Sartre’s Huis Clos (1944), a play better known to English readers by the title Bowles gave it: No Exit . His early experimental story The Scorpion was published by View in 1945, followed by The Echo in Harper’s Bazaar in 1946 and A Distant Episode in Partisan Review in types, 1947. The grisly, shocking content of some of these early stories prompted one critic, Leslie Fiedler, to dub Bowles the mathers, pornographer of terror.
Some have suggested that his wife Jane’s successes with fiction rekindled his own literary interests. He also found that writing was more practical than his work as composer, which often demanded his presence in New York while pieces were being rehearsed. No matter what the reasons, by the end of the forties Bowles was devoting more and more time to his literary career and gaining acclaim for his accomplishments. Paul and Jane Bowles shortly after the in Great Expectations, publication of his first novel The Sheltering Sky , Tangier, 1949 (Photograph © by Cecil Beaton, 1949) Following the conclusion of World War II, Bowles set sail again for Morocco, in 1947, with an mathers, advance from Doubleday for a novel.
On that trip he wrote a classic story, Pages from Cold Point, depicting the seduction of a father by his son. Once in North Africa he traveled widely, working on a novel that became The Sheltering Sky . Still his best-known literary work today, this novel chronicles the odyssey of an American couple in the deserts of North Africa; it stayed on the best-seller list in the United States for eleven weeks in 1950 and four decades later was made into a movie by Bernardo Bertolucci. On the heels of The Sheltering Sky came The Delicate Prey and Other Stories (1950). With these two books Bowles broke onto the literary scene full force. In the fifties Bowles wrote and published two more novels ( Let It Come Down in 1952 and The Spider’s House in 1955) as well as his Picnic Cantata (1954), his opera Yerma (1958), incidental music for Jane Bowles’ play In the Summer House (1953), and for three types, Edwin Booth (1958) and Sweet Bird of Youth (1959). Restaurant Mathers? In 1958 a Rockefeller Foundation grant enabled Bowles to three make tape recordings of indigenous Moroccan music. He wrote about some of mathers, his experiences collecting such music in Industry, and Generals: How the Confederacy, an essay titled The Rif, to mathers Music, included in his collection of travel essays Their Heads Are Green and Their Hands Are Blue: Scenes from the Non-Christian World . The Library of and Generals: How to 1865, Congress houses tapes of restaurant, these sessions, and Bowles’ contributions to the field of ethnomusicology are just beginning to gain the recognition they deserve. Meanwhile, during the fifties, there were significant developments in Bowles’ personal life. In the asda resources, early fifties his relationship with Ahmed Yacoubi, a young Moroccan painter he had met in Fez in the late forties, solidified.
Yacoubi accompanied Bowles on some of his trips, notably a long voyage to South Asia (Taprobane, specifically). Toward the end of the decade, in 1957, Jane suffered a stroke, after which she was taken first to England, then New York, for treatment. Her health steadily declined and mathers, she struggled fiercely with her writing. I did not know it, but the good years were over, Bowles wrote of this period near the end of his autobiography. By the end of the self determination, fifties, Bowles had been discovered by a number of figures associated with the American Beat movement who made pilgrimages to his apartment in Tangier.
Here they found a very properly dressed, well-mannered man who had explored the deeper realms of consciousness (and substances such as kif and hashish accessing those realms) long before them. As Norman Mailer proclaimed in Advertisements for Myself (1959), Paul Bowles opened the world of Hip. He let in the murder, the drugs, the incest, the restaurant, death of the Square, the call of the orgy, the human, end of civilization. William S. Burroughs had first come to Tangier in restaurant, 1954, where he worked on his drug habit, wrote Interzone and enjoyed the company of young men. Brion Gysin was there as well. Within time, other Beats passed through, among them Allen Ginsberg, Gregory Corso, Jack Kerouac and Ira Cohen. It was in fact Ginsberg who helped engineer the publication of a collection of four Bowles stories by self, City Lights Books in San Francisco, under the title A Hundred Camels in the Courtyard (1962).
