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3 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for Lua, that is, the set of C functions available to jay sean biography the host program to communicate with Lua. All API functions and related types and Privatization of American Prisons, constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in the API may be provided as a macro instead. All such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is jay sean always a Lua state), and so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in barriers definition most C libraries, the Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency. However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with a proper definition for the macro luai_apicheck , in file luaconf.h . Lua uses a virtual stack to jay sean biography pass values to and from C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.). Whenever Lua calls C, the homogamy theory, called function gets a new stack, which is independent of previous stacks and jay sean, of stacks of C functions that are still active. This stack initially contains any arguments to the C function and it is where the C function pushes its results to be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ).
For convenience, most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline. Instead, they can refer to any element in the stack by using an index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an of the Common Fairy Tale offset relative to the top of the stack. More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto the stack first) and index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the last element (that is, the element at the top) and index -n represents the first element. We say that an index is valid if it lies between 1 and the stack top (that is, if 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). When you interact with Lua API, you are responsible for ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . You can use the function lua_checkstack to grow the stack size.
Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that at least LUA_MINSTACK stack positions are available. LUA_MINSTACK is defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack. Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the available stack space, that is, indices up to the maximum stack size you have set through lua_checkstack . Such indices are called acceptable indices . More formally, we define an acceptable index as follows: Note that 0 is never an biography acceptable index. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to Privatization of American Prisons Essay C code but which are not in the stack. Pseudo-indices are used to access the thread environment, the function environment, the registry, and jay sean biography, the upvalues of homogamy theory, a C function (see §3.4). The thread environment (where global variables live) is always at pseudo-index LUA_GLOBALSINDEX . The environment of the running C function is always at pseudo-index LUA_ENVIRONINDEX . To access and jay sean, change the value of global variables, you can use regular table operations over an environment table. For instance, to Essay on Baroque Style access the jay sean biography, value of a global variable, do.
When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure ; these values are called upvalues and are accessible to the function whenever it is called (see lua_pushcclosure ). Whenever a C function is called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices. These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at Essay Basilicas, position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and so on. Any access to lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is greater than the number of upvalues of the current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable (but invalid) index. Lua provides a registry , a pre-defined table that can be used by any C code to store whatever Lua value it needs to biography store.
This table is always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX . Any C library can store data into this table, but it should take care to choose keys different from those used by other libraries, to avoid collisions. Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name or a light userdata with the address of a C object in your code. The integer keys in the registry are used by the reference mechanism, implemented by the auxiliary library, and therefore should not be used for other purposes. Internally, Lua uses the Essay on Baroque Style Basilicas, C longjmp facility to handle errors. Jay Sean Biography. (You can also choose to use exceptions if you use C++; see file luaconf.h .) When Lua faces any error (such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump. A protected environment uses setjmp to Style Basilicas set a recover point; any error jumps to the most recent active recover point. Most functions in the API can throw an error, for instance due to a memory allocation error. The documentation for each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an error by jay sean biography calling lua_error . Here we list all functions and types from the The Evolution of the Fairy Tale Essay, C API in alphabetical order. Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is biography how many elements the function pops from the homogamy theory, stack. The second field, p , is jay sean biography how many elements the function pushes onto the stack. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the definition, function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the function pops/pushes by biography looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on the stack). The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the Style, function never throws any error; ' m ' means the function may throw an error only due to biography not enough memory; ' e ' means the function may throw other kinds of errors; ' v ' means the function may throw an error on purpose.
The type of the memory-allocation function used by Lua states. The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the same. Its arguments are ud , an opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to of the Fairy Tale the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the block; nsize , the new size of the block. ptr is NULL if and only if osize is jay sean zero. Essay. When nsize is zero, the allocator must return NULL ; if osize is not zero, it should free the block pointed to by ptr . When nsize is not zero, the allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fill the request. Jay Sean. When nsize is why health and safety not zero and osize is zero, the allocator should behave like malloc . When nsize and osize are not zero, the jay sean biography, allocator behaves like realloc . Homogamy Theory. Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for the allocator function. It is used in biography the auxiliary library by luaL_newstate . This code assumes that free(NULL) has no effect and that realloc(NULL, size) is The Evolution of the Essay equivalent to malloc(size) . ANSI C ensures both behaviors. Sets a new panic function and returns the old one. If an error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function and then calls exit(EXIT_FAILURE) , thus exiting the host application.
Your panic function can avoid this exit by jay sean biography never returning (e.g., doing a long jump). The panic function can access the error message at the top of the stack. Calls a function. To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the function to be called is pushed onto the stack; then, the arguments to the function are pushed in direct order; that is, the first argument is pushed first. Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of arguments that you pushed onto the stack. Homogamy Theory. All arguments and the function value are popped from the stack when the function is jay sean called. The function results are pushed onto the stack when the function returns. The number of tariff barriers, results is adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the function are pushed. Biography. Lua takes care that the returned values fit into the stack space. The function results are pushed onto the stack in direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the call the of American Prisons, last result is on the top of the stack.
Any error inside the called function is jay sean biography propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the host program can do the equivalent to on Baroque Style this Lua code: Here it is in jay sean C: Note that the code above is balanced: at its end, the stack is back to its original configuration. This is considered good programming practice.
Type for The Evolution of the Essay C functions. In order to jay sean communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the way parameters and results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in its stack in direct order (the first argument is pushed first). So, when the function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the tariff, number of jay sean, arguments received by of the Common Tale the function. The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and its last argument is at jay sean, index lua_gettop(L) . To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto the stack, in direct order (the first result is of asian americans pushed first), and jay sean biography, returns the number of results. Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly discarded by Lua. Why Health. Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results. As an example, the following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and returns their average and sum:
Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in the stack. It returns false if it cannot grow the stack to that size. This function never shrinks the stack; if the stack is jay sean biography already larger than the and safety is important, new size, it is left unchanged. Destroys all objects in biography the given Lua state (calling the Essay, corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and frees all dynamic memory used by this state. On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends. Biography. On the other hand, long-running programs, such as a daemon or a web server, might need to release states as soon as they are not needed, to avoid growing too large. Concatenates the homogamy theory, n values at the top of the stack, pops them, and leaves the result at the top. If n is 1, the result is the jay sean, single value on homogamy theory the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is 0, the result is the empty string. Concatenation is performed following the usual semantics of Lua (see §2.5.4). Calls the C function func in protected mode. func starts with only one element in biography its stack, a light userdata containing ud . Privatization Of American Essay. In case of errors, lua_cpcall returns the same error codes as lua_pcall , plus the error object on biography the top of the stack; otherwise, it returns zero, and tariff, does not change the stack. All values returned by func are discarded.
Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. The new table has space pre-allocated for narr array elements and biography, nrec non-array elements. This pre-allocation is useful when you know exactly how many elements the table will have. Otherwise you can use the Style Basilicas, function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Receives a Lua function on the top of the stack and jay sean biography, produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in a function equivalent to significant of asian states was first sparked by the one dumped. As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the biography, given data to write them. The value returned is the error code returned by immigration sparked the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the Lua function from the stack.
Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and jay sean, index2 are equal, following the barriers, semantics of the Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Generates a Lua error. The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on the stack top. This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns. (see luaL_error ). Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in use by Lua.
LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the remainder of dividing the current amount of bytes of memory in use by Lua by 1024. LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of garbage collection. The step size is controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the jay sean biography, step size you must experimentally tune the value of data . The function returns 1 if the step finished a garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the pause. LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for significant of asian united was first sparked the step multiplier of the biography, collector (see §2.10). Essay. The function returns the jay sean, previous value of the step multiplier. Returns the memory-allocation function of a given state.
If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the The Evolution Essay, opaque pointer passed to biography lua_newstate . Pushes onto the stack the why health and safety, environment table of the value at jay sean, the given index. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Pushes onto the stack the value of the global name . It is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack the metatable of the value at the given acceptable index. If the index is not valid, or if the value does not have a metatable, the function returns 0 and pushes nothing on the stack.
Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index and k is the of American Essay, value at the top of the stack. This function pops the key from the stack (putting the resulting value in its place). As in biography Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for of American Essay the index event (see §2.8). Returns the index of the top element in the stack. Because indices start at 1, this result is equal to the number of elements in the stack (and so 0 means an empty stack). Moves the top element into the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to open space. Jay Sean Biography. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an The Evolution Common Fairy Essay actual stack position.
The type used by the Lua API to represent integral values. By default it is jay sean biography a ptrdiff_t , which is americans united was first sparked by usually the jay sean biography, largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index has type boolean, and Privatization of American Prisons, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a C function, and biography, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is and safety a light userdata, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is jay sean biography nil , and homogamy theory, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is biography not valid (that is, it refers to homogamy theory an element outside the current stack), and biography, 0 otherwise.
Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack) or if the value at this index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a number or a string convertible to a number, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a string or a number (which is homogamy theory always convertible to a string), and biography, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the homogamy theory, value at the given acceptable index is a table, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the jay sean biography, value at the given acceptable index is a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a userdata (either full or light), and 0 otherwise.
Returns 1 if the value at acceptable index index1 is smaller than the tariff barriers, value at acceptable index index2 , following the semantics of the Lua operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Loads a Lua chunk. If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the biography, stack. Otherwise, it pushes an error message. The return values of of asian americans united states sparked by, lua_load are: 0: no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during pre-compilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. This function only loads a chunk; it does not run it. lua_load automatically detects whether the chunk is text or binary, and loads it accordingly (see program luac ).
The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an biography opaque value passed to the reader function. The chunkname argument gives a name to the chunk, which is used for Prisons error messages and in jay sean biography debug information (see §3.8). Creates a new, independent state. Returns NULL if cannot create the state (due to lack of memory). The argument f is the of the Common Tale, allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for jay sean biography this state through this function.
The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua simply passes to why health and safety is important the allocator in jay sean biography every call. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. Why Health. It is equivalent to biography lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. The new state returned by this function shares with the original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an of the Common Fairy independent execution stack. There is no explicit function to close or to destroy a thread. Biography. Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object.
This function allocates a new block of Basilicas, memory with the given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the biography, block address, and returns this address. Userdata represent C values in The Evolution Tale Lua. A full userdata represents a block of memory. It is an jay sean biography object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and you can detect when it is being collected. A full userdata is only equal to to the united states sparked by itself (under raw equality). When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the metamethod and marks the userdata as finalized. When this userdata is collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory.
Pops a key from the stack, and pushes a key-value pair from the table at jay sean, the given index (the next pair after the given key). Homogamy Theory. If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on jay sean biography a key, unless you know that the key is actually a string. Recall that lua_tolstring changes the value at the given index; this confuses the next call to homogamy theory lua_next . The type of numbers in Lua. Jay Sean. By default, it is double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through the configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Returns the length of the value at the given acceptable index: for strings, this is the string length; for tables, this is the result of the barriers, length operator (' # '); for userdata, this is the size of the block of memory allocated for the userdata; for biography other values, it is 0. Calls a function in protected mode. Both nargs and barriers, nresults have the jay sean biography, same meaning as in lua_call . If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and returns an error code.
Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and its arguments from the stack. If errfunc is 0, then the error message returned on immigration americans united states was first sparked by the stack is exactly the original error message. Otherwise, errfunc is the biography, stack index of an error handler function . (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and significant of asian states, its return value will be the message returned on the stack by jay sean biography lua_pcall . Typically, the error handler function is used to of the Fairy Essay add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Such information cannot be gathered after the return of jay sean, lua_pcall , since by then the significant immigration americans to the sparked, stack has unwound. The lua_pcall function returns 0 in biography case of success or one of the following error codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error.
LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. For such errors, Lua does not call the error handler function. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the error handler function. Pops n elements from the stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto the stack. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is called. To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is called to create and push the Style, C function onto the stack, with the jay sean biography, argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the stack.
The maximum value for n is 255. Pushes a C function onto the stack. This function receives a pointer to a C function and pushes onto homogamy theory the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in Lua must follow the correct protocol to receive its parameters and jay sean biography, return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to this string. It is similar to the C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to Basilicas allocate space for the result: the biography, result is a Lua string and Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. There are no flags, widths, or precisions. The conversion specifiers can only be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an barriers definition int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an jay sean int as a character). Pushes a number with value n onto homogamy theory the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto the stack.
Userdata represent C values in Lua. A light userdata represents a pointer. It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is not collected (as it was never created). A light userdata is equal to any light userdata with the same C address. This macro is equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is a literal string. In these cases, it automatically provides the string length.
Pushes the string pointed to biography by s with size len onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at barriers, s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string can contain embedded zeros. Pushes a nil value onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is assumed to end at jay sean, the first zero.
Pushes the thread represented by L onto the stack. Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of its state. Pushes a copy of the element at the given valid index onto the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of arguments. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid. Similar to Essay lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto the stack the biography, value t[n] , where t is the value at the given valid index.
The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Similar to lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and significant of asian americans to the states by, v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . Every time it needs another piece of the chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter. The reader must return a pointer to a block of biography, memory with a new piece of the chunk and set size to the block size. The block must exist until the reader function is called again.
To signal the end of the immigration of asian americans states was first by, chunk, the reader must return NULL or set size to biography zero. The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero. Sets the C function f as the new value of global name . Basilicas. It is defined as a macro: Removes the element at the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to fill the gap. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. Moves the top element into the given position (and pops it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the jay sean biography, value at the given position). Starts and resumes a coroutine in a given thread. To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto its stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with narg being the homogamy theory, number of arguments. This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution. When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to biography lua_yield , or all values returned by the body function. And Safety Is Important. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, 0 if the biography, coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an error code in case of errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of errors, the stack is not unwound, so you can use the debug API over it. The error message is on the top of the stack.
To restart a coroutine, you put on its stack only the values to be passed as results from yield , and then call lua_resume . Changes the allocator function of a given state to definition f with user data ud . Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new environment for the value at the given index. If the value at the given index is neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. Otherwise it returns 1. Does the jay sean biography, equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at immigration of asian americans united states was first sparked by, the top of the stack. This function pops the jay sean, value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8).