All four stories, set in Morocco, feature characters whose actions and thoughts are in some way affected by restaurant, smoking kif. In 1962, Bowles also wrote his fine story The Time of Friendship, its title used for a collection of his stories published in 1967. His fourth and final novel, Up Above the World , set in Latin America, was published in 1966. Bowles continued to travel in the sixties, though his pace slowed somewhat. In 1966 he went to Thailand, to research a book about asda human, Bangkok. Though he never wrote that book, he used Thailand as a setting for restaurant, a memorable story, You Have Left Your Lotus Pods on the Bus, written in 1971 and published in Population, and Generals: How the Confederacy to 1865, the collection of stories Things Gone and Things Still Here . Mathers? Following a short stint teaching at San Fernando State University in of Women in Great Expectations, late 1968 and early 1969, an restaurant, arrangement worked out by his friend Oliver Evans, whom he met and traveled with in Thailand, Bowles made no trips to the U.S. for over twenty-five years. Jane’s steady deterioration was among the factors (along with natural sedentary tendencies that accompany aging) that conspired against the kind of carefree nomadism he had enjoyed earlier in his life. Mohammed Mrabet's stories and tales were translated by Paul Bowles. Bowles’ production waned somewhat in the late sixties and early seventies, particularly in the wake of Jane’s death in Mlaga, Spain, on May 3, 1973. Two years before, Bowles had finished his autobiography, Without Stopping , a chore he found extremely tedious.
During this period, too, he devoted more of his time to the transcription of local Maghrebi stories. Determination In Sport? Bowles had begun to transcribe oral stories much earlier, first with Ahmed Yacoubi and then with Larbi Layachi (Driss ben Hamed Charhadi) whose A Life Full of Holes was published in 1964. Bowles’ collaboration with Mohammed Mrabet resulted in nearly a dozen books between 1967 and 1986. In those years, Mrabet was a constant companion of mathers, Bowles. Industry, How The Confederacy Survived? As with Layachi, Bowles recorded Mrabet’s stories on restaurant tape, then transcribed and translated them into English. Self In Sport? During this period he translated from the Arabic Mohamed Choukri's first book, For Bread Alone, which he wrote an introduction for and arranged to have it published in English. Bowles also translated from Spanish several books by the young Guatemalan writer Rodrigo Rey Rosa, who eventually became his literary heir.
During the early eighties Bowles stayed put in Tangier, teaching in a summer program sponsored by New York’s School of restaurant mathers, Visual Arts. The publication of Collected Stories, 1939-1976 in asda human, 1980 by Black Sparrow Press kept his work in circulation and solidified his reputation. In his introduction to restaurant the volume, Gore Vidal claims that Bowles’ short stories are among the best ever written by an American. After the Population, Industry, Survived, publication of this collection, Bowles published two more volumes of mathers, new stories, Midnight Mass (1981) and Unwelcome Words (1988), as well as a marvelous little book called Points in three types of love, Time (1982) that contains a dozen or so historical anecdotes, lyrically rendered, most of which involve cultural clashes between Muslim, Christian and Jewish worldviews in North Africa. Many encounters end in violence. Some sense of Bowles’ life in the last decades of his life is conveyed in Days: Tangier Journal, 1987-1989 , which the mathers, author describes as a record of daily life in today’s Tangier. The tone in these journal entries is one of resignation and detachment, as he comments on his role in Bertolucci’s film of The Sheltering Sky ; a lavish party thrown by Malcolm Forbes; visits from the travel writer Gavin Young, the novelist Gavin Lambert, the listening, suspense novelist Patricia Highsmith and the composer Phillip Ramey; battling TV crews, translators, and biographers; the comings and restaurant, goings of Mrabet and Bowles’ driver, Abdelouahaid Boulaich; his hernia operation; changes in life during the human resources, holy month of Ramadan; and mathers, the behavior of spiders in his apartment. While his work tapered off noticeably in vs hearing, the eighties and restaurant, nineties, as his own health deteriorated, critical appreciation of both his music and listening vs hearing, fiction grew.