Pops a value from the why health, stack and sets it as the new value of jay sean, global name . Of The Tale Essay. It is jay sean defined as a macro: Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new metatable for the value at Essay on Baroque Style Basilicas, the given acceptable index. Does the jay sean, equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index, v is the value at tariff barriers definition, the top of the stack, and k is the value just below the top. This function pops both the key and the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for jay sean the newindex event (see §2.8). Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and sets the stack top to on Baroque Basilicas this index. If the new top is larger than the old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed. Opaque structure that keeps the whole state of a Lua interpreter. The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about a state is kept in this structure.
A pointer to jay sean this state must be passed as the first argument to tariff barriers definition every function in the library, except to lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch. Returns the jay sean biography, status of the homogamy theory, thread L . The status can be 0 for jay sean biography a normal thread, an error code if the thread finished its execution with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is suspended. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to why health and safety is important a C boolean value (0 or 1). Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for any Lua value different from false and nil ; otherwise it returns 0. Jay Sean Biography. It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index. (If you want to accept only Essay Style Basilicas actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the value's type.) Converts a value at the given acceptable index to jay sean a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to tariff definition a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0. If the number is not an jay sean integer, it is Privatization Essay truncated in some non-specified way.
Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C string. If len is biography not NULL , it also sets *len with the string length. The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the actual value in the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is Privatization Prisons applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the Lua state. This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in C), but can contain other zeros in its body. Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the biography, stack. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers. There is on Baroque Style no way to convert the pointer back to its original value.
Typically this function is used only for debug information. Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to jay sean NULL . Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value at the given acceptable index is Tale Essay a full userdata, returns its block address. If the value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the value in the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for a non-valid index (that is, an index to an empty stack position). Jay Sean. The types returned by lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the homogamy theory, type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the values returned by lua_type . The type of the writer function used by lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to biography lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an immigration of asian americans states was first error and stops lua_dump from calling the jay sean, writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the of the Common Tale, same global state. This function pops n values from the stack from , and pushes them onto the stack to . Yields a coroutine. This function should only be called as the return expression of a C function, as follows:
When a C function calls lua_yield in that way, the jay sean biography, running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. Immigration United States. The parameter nresults is the jay sean biography, number of values from the stack that are passed as results to lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Homogamy Theory. Instead, it offers a special interface by means of biography, functions and hooks . This interface allows the tariff barriers, construction of different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of jay sean, information about an Privatization Prisons active function. lua_getstack fills only the private part of this structure, for later use. To fill the other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the jay sean, following meaning: source : If the why health and safety, function was defined in a string, then source is that string. If the function was defined in a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by the file name. short_src : a printable version of source , to be used in jay sean biography error messages. linedefined : the line number where the definition of the function starts. lastlinedefined : the line number where the definition of the function ends. what : the string Lua if the function is a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the main part of a chunk, and tail if it was a function that did a tail call. In the Privatization Prisons Essay, latter case, Lua has no other information about the jay sean, function. Why Health Is Important. currentline : the current line where the given function is executing. When no line information is jay sean available, currentline is set to -1. name : a reasonable name for Basilicas the given function.
Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field. The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to find a suitable name. Jay Sean. If it cannot find a name, then name is set to NULL . Homogamy Theory. namewhat : explains the name field. The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to biography how the function was called. (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to apply.) nups : the number of upvalues of the function. Returns the why health and safety, current hook function. Returns the current hook count. Returns the current hook mask. Returns information about a specific function or function invocation. To get information about a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about jay sean biography a function you push it onto the stack and Essay, start the what string with the character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the jay sean, function in the top of the stack.) For instance, to Essay Basilicas know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code: Each character in the string what selects some fields of the structure ar to be filled or a value to be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the function that is running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the numbers of the jay sean biography, lines that are valid on the function. (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point.
Non-valid lines include empty lines and homogamy theory, comments.) This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an invalid option in what ). Gets information about a local variable of a given activation record. The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to biography lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). The index n selects which local variable to inspect (1 is the first parameter or active local variable, and so on, until the last active local variable). lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto the stack and returns its name. Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and The Evolution Fairy, C function locals). Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is jay sean biography greater than the The Evolution Tale Essay, number of active local variables. Get information about the jay sean, interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the significant americans to the united states sparked by, activation record of the function executing at a given level.
Level 0 is the current running function, whereas level n+1 is the jay sean biography, function that has called level n . When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about a closure's upvalue. Homogamy Theory. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the function uses, and jay sean biography, that are consequently included in tariff definition its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto the stack, and returns its name. Jay Sean Biography. funcindex points to the closure in the stack. (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the whole function. So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues. Homogamy Theory. For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the jay sean biography, hook. Lua identifies these events with the following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILRET , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for line events, the field currentline is also set. To get the value of immigration americans to the was first sparked by, any other field in ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRET , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET . In the jay sean biography, latter case, Lua is simulating a return from a function that did a tail call; in this case, it is useless to The Evolution of the Fairy Tale call lua_getinfo . While Lua is jay sean running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks.
Sets the debugging hook function. Argument f is the hook function. Homogamy Theory. mask specifies on which events the hook will be called: it is formed by biography a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . For each event, the hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the interpreter calls a function. The hook is called just after Lua enters the new function, before the function gets its arguments. The return hook: is called when the interpreter returns from a function. The hook is called just before Lua leaves the function. You have no access to the values to be returned by the function. The line hook: is called when the interpreter is homogamy theory about to start the execution of a new line of code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to the same line). (This event only jay sean biography happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is of American Prisons Essay called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. Jay Sean Biography. (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) A hook is disabled by setting mask to zero. Sets the value of a local variable of a given activation record.
Parameters ar and n are as in lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the value at Essay Style Basilicas, the top of the stack to the variable and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is jay sean biography greater than the Privatization of American, number of active local variables. Sets the value of a closure's upvalue. Jay Sean. It assigns the value at the top of the stack to the upvalue and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Parameters funcindex and n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues.
The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to of asian to the united interface C with Lua. While the basic API provides the primitive functions for all interactions between C and Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions from the auxiliary library are defined in jay sean biography header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on top of the basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments. Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt* . All of these functions throw an error if the check is not satisfied. Because the error message is Essay formatted for arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for other stack values. Here we list all functions and types from the auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the character c to jay sean biography the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the string pointed to by s with length l to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may contain embedded zeros. Adds to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Definition. The string may not contain embedded zeros.
Adds the value at the top of the stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value. This is the only function on string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on the stack, which is the biography, value to be added to the buffer. Checks whether cond is true. If not, raises an error with the why health, following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: Raises an error with the following message, where func is jay sean retrieved from the call stack: This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to homogamy theory build Lua strings piecemeal. Its pattern of use is as follows: First you declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Biography. Then you add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the on Baroque Style Basilicas, luaL_add* functions. You finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the final string on the top of the stack. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots.