In September 1995, Bowles returned to New York for the first time in twenty-six years, to be on hand for restaurant, a festival of his music performed by and Generals: the Confederacy Survived, the Eos Ensemble under the restaurant, direction of Jonathan Sheffer. A handful of CDs featuring Bowles music have recently been produced, as well as a documentary film, Night Waltz (1997), directed by listening vs hearing, Owsley Brown III, focusing on mathers his music. A number of other film documentaries on Bowles have appeared in recent years, including Mohamed Mohand’s An American in Tangiers (1993), Regina Weinreich and Catherine Warnow’s Paul Bowles: The Complete Outsider (1994), Edgardo Cozarinsky’s Ghosts of Tangier (1996) and Jennifer Baichwal’s Let It Come Down (1998). Three Types Of Love? Frieder Schlaich and Irene von Alberti’s movie triptych Halfmoon (1995) dramatizes three Bowles stories (Allal, Call at restaurant mathers Corazn and The Story of Lahcen and listening vs hearing, Idir ). Cadmus Editions, in restaurant mathers, collaboration with Dom America, has reissued in CD Bowles’ reading of A Hundred Camels in the Courtyard . Paul Bowles and three, Allen Hibbard, Tangier, 1987. Michelle Green’s The Dream at the End of the World: Paul Bowles and the Literary Renegades in Tangier (1991) gives us a gossipy account of the modern expatriate experience in Tangier. Restaurant Mathers? Millicent Dillon’s The Portable Paul and Jane Bowles (1994), Daniel Halpern’s Too Far from self in sport Home: Selected Writings of Paul Bowles , and The Stories of Paul Bowles (2000) provide useful, compact editions of Bowles’ writing, while Jeffrey Miller’s In Touch: The Letters of Paul Bowles gives us access to Bowles through his prolific correspondence. Greg Mullins’ Colonial Affairs: Bowles, Burroughs and Chester Write Tangier (2002), informed by postcolonial and queer theory, is but the most recent work of mathers, literary criticism devoted to Bowles.
Cherie Nutting’s Yesterday’s Perfume: An Intimate Memoir of Paul Bowles (2000), filled with photos of Bowles and the Tangier scene, provides visual stimulation and contains some of Bowles’ last writing. And Generals: How The Confederacy To 1865? Scribner has just published Virginia Spencer Carr’s new biography of Bowles ( Paul Bowles: a Life ) to mathers set beside accounts of god, his life penned by Christopher Sawyer-Lauanno, Gena Dagel Caponi, Robert Briatte and Millicent Dillon. All this amply demonstrates avid and sustained interest in Bowles and mathers, his work. Paul Bowles died of heart failure in the Italian Hospital in Tangier on November 18, 1999. His ashes were interred near the graves of his parents and of Women Essay, grandparents in Lakemont, New York on November 1, 2000. Since his death, Bowles has continued to garner favorable critical attention. Mathers? In 2002, The Library of America put out a two-volume edition of his works, placing him in a pantheon of American writers that includes writers James Fenimore Cooper, Herman Melville, Mark Twain, Henry James, Edith Wharton, Willa Cather and Ernest Hemingway. In this new century, his life and work will take on even greater significance, as we find ourselves immersed in what seems to be an extended and types of love, irreconcilable conflict with the Islamic Middle East.
Bowles lived more or less continuously in Morocco during the last half of the century. Restaurant? No other American writer of any note has spent so long immersed in Arab/Islamic culture, and his experiences and insights are woven into the tapestry of his fiction. The Role? Like Joseph Conrad and his narrator Marlow, Bowles journeyed into restaurant, the heart of asda, darkness, saw the horror of it all, returned, and gave it exquisite aesthetic form. Copyright © 2003, Allen Hibbard. ALLEN HIBBARD has written and lectured extensively on both Paul and restaurant mathers, Jane Bowles. He is the author of Paul Bowles: A Study of the Short Fiction (Twayne, 1993) as well as several articles on Jane Bowles' unfinished novel Out in the World . He has also edited a collection of interviews with William S. Burroughs (University Press of Mississippi, 1999). A collection of his stories has been published in Arabic under the title Al Abur ila Abbassiyya wa Qasas Akhran (Dar al Mustaqbal, Damascus, Syria, 1994). From 1992 to 1994 Hibbard was a Fulbright Lecturer at the University of Damascus, Syria, and from 1985 to 1989 he taught and lectured at the American University of Cairo, Egypt. He is currently working on a biography of Alfred Chester, and his most recent book, Paul Bowles, Magic Morocco was published in June 2004 by Cadmus Editions . Allen Hibbard is the definition of a, director of the mathers, Middle East Center at Population, the Confederacy Survived Middle Tennessee State University.
This biographical sketch draws upon material from a lengthier piece he wrote for The Scribner American Writers Series (1996). Paul Bowles' Literary Works by Jeffrey Miller, Kenneth Lisenbee and mathers, Allen Hibbard.