So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the stack is. Jay Sean Biography. You can use the stack between successive calls to of American buffer operations as long as that use is balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. (The only exception to this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is jay sean back to its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the final string on why health its top. Initializes a buffer B . This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod. If the object at biography, index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field and Privatization of American Prisons, passes the object as its only argument. In this case this function returns 1 and jay sean biography, pushes onto the stack the value returned by the call. Homogamy Theory. If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on the stack).
Checks whether the function has an argument of jay sean biography, any type (including nil ) at position narg . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and of American Prisons Essay, returns this number cast to an int . Checks whether the jay sean biography, function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a long . Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and on Baroque Style, returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and jay sean, returns this number. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and why health and safety, searches for this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Jay Sean. Returns the index in the array where the string was found. The Evolution Of The Common Fairy Tale. Raises an error if the argument is not a string or if the string cannot be found. If def is biography not NULL , the Essay Basilicas, function uses def as a default value when there is no argument narg or if this argument is nil . This is biography a useful function for mapping strings to C enums. (The usual convention in Lua libraries is to Privatization of American Prisons use strings instead of numbers to jay sean select options.)
Grows the of American Prisons, stack size to top + sz elements, raising an error if the stack cannot grow to biography that size. msg is an additional text to go into the error message. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and significant americans united sparked, returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of biography, that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg has type t . See lua_type for the encoding of types for t . Checks whether the function argument narg is is important a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and runs the given file. It is defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors.
Loads and runs the biography, given string. It is significant americans united states sparked defined as the jay sean, following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Raises an significant americans was first sparked by error. Biography. The error message format is given by tariff definition fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of jay sean, lua_pushfstring . It also adds at Basilicas, the beginning of the message the file name and the line number where the jay sean biography, error occurred, if this information is Essay Style available. This function never returns, but it is an idiom to jay sean biography use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto the stack the of the Fairy Tale Essay, field e from the metatable of the object at index obj . If the object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and pushes nothing. Pushes onto the stack the jay sean, metatable associated with name tname in Prisons Essay the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Creates a copy of jay sean biography, string s by replacing any occurrence of the string p with the significant immigration to the united states was first, string r . Jay Sean Biography. Pushes the Essay on Baroque Basilicas, resulting string on jay sean biography the stack and returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk.
This function uses lua_load to Style Basilicas load the chunk in jay sean the buffer pointed to by buff with size sz . This function returns the same results as lua_load . name is the homogamy theory, chunk name, used for jay sean debug information and why health and safety is important, error messages. Loads a file as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the file named filename . If filename is jay sean NULL , then it loads from the standard input. The first line in the file is ignored if it starts with a # . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file. As lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. If the registry already has the key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for of American Essay userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and returns 1. In both cases pushes onto the stack the jay sean biography, final value associated with tname in homogamy theory the registry.
Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) that prints an error message to biography the standard error output in case of fatal errors. Returns the new state, or NULL if there is a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into homogamy theory the given state. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to an int . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Jay Sean Biography. Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Style Basilicas. Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a long . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an jay sean error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error.
If l is not NULL , fills the The Evolution Common, position *l with the results's length. If the jay sean, function argument narg is a number, returns this number. Style. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is jay sean a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. Returns an address to a space of size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy a string to be added to buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Significant Immigration Of Asian To The United Was First Sparked. After copying the string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the size of the string to actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the use of jay sean, buffer B leaving the final string on the top of the stack. Creates and returns a reference , in the table at index t , for the object at the top of the stack (and pops the object).
A reference is a unique integer key. Of American Prisons. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into jay sean biography table t , luaL_ref ensures the Basilicas, uniqueness of the key it returns. You can retrieve an object referred by reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the object at the top of the stack is nil , luaL_ref returns the jay sean, constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to be different from any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for arrays of functions to be registered by Prisons Essay luaL_register . name is the function name and jay sean, func is a pointer to the function. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an united states was first by sentinel entry in which both name and func are NULL . Opens a library. When called with libname equal to NULL , it simply registers all functions in the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into the table on the top of the stack. When called with a non-null libname , luaL_register creates a new table t , sets it as the jay sean, value of the global variable libname , sets it as the value of package.loaded[libname] , and and safety is important, registers on it all functions in jay sean biography the list l . If there is a table in package.loaded[libname] or in variable libname , reuses this table instead of creating a new one. In any case the on Baroque Style, function leaves the table on the top of the stack. Returns the name of the biography, type of the value at the given index.
Generates an error with a message like the Privatization of American Prisons, following: where location is produced by luaL_where , func is the name of the current function, and rt is the type name of the actual argument. Releases reference ref from the table at index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the biography, table, so that the referred object can be collected. The reference ref is also freed to be used again. Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the current position of the control at level lvl in the call stack. Privatization Essay. Typically this string has the following format: Level 0 is the jay sean biography, running function, level 1 is the function that called the running function, etc. This function is used to build a prefix for error messages. The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Some of these functions provide essential services to Essay Style the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to outside services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an jay sean biography implementation in on Baroque C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and are provided as separate C modules.
Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and output; operating system facilities; debug facilities. Except for the basic and package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of its objects. To have access to these libraries, the biography, C host program should call the tariff barriers definition, luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Alternatively, it can open them individually by calling luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the package library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and luaopen_debug (for the biography, debug library). These functions are declared in tariff barriers lualib.h and should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by biography using lua_call . The basic library provides some core functions to Lua.
If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to The Evolution Fairy provide implementations for some of jay sean, its facilities. This function is a generic interface to the garbage collector. It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect: performs a full garbage-collection cycle. This is the default option. stop: stops the garbage collector. restart: restarts the garbage collector. count: returns the total memory in use by Lua (in Kbytes). Of American Essay. step: performs a garbage-collection step. The step size is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to biography control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of arg . Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. setpause: sets arg as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Of American Prisons Essay. Returns the previous value for pause . setstepmul: sets arg as the biography, new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). Privatization Of American Prisons. Returns the previous value for step . Usually, error adds some information about the error position at the beginning of the message.
The level argument specifies how to get the error position. With level 1 (the default), the jay sean, error position is where the error function was called. Level 2 points the error to where the The Evolution Common Fairy Tale Essay, function that called error was called; and so on. Passing a level 0 avoids the jay sean, addition of error position information to is important the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value. Otherwise, returns the biography, metatable of the given object. Returns three values: an iterator function, the table t , and 0, so that the construction. will iterate over the pairs ( 1,t ), ( 2,t ), ···, up to the first integer key absent from the table.
Loads a chunk using function func to The Evolution of the Fairy Tale Essay get its pieces. Biography. Each call to func must return a string that concatenates with previous results. Americans States Was First. A return of an biography empty string, nil , or no value signals the end of the chunk. If there are no errors, returns the compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the why health and safety, error message. The environment of the returned function is the jay sean, global environment. chunkname is Style Basilicas used as the chunk name for error messages and debug information. When absent, it defaults to =(load) . Similar to load , but gets the chunk from jay sean, file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is homogamy theory given. Similar to jay sean load , but gets the Essay, chunk from the biography, given string.
To load and tariff barriers definition, run a given string, use the idiom. When absent, chunkname defaults to the given string. Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table. Its first argument is jay sean a table and its second argument is an index in this table. next returns the next index of the table and its associated value. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value. When called with the last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . On Baroque Basilicas. If the second argument is absent, then it is interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is jay sean empty. The order in which the tariff definition, indices are enumerated is not specified, even for numeric indices . (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for or the ipairs function.)
The behavior of biography, next is undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to a non-existent field in the table. You may however modify existing fields. In particular, you may clear existing fields. Returns three values: the next function, the table t , and nil , so that the construction. will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for of asian americans states was first sparked the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal. Calls function f with the given arguments in protected mode . Biography. This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the error and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors.
In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index . Otherwise, index must be the string # , and select returns the total number of extra arguments it received. Sets the environment to be used by and safety the given function. Biography. f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the function at that stack level: Level 1 is the function calling setfenv . setfenv returns the given function. As a special case, when f is 0 setfenv changes the why health is important, environment of the running thread. In this case, setfenv returns no values. Sets the biography, metatable for the given table. (You cannot change the metatable of other types from Lua, only from C.) If metatable is nil , removes the metatable of the given table. If the original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error.
This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the of American Prisons Essay, base to interpret the numeral. The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive. In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35. Biography. In base 10 (the default), the number can have a decimal part, as well as an why health is important optional exponent part (see §2.1). In other bases, only unsigned integers are accepted. If the metatable of e has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the corresponding value with e as argument, and uses the result of the call as its result. except that the above code can be written only for a fixed number of elements. Jay Sean Biography. By default, i is 1 and j is the length of the list, as defined by Essay on Baroque Style the length operator (see §2.5.5). This function is similar to pcall , except that you can set a new error handler. xpcall calls function f in jay sean biography protected mode, using err as the of asian americans states was first sparked, error handler.
Any error inside f is not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the error, calls the err function with the original error object, and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. Jay Sean Biography. In case of any error, xpcall returns false plus the result from err . The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and come inside the table coroutine . See §2.11 for a general description of coroutines. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns this new coroutine, an object with type thread . Starts or continues the execution of why health and safety, coroutine co . The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The values val1 , ··· are passed as the biography, arguments to the body function. If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the values val1 , ··· are passed as the on Baroque Style, results from the yield. If the jay sean biography, coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the coroutine terminates).
If there is Privatization of American Prisons Essay any error, resume returns false plus the biography, error message. Returns the immigration to the was first sparked, running coroutine, or nil when called by the main thread. Returns the status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is suspended in a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is called. Any arguments passed to the function behave as the extra arguments to biography resume . Returns the same values returned by why health and safety is important resume , except the first boolean. In case of error, propagates the biography, error. Suspends the tariff definition, execution of the calling coroutine. Jay Sean. The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an iterator.
Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading and building modules in significant americans to the united was first sparked by Lua. It exports two of its functions directly in the global environment: require and module . Everything else is exported in a table package . Creates a module. If there is a table in package.loaded[name] , this table is the module. Otherwise, if there is a global table t with the biography, given name, this table is the of the Common, module. Otherwise creates a new table t and jay sean, sets it as the value of the global name and the value of package.loaded[name] . This function also initializes t._NAME with the given name, t._M with the module ( t itself), and t._PACKAGE with the package name (the full module name minus last component; see below). Finally, module sets t as the new environment of the current function and why health is important, the new value of biography, package.loaded[name] , so that require returns t . If name is a compound name (that is, one with components separated by dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for each component. For instance, if name is a.b.c , then module stores the module table in field c of field b of Privatization, global a . This function can receive optional options after the jay sean, module name, where each option is a function to be applied over the module. Loads the given module. The function starts by looking into the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is already loaded. If it is, then require returns the Essay, value stored at package.loaded[modname] . Otherwise, it tries to find a loader for the module. To find a loader, require is biography guided by the package.loaders array.
By changing this array, we can change how require looks for a module. The following explanation is based on the default configuration for package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname] . And Safety Is Important. If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the path stored in package.path . Jay Sean Biography. If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the path stored in package.cpath . If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ). Once a loader is found, require calls the loader with a single argument, modname . If the loader returns any value, require assigns the returned value to definition package.loaded[modname] . If the loader returns no value and has not assigned any value to package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry. In any case, require returns the final value of package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require signals an error. The path used by require to search for a C loader. Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in biography the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by require to control which modules are already loaded. When you require a module modname and package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the value stored there. A table used by require to control how to load modules. Each entry in this table is Essay Style a searcher function . When looking for jay sean a module, require calls each of these searchers in ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say).
Lua initializes this table with four functions. The first searcher simply looks for a loader in the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at package.path . Barriers. A path is a sequence of templates separated by semicolons. For each template, the searcher will change each interrogation mark in jay sean the template by filename , which is the module name with each dot replaced by a directory separator (such as / in Unix); then it will try to open the Style, resulting file name. So, for instance, if the Lua path is the string. the search for a Lua file for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.lua , ./foo.lc , and /usr/local/foo/init.lua , in that order. The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the path given by the variable package.cpath . For instance, if the C path is the jay sean, string. the searcher for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in that order. Significant Of Asian Americans To The Sparked By. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the application with the library.
Then it tries to find a C function inside the library to be used as the loader. The name of this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is replaced by an underscore. Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the first hyphen is removed. For instance, if the module name is a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an jay sean all-in-one loader . It searches the C path for a library for why health and safety the root name of the given module. For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for a C library for a . If found, it looks into it for an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . Jay Sean. With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function.
Dynamically links the host program with the C library libname . Inside this library, looks for a function funcname and returns this function as a C function. (So, funcname must follow the protocol (see lua_CFunction )). This is a low-level function. It completely bypasses the package and module system. Barriers. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and jay sean biography, does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the complete file name of the C library, including if necessary a path and extension. funcname must be the exact name exported by the C library (which may depend on the C compiler and linker used). This function is not supported by ANSI C. As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the dlfcn standard). The path used by require to search for a Lua loader. At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in luaconf.h , if the environment variable is not defined.
Any ;; in tariff barriers definition the value of the environment variable is replaced by the default path. A table to jay sean store loaders for specific modules (see require ). Sets a metatable for module with its __index field referring to the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the global environment. To be used as an immigration americans to the was first option to function module . This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and pattern matching. When indexing a string in Lua, the first character is at position 1 (not at jay sean, 0, as in C). Indices are allowed to be negative and are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the string.
Thus, the last character is at position -1, and so on. The string library provides all its functions inside the table string . It also sets a metatable for strings where the __index field points to the string table. Therefore, you can use the string functions in Essay on Baroque Style Basilicas object-oriented style. For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms.
Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later loadstring on this string returns a copy of the function. function must be a Lua function without upvalues. string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) If the pattern has captures, then in a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the two indices. will produce the string: The options c , d , E , e , f , g , G , i , o , u , X , and x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and s expect a string. This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to the q option.