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and restaurant mathers Tips. If you're reading this article, I assume you're an IB Student, who is getting ready to write their Extended Essay. If you're looking at this as a potential future IB student, I recommend reading our other introductory IB articles first: What is the International Baccalaureate (IB) Program? and What is the IB Curriculum? What are IB Diploma Requirements?. IB students around the globe fear writing the Extended Essay. In this articles, I'll try to get you excited about writing your Extended Essay and provide you with the resources to get an A. I'm a recipient of an self determination theory IB Diploma, and I happened to restaurant mathers receive an A on my IB Extended Essay. If you don’t believe me, the proof is in the IBO pudding,
If you're confused by what this report means, EE is short for Extended Essay, and of a English A1 is the subject that my Extended Essay topic coordinated with. In layman’s terms, my IB Diploma was graded during May 2010, I wrote my Extended Essay in the English A1 category, and I received a grade A. The IB Extended Essay (or EE) is a 4,000 word structured mini-thesis that you write under the supervision of an advisor (an IB teacher at restaurant mathers your school), which counts towards your IB Diploma (to learn about all of the IB diploma requirements, check out our other article). Three Types Of Love. I'll explain exactly how the EE affects your diploma later in this article. For the Extended Essay, you choose a research question as a topic; this topic needs to be approved by IBO (which is not very difficult). You can do a typical research paper such as in this paper, or you conduct an experiment/solve a problem such as in mathers this paper. Most schools allow you to listening vs hearing pick your advisor (an IB teacher preferably at your school, although you can also get access to one at another school through the Pamoja Education). I'll explain how to restaurant mathers pick your IB EE advisor below. The IB Extended Essay must include a cover page, an abstract (one-page synopsis of god, your essay), a table of contents, the 4,000-word essay (which will range from 10-20 pages depending on whether your topic requires illustrations such as an experiment would), and a bibliography. Restaurant. Your completed Extended Essay is then sent to theory in sport the IBO to be graded (I will go into more detail on restaurant mathers, grading below).
What Should You Write About in Your Extended Essay? You can technically write about anything, so long as the IBO approves it. However, you should choose a topic that falls into one of the listening, IB Course Categories, (such as Theatre, Film, Spanish, French, Math, Biology, etc.) which shouldn’t be difficult because there are so many class subjects. Restaurant. Here is a range of sample topics with the types of love, attached extended essay: You can see from how varied the restaurant mathers, topics are that you have a lot of god, freedom when it comes to picking a topic. So, how do you pick when the options are limitless? I will help you with that next: 6 Tips for Writing a Grade A Extended Essay. Tip #1: Write About Something You Enjoy Because You'll Be Spending a Lot of Time on It. I love British theatre and ended up writing mine about a revolution in restaurant mathers post-WWII British theatre #theatrenerd.
I really encourage anyone who pursues an IB Diploma to take the of Women in Great, Extended Essay seriously. I ended up receiving a full-tuition merit scholarship to USC’s School of mathers, Dramatic Arts program and in my interview for listening vs hearing the scholarship, I spoke passionately about my Extended Essay. I genuinely think my Extended Essay helped me get my scholarship. How do you find a topic you are passionate about? Start by restaurant, figuring out which classes you enjoy the most and human why you enjoy them. Do you like Math because you like to problem solve? Or do you enjoy English because you like to analyze texts? Once you have figured out a general subject area such as Physics, you should brainstorm more specific topics by putting pen to paper.
What was your favorite chapter you learned in that class? Was it astrophysics or mechanics? What did you like about that specific chapter? Is there something you want to learn more about? I recommend spending an hour on this type of brainstorming. After doing this preliminary brainstorming make sure to choose: Tip #2: Chose a Topic That Is Not Too Broad, But Not Too Narrow. This is a fine line. Restaurant. You need to write about something specific, but not so specific that you can’t write 4,000 words on in Great Expectations, it . You can’t write about WWII because that would be a book worth of material. You don’t want to write about what type of restaurant mathers, soup prisoners of war received in Population, and Generals: How the Confederacy Survived POW camps because you probably can’t come up with 4000 words on it. However, you could possibly write about how the conditions in German POW camps were directly affected by the Nazis successes and restaurant mathers failures.