As an biography example, the following loop. will iterate over all the of the Fairy, words from string s , printing one per line. The next example collects all pairs key=value from the jay sean biography, given string into a table: For this function, a ' ^ ' at the start of a pattern does not work as an homogamy theory anchor, as this would prevent the iteration. If repl is jay sean a string, then its value is Privatization Prisons Essay used for replacement. Biography. The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in tariff barriers definition repl of the form % n , with n between 1 and jay sean, 9, stands for Prisons the value of the n -th captured substring (see below). Jay Sean Biography. The sequence %0 stands for the whole match. The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is a table, then the table is queried for every match, using the significant immigration americans to the was first sparked, first capture as the biography, key; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is used as the is important, key.
If repl is a function, then this function is jay sean called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is passed as a sole argument. If the value returned by the table query or by the function call is a string or a number, then it is Prisons used as the replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the original match is jay sean biography kept in the string). Here are some examples: A character class is used to represent a set of characters. The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the magic characters ^$()%.*+-? ) represents the tariff barriers, character x itself. . : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. %z : represents the character with representation 0. % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the character x . This is the standard way to jay sean biography escape the magic characters. Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by barriers definition a ' % ' when used to represent itself in jay sean a pattern. [ set ] : represents the class which is the union of all characters in homogamy theory set . Jay Sean. A range of characters can be specified by separating the end characters of the range with a ' - '. All classes % x described above can also be used as components in set . All other characters in set represent themselves. For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the Fairy, underscore, [0-7] represents the octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the jay sean, octal digits plus the of the Tale, lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and classes is not defined.
Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. Jay Sean. [^ set ] : represents the complement of set , where set is interpreted as above. For all classes represented by single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the complement of the class. For instance, %S represents all non-space characters. The definitions of letter, space, and other character groups depend on the current locale. In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. Privatization Of American Prisons Essay. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in the class; % n , for n between 1 and 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the x and y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the biography, string from significant to the united states sparked, left to right, counting +1 for an x and jay sean, -1 for a y , the ending y is the first y where the count reaches 0. For instance, the item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. A pattern is a sequence of pattern items. A ' ^ ' at the beginning of a pattern anchors the match at the beginning of the subject string.
A ' $ ' at the end of a pattern anchors the match at the end of the subject string. The Evolution Of The Fairy Tale. At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves. A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in biography parentheses; they describe captures . When a match succeeds, the substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use. Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses. For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is is important stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . is captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3.
As a special case, the empty capture () captures the current string position (a number). For instance, if we apply the biography, pattern ()aa() on Essay the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5. A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. Jay Sean. Use %z instead. This library provides generic functions for table manipulation.
It provides all its functions inside the table table . Most functions in the table library assume that the table represents an array or a list. For these functions, when we talk about the length of on Baroque Style Basilicas, a table we mean the result of the length operator. Inserts element value at position pos in table , shifting up other elements to open space, if necessary. Jay Sean. The default value for definition pos is n+1 , where n is the length of the table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of table t . Returns the largest positive numerical index of the given table, or zero if the table has no positive numerical indices. Jay Sean. (To do its job this function does a linear traversal of the whole table.) Removes from table the element at position pos , shifting down other elements to close the space, if necessary. Returns the value of the removed element. The default value for pos is n , where n is the length of the table, so that a call table.remove(t) removes the last element of table t . The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. This library is an of American Essay interface to the standard C math library. It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the absolute value of jay sean biography, x . Returns the of the Tale, arc cosine of x (in radians).
Returns the arc sine of jay sean, x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the signs of on Baroque Style Basilicas, both parameters to find the jay sean, quadrant of the result. (It also handles correctly the case of x being zero.) Returns the smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the Essay on Baroque Style, cosine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the jay sean, hyperbolic cosine of x . Returns the barriers, angle x (given in radians) in degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to x . Returns the remainder of the jay sean biography, division of x by y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and e such that x = m2 e , e is an integer and the absolute value of m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero).
The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an Privatization of American integer). Returns the natural logarithm of x . Returns the base-10 logarithm of x . Returns the maximum value among its arguments. Returns the minimum value among its arguments. Returns two numbers, the biography, integral part of x and the fractional part of x . Returns x y . (You can also use the expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in degrees) in radians. This function is an The Evolution of the Fairy Tale Essay interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by jay sean ANSI C. (No guarantees can be given for homogamy theory its statistical properties.)
When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . When called with an integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [m, n] . Sets x as the seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the sine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the square root of x . (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to compute this value.) Returns the tangent of jay sean, x (assumed to be in tariff definition radians). Returns the hyperbolic tangent of x . The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to biography set a default input file and a default output file, and all input/output operations are over Common Fairy Essay these default files. Jay Sean. The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by homogamy theory table io . Jay Sean Biography. When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the why health is important, file descriptor.
The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from jay sean biography, C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from nil on Essay Style success. Equivalent to file:close() . Without a file , closes the jay sean, default output file. Equivalent to file:flush over the default output file. When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and sets its handle as the default input file. When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file. When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file.
In case of errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an error code. Opens the homogamy theory, given file name in read mode and returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. When the iterator function detects the end of jay sean biography, file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and automatically closes the file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is equivalent to io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the default input file. Homogamy Theory. In this case it does not close the file when the loop ends. This function opens a file, in biography the mode specified in the string mode . Significant Was First By. It returns a new file handle, or, in case of errors, nil plus an error message. The mode string can be any of the following: r: read mode (the default); w: write mode; a: append mode; r+: update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+: update mode, all previous data is biography erased; a+: append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is only allowed at the end of file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at the end, which is needed in some systems to open the file in binary mode. Why Health Is Important. This string is exactly what is used in the standard C function fopen . Similar to io.input , but operates over the default output file.
Starts program prog in a separated process and biography, returns a file handle that you can use to read data from this program (if mode is Tale r , the default) or to jay sean write data to The Evolution of the Common Fairy this program (if mode is w ). This function is system dependent and is not available on all platforms. Equivalent to io.input():read . Returns a handle for a temporary file. Jay Sean Biography. This file is The Evolution Common Fairy Essay opened in update mode and it is automatically removed when the program ends. Checks whether obj is a valid file handle. Returns the jay sean, string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is and safety is important a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle. Equivalent to jay sean biography io.output():write . Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of time to Privatization of American Essay happen. Saves any written data to file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction.
will iterate over jay sean all lines of the file. (Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends.) Reads the file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to read. For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the Essay on Baroque, specified format. When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the entire next line (see below). The available formats are *n: reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of a string. *a: reads the jay sean, whole file, starting at the current position. On end of file, it returns the empty string. *l: reads the next line (skipping the end of line), returning nil on end of file. This is the homogamy theory, default format. number : reads a string with up to this number of characters, returning nil on end of jay sean, file. If number is zero, it reads nothing and returns an empty string, or nil on significant to the states by end of jay sean biography, file. Sets and The Evolution Common Tale, gets the file position, measured from the beginning of the file, to jay sean the position given by why health and safety offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set: base is position 0 (beginning of the file); cur: base is current position; end: base is jay sean end of homogamy theory, file; In case of success, function seek returns the final file position, measured in bytes from the beginning of the file. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the biography, error.
The default value for whence is cur , and for offset is 0. Therefore, the call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the call file:seek(set) sets the position to the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the position to the end of the Essay Style Basilicas, file, and returns its size. Sets the buffering mode for an output file. Jay Sean. There are three available modes: no: no buffering; the result of Prisons, any output operation appears immediately. full: full buffering; output operation is performed only when the buffer is full (or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush )). line: line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is output or there is any input from some special files (such as a terminal device). For the last two cases, size specifies the size of the buffer, in bytes. The default is an appropriate size. Writes the value of each of its arguments to the file . The arguments must be strings or numbers. To write other values, use tostring or string.format before write . This library is implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the jay sean biography, amount in seconds of CPU time used by the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to the given string format . If the time argument is present, this is the time to be formatted (see the os.time function for a description of this value). Otherwise, date formats the current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is formatted in Coordinated Universal Time. After this optional character, if format is the The Evolution Fairy Essay, string *t , then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the jay sean, year), and isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean).
If format is not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and time representation that depends on on Baroque Basilicas the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is equivalent to os.date(%c) ). Returns the number of seconds from time t1 to time t2 . In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to the C function system . It passes command to be executed by jay sean an operating system shell. It returns a status code, which is Privatization system-dependent. If command is absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is available and zero otherwise. Calls the biography, C function exit , with an optional code , to terminate the host program. The default value for homogamy theory code is the success code. Returns the value of the process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is not defined. Deletes the file or directory with the given name.
Directories must be empty to be removed. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . Jay Sean. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Sets the current locale of the program. locale is a string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is all . The function returns the name of the new locale, or nil if the why health and safety, request cannot be honored. If locale is the empty string, the jay sean biography, current locale is set to an implementation-defined native locale. If locale is the Privatization Prisons Essay, string C , the current locale is set to the standard C locale. When called with nil as the jay sean, first argument, this function only returns the name of the current locale for of the the given category. Returns the current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the jay sean, date and time specified by the given table. This table must have fields year , month , and day , and may have fields hour , min , sec , and isdst (for a description of homogamy theory, these fields, see the os.date function). The returned value is a number, whose meaning depends on your system. Biography. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch).
In other systems, the meaning is not specified, and the number returned by time can be used only Privatization of American as an argument to date and difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for a temporary file. The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed. On some systems (POSIX), this function also creates a file with that name, to avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the name and creating the biography, file.) You still have to open the file to use it and to remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the program ends. This library provides the functionality of the Essay, debug interface to Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library. The functions provided here should be used exclusively for debugging and similar tasks, such as profiling. Please resist the temptation to use them as a usual programming tool: they can be very slow. Moreover, several of these functions violate some assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from outside or that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code) and jay sean, therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. All functions in barriers definition this library are provided inside the debug table. All functions that operate over a thread have an optional first argument which is the thread to operate over.
The default is always the current thread. Enters an interactive mode with the user, running each string that the user enters. Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the user can inspect global and local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and biography, so on. A line containing only the word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution. Note that commands for Essay Style Basilicas debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function, and so have no direct access to local variables. Returns the current hook settings of the thread, as three values: the current hook function, the current hook mask, and the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function). debug.getinfo ([thread,] function [, what]) Returns a table with information about a function.
You can give the function directly, or you can give a number as the value of function , which means the function running at level function of the call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the biography, current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the function that called getinfo ; and so on. Americans United Was First By. If function is jay sean a number larger than the number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to fill in. The default for what is to homogamy theory get all information available, except the table of valid lines. If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the jay sean, function itself. If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the immigration to the united states was first sparked, table of valid lines. For instance, the biography, expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function. This function returns the name and the value of the local variable with index local of the of the Essay, function at level level of the stack. Jay Sean Biography. (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the last active local variable.) The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call debug.getinfo to homogamy theory check whether the level is valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns the metatable of the given object or nil if it does not have a metatable.
Returns the registry table (see §3.5). This function returns the biography, name and The Evolution Fairy Tale, the value of the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Sets the environment of the given object to the given table . Returns object . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count]) Sets the given function as a hook. The string mask and jay sean, the number count describe when the hook will be called. The string mask may have the following characters, with the given meaning: c : the hook is homogamy theory called every time Lua calls a function; r : the hook is called every time Lua returns from a function; l : the jay sean biography, hook is on Baroque Style called every time Lua enters a new line of code. With a count different from zero, the jay sean biography, hook is called after every count instructions. When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the hook. When the hook is called, its first parameter is on Baroque a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call , return (or tail return , when simulating a return from a tail call), line , and count . For line events, the hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter. Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and level 1 is the hook function), unless the event is tail return . In this case, Lua is only simulating the return, and a call to getinfo will return invalid data. debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value)
This function assigns the value value to the local variable with index local of the biography, function at level level of the homogamy theory, stack. The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of biography, range. (You can call getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name of the local variable. Sets the tariff definition, metatable for the given object to the given table (which can be nil ). This function assigns the jay sean biography, value value to Privatization of American Prisons the upvalue with index up of the jay sean, function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]]) Returns a string with a traceback of the call stack. Homogamy Theory. An optional message string is appended at biography, the beginning of the traceback. An optional level number tells at why health is important, which level to start the jay sean, traceback (default is 1, the function calling traceback ).
Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to be embedded in a host C program, it is also frequently used as a stand-alone language. An interpreter for Lua as a stand-alone language, called simply lua , is provided with the standard distribution. Significant Americans United States Was First. The stand-alone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the debug library. Its usage is: The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to it the given args as string arguments.
When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and as lua - otherwise. Before running any argument, the interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT . Jay Sean. If its format is @ filename , then lua executes the The Evolution Fairy, file. Otherwise, lua executes the string itself. All options are handled in jay sean biography order, except -i . For instance, an invocation like. will first set a to 1, then print the of the, value of a (which is ' 1 '), and finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. Jay Sean. (Here $ is the shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to run the script, lua collects all arguments in the command line in a global table called arg . The script name is stored at index 0, the first argument after the script name goes to index 1, and so on. Any arguments before the script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the Privatization of American, options) go to negative indices. For instance, in the call. the interpreter first runs the file a.lua , then creates a table.
and finally runs the file b.lua . The script is called with arg , arg , ··· as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . '. In interactive mode, if you write an jay sean incomplete statement, the interpreter waits for its completion by issuing a different prompt. If the global variable _PROMPT contains a string, then its value is used as the prompt. Similarly, if the global variable _PROMPT2 contains a string, its value is Privatization of American Essay used as the secondary prompt (issued during incomplete statements). Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly on the command line or in biography any Lua programs by assigning to tariff _PROMPT . See the next example: (The outer pair of quotes is for the shell, the inner pair is for Lua.) Note the use of -i to enter interactive mode; otherwise, the program would just end silently right after the assignment to _PROMPT . To allow the use of jay sean, Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the stand-alone interpreter skips the first line of a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into is important executable programs by jay sean using chmod +x and the #! form, as in. (Of course, the location of the Lua interpreter may be different in your machine. If lua is in your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 7 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version. Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from Lua 5.0 to Lua 5.1. You can avoid most of the incompatibilities compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). However, all these compatibility options will be removed in of asian americans united the next version of jay sean biography, Lua.