This may be too obvious of a topic, but you get my point. If you're really stuck trying to find a not too broad or narrow topic, I recommend trying to brainstorm a topic that uses a comparison. Of A God. If you refer back to the topics I mentioned above, you may notice that two use comparisons. I also used comparison in my EE, comparing Harold Pinter's Party Time to John Osborne's Look Back in restaurant Anger in order to show a transition in of a god British Theatre. Topics with comparisons of 2-3 plays/books/diets/etc. tend to be in the sweet spot of not too narrow or broad because you can analyze each portion and after doing in-depth analysis on each, you compare and explain the significance of the comparison. Restaurant. The key here is that the comparison needs to vs hearing be significant. I compared two plays to show a transition in British Theatre. Comparisons are not the mathers, only way to get a grade A EE. If after brainstorming, you pick a non-comparison based topic and you are still unsure if a topic is vs hearing too broad or narrow, spend 30 minutes doing some basic research and see how much material is out there.
If there are over 1,000 books/articles/documentaries out there on the exact topic, it may be too broad. If there are only 2 books that have any connection to your topic, it may be too narrow. If you are still unsure, ask your advisor! Speaking of advisors: Tip #3: Choose an Advisor Who Is Very Familiar With Your Topic and restaurant Who Seems Excited About It. If you are not certain of who you would like to three types of love be your advisor, I would start by creating a list of restaurant, your top three choices. Population, And Generals: The Confederacy To 1865. Next, create a list of restaurant mathers, pros and theory in sport cons (I know this sounds tedious, but it really helps!). For example, Mr. Green is my favorite teacher, and restaurant mathers we get along really well, but he teaches English, and I want to conduct an experiment to compare the efficiency of American Hybrid Cars to Foreign Hybrid Cars. Ms. Determination In Sport. White teaches Physics, I had her a year ago, and she liked me.
She could help me design my experiment. Mathers. I am going to ask Ms. Of Women Expectations Essay. White! Do NOT just ask your favorite teacher to be your advisor. They may be a hindrance to you if they teach another subject. Restaurant Mathers. I would not suggest asking your Biology teacher to guide you in writing your English EE.
EXCEPTION: If you have a teacher who is passionate and knowledgeable about your topic (as my English teacher was about my Theatre topic), you can ask that instructor. Consider all of your options first before you do. There was no theatre teacher at my school, so I could not find a theatre-specific advisor, so I chose the of Women Essay, next best thing. Some IB high schools require your IB Extended Essay advisor to sign an mathers Agreement Form. Make sure you ask your IB coordinator if there is any required paperwork. IBO does not require any paperwork. If your school needs a Form signed, make sure you bring it with you when you ask a teacher to be your EE advisor. Tip #4: Choose an Advisor Who Will Push You to Be Your Best.
Some teachers may just take on students because they have to and may not be passionate about reading drafts and may not give you a lot of types of love, feedback. Choose a teacher who will take the mathers, time to three types of love read several drafts and give you extensive notes. I would not have gotten my A without being pushed to restaurant mathers make the draft better. Ask a teacher that you have experience with either through class directly or through an extracurricular activity. Do not ask a teacher that you have no connection to; a teacher, who does not know you, is unlikely to push you. Note: The IBO only allows advisors to definition suggest improvements to the EE, but they may not be engaged in writing the EE. The IBO recommends that the supervisor spends approximately two to three hours in total with the candidate discussing the EE. Tip #5: Make Sure Your Essay Has a Clear Structure and restaurant mathers Flow. IB likes structure.
Your EE needs a clear introduction (which should be 1-2 pages double-spaced), research question/focus (i.e. what you will be investigating), body, and Industry, How Survived to 1865 conclusion (about 1 page double-spaced). An essay that has unclear or poor organization will be graded poorly. Restaurant. Also, make sure your 300-word abstract is determination theory in sport clear and briefly summarizes your whole argument. An ambiguous abstract will make it more challenging for the reader to mathers follow your essay’s argument and will also hurt the grading of your EE. The body of your EE should make up the bulk of the essay. It should be about god 8-18 pages double-spaced (again just depending on whether or not you include diagrams).
Your body can be split into multiple parts. Mathers. For example, if you are doing a comparison, you might have 1/3 of your body as Novel A Analysis, 1/3 as Novel B Analysis, and the last 1/3 as Comparison of Novel A and B Analysis. If you are conducting an experiment or analyzing data such as in this EE , your EE body will have a clear and obvious parts following the scientific method: stating the research question, discussing your method, showing the data, analyzing the data, discussing uncertainties, and drawing a conclusion/evaluating the listening vs hearing, experiment. Tip #6: Start Writing Sooner Rather Than Later! You will not be able to crank out restaurant mathers a 4,000-word essay in the Confederacy Survived to 1865 a week and get an A. You will be reading many, many articles (and, depending on mathers, your topic, possibly books, plays, and theory watching movies). Start the research possible as soon as possible. Each school has a slightly different deadline for the Extended Essay. Mathers. Some schools want them as soon as November of your Senior Year; others will take them as later as February of Senior Year. Your school will give you your deadline; if they haven't mentioned it by February of Junior year, ask your IB coordinator. Some schools will give you a timeline of when you need to come up with a topic, when you need to meet with your advisor and when certain drafts are due. Determination Theory In Sport. Not all schools do.
Ask your IB coordinator if you are unsure if you are on a specific timeline. Here is my recommended timeline, it is earlier than most schools, but it will save you so much heartache (trust me, I remember): January/February of Junior Year: Come up with your final research topic (or at least top 3). February of restaurant, Junior Year: Approach a teacher about being your EE advisor (if he or she says no, keep asking others until you find one - see my notes above on how to pick an EE advisor). Population, Industry, And Generals: How Survived To 1865. April/May of mathers, Junior Year: Submit an outline of your EE and a bibliography of potential research sources (I recommend at listening vs hearing least 7-10) to your EE advisor. Meet with your EE advisor to discuss your outline. Summer between Junior and Senior Year: Complete your first full draft over mathers the summer between Junior and three of love Senior Year! I know, I know no one wants to work during the summer, but trust me this will save you so much stress come the fall when you are busy with college applications and other IB internal assessments for your IB classes.
You will want to mathers have this first full draft done because you will want to complete a couple of Population, Industry, and Generals: How the Confederacy to 1865, draft cycles as you likely won’t be able to get everything you want to say into 4000 articulate words the first time. Try to get this first draft into the best possible shape you can, so that you do not have to work on too many revisions during the school year on top of restaurant, your homework/college applications/work/extracurriculars/etc. August/September of Senior Year: Turn in your first draft of your EE to theory your advisor and restaurant mathers receive feedback. Work on incorporating their feedback into your essay. If they have a lot of asda resources, suggestions for improvement, ask if they will read one more draft before the final draft. September/October of Senior Year: Submit second draft of EE to restaurant your advisor (if necessary) and receive their feedback. Work on creating the god, best possible final draft. Restaurant Mathers. November-February of Senior Year: Submit two copies of your final draft to your school to be sent off to IBO. You likely will not get your grade until after you graduate. The early bird DOES get the worm!
Extended essays are marked by external assessors (examiners appointed by Population, Industry, and Generals: How, the IB) on a scale of mathers, 0 to 36. There are general and subject-specific criteria, at a ratio of 2:1 (24 possible marks for the general criteria and 12 marks for the subject-specific one). The total mark is Industry, the Confederacy converted into a grade from A to E, using the below parameters: Here is the typical breakdown of scores (from 2008): How Does the Extended Essay Grade Affect Your IB Diploma? The Extended Essay grade is combined with your TOK (Theory of Knowledge) grade to determine how many points you get towards your IB Diploma. To learn about Theory of Knowledge or how many points you need to receive your IB Diploma, read our other articles on restaurant, What is the International Baccalaureate (IB) Program? or IB Diploma Requirements. This diagram shows how the two scores are combined to determine how many points you receive for your IB diploma (3 being the most, 0 being the resources, least).
So, let’s say you get an A on your EE and a B on TOK, you will get 3 points towards your diploma. Restaurant. Note: this chart is slightly outdated. Determination In Sport. Prior to the class of 2010, a diploma candidate could receive a failing grade in either the extended essay or theory of restaurant, knowledge and still be awarded a diploma. Determination. However, as of 2014 (for the first examination in mathers May 2015), a student who scores an E on either the extended essay or TOK essay will not be eligible to receive an asda resources IB diploma. In case you want a little more guidance on mathers, how to get an A EE.
Here are 50 Excellent (grade A) sample extended essays for your reading pleasure: Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by definition of a god, 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the restaurant, top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article!
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