The vararg system changed from the of American Prisons Essay, pseudo-argument arg with a table with the biography, extra arguments to the vararg expression. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in Tale luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in the scope of the jay sean, implicit variables of the for statement and for significant immigration americans to the united states was first sparked the repeat statement. The long string/long comment syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting. You can use the new syntax ( [=[ string ]=] ) in these cases. Jay Sean. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in luaconf.h .) Function string.gfind was renamed string.gmatch . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is Essay on Baroque Style called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the replacement string is the whole match, instead of the empty string. Function table.setn was deprecated. Function table.getn corresponds to the new length operator ( # ); use the operator instead of the function. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib . Jay Sean. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in tariff luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and biography, table.foreachi are deprecated. You can use a for immigration of asian americans to the united states was first loop with pairs or ipairs instead. There were substantial changes in function require due to the new module system. However, the new behavior is mostly compatible with the old, but require gets the path from biography, package.path instead of from LUA_PATH . Function collectgarbage has different arguments. Homogamy Theory. Function gcinfo is deprecated; use collectgarbage(count) instead. The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a regular C function.
They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function. Function lua_open was replaced by lua_newstate to allow the user to set a memory-allocation function. Jay Sean. You can use luaL_newstate from the standard library to create a state with a standard allocation function (based on realloc ). Functions luaL_getn and luaL_setn (from the significant immigration united by, auxiliary library) are deprecated. Use lua_objlen instead of biography, luaL_getn and nothing instead of luaL_setn . Function luaL_openlib was replaced by luaL_register . Function luaL_checkudata now throws an error when the given value is not a userdata of the Privatization Prisons Essay, expected type. (In Lua 5.0 it returned NULL .) Here is the complete syntax of Lua in jay sean biography extended BNF. (It does not describe operator precedences.)
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Example Of Narrative Essay Essays and Research Papers. boot-camp not as a military training program, but rather as a group of jay sean biography individuals who are driven by homogamy theory a common goal? If we can do this then we can begin . making comparisons with other groups of individuals and notice a great deal of similarities. For example , universities offer a wide variety of clubs such as the Philosophy Club or the Student Veterans Organization, and these clubs are formed because like-minded individuals driven by jay sean biography a common goal congregated and barriers definition bonded to biography birth their club. Just like. Bond , Bonds, Lancashire , Marine 900 Words | 2 Pages.
Pamela Essay 1 Sitting at my desk at of the Common Tale home, a crushing feeling crept up on me. I didn’t know what to think. I’m not going to make . it, am I. It was already midway through junior year of jay sean high school, and having just calculated my GPA requirements for many of the colleges I had wanted to Privatization go to, I realized that my grades were not even close to what I expected them to be. I guess I had been in denial for jay sean biography so long that I let them slip this far. How could I have let this happen? Where was my. Debut albums , Disappointment , High school 1235 Words | 3 Pages. The Narrative Essay *What is a Narrative Essay ? • Narrative writing tells a . Of American Prisons! story. Biography! In essays , the narrative writing could also be considered reflection or an exploration of the and safety is important, author's values told as a story. The author may remember his or her past, or a memorable person or event from that past, or even observe the present. • The author may write about: -An experience or event from his or her past. -A recent or ongoing experience or event. . Essay , Essay mill , Metaphor 1511 Words | 6 Pages. Narrative Essays : To Tell a Story There are four types of essays : Exposition - gives information about . various topics to jay sean biography the reader.
Description - describes in Fairy detail characteristics and traits. Argument - convinces the reader by demonstrating the truth or falsity of jay sean a topic. Narrative - tells a story, usually from one person’s viewpoint. Significant Immigration Americans To The United Was First Sparked By! A narrative essay uses all the story elements - a beginning and ending, plot, characters, setting and climax - all coming together to complete the. A Story , Essay , Essays 1444 Words | 5 Pages. How to jay sean Write an Accomplishment Essay What are your three most substantial accomplishments, and homogamy theory why do you view them as such? — Harvard . http://www.free- essay -writing-topics.com/index.php?page=mba-application-accomplishment-questions What is the most significant change or improvement you have made to an organization with which you have recently been affiliated?
Describe the process you went through to jay sean identify the need for change and manage the process of implementing change. What were the results. Narrative , This Boy's Life , Writing 1811 Words | 4 Pages. Narrative Essay A Brief Guide to Writing Narrative Essays Narrative writing tells a . story. In essays the narrative writing could also be considered reflection or an exploration of the Privatization Essay, author's values told as a story. Jay Sean Biography! The author may remember his or her past, or a memorable person or event from that past, or even observe the present.
When you're writing a narrative essay , loosen up. Tariff Definition! After all, you're basically just telling a story to someone, something you probably do every day in casual conversation. Essay , Experience , Five paragraph essay 1314 Words | 5 Pages. As a mode of jay sean biography expository writing, the Privatization, narrative approach, more than any other, offers writers a chance to think and write about themselves. We . all have experiences lodged in jay sean biography our memories, which are worthy of sharing with readers.
Yet sometimes they are so fused with other memories that a lot of the time spent in writing narrative is in the prewriting stage. Immigration Americans To The States Was First! When you write a narrative essay , you are telling a story. Narrative essays are told from biography a defined point of definition view, often the author's, so there. Article , Essay , Essays 797 Words | 3 Pages. Sample SAT Essays —Up Close Below is our sample essay question, which is biography designed to be as close as possible to an . essay question that might appear on the SAT. You’ll recognize that it’s based on the great philosopher Moses Pelingus’s assertion, “There’s no success like failure,” which we have referred to throughout this chapter. This particular essay topic presents you with a very broad idea and barriers definition then asks you to explain your view and back it up with concrete examples . Jay Sean! Not every SAT essay topic will. Dot-com bubble , Essay , Essays 2405 Words | 7 Pages. Narrative Essay Vs. Of American Prisons! Descriptive Essay.
? Narrative Essays Are a Great Read Name ENG121 Professor June 16, 2014 Narrative . Jay Sean! Essays Are a Great Read Narrative essays and Descriptive essays can be similar but they are different in nature. Homogamy Theory! The narrative essay “I Want a Wife” is more compelling than the descriptive essay “Homeless” because the narrative essay has a point of view, uses humor and satire, and uses tone and language that can draw the reader in. “Narration is jay sean storytelling from the perspective of. Essay , Essays , Homelessness 1604 Words | 7 Pages. ? Descriptive Essays vs. The Evolution Of The Essay! Narrative Essays Many people have different preferences on what type of writing style . they think is more superior to another, I believe descriptive writing to be more excellent writing style then narrative . Jay Sean Biography! I can tell you that there are a few similarities and a few differences between the Basilicas, two.
I prefer Descriptive essays , rather than narrative essays . In my belief, it's that the descriptive essays are more effective when an author is trying to convey a story or get a. Essay , Fiction , Narrative 1153 Words | 4 Pages. Structure of jay sean a Personal Narrative Essay. Writing Center Structure of a Personal Narrative Essay “ Narrative ” is a term more commonly known as “story.” . Narratives written for college or personal narratives , tell a story, usually to some point, to illustrate some truth or insight. Following are some tools to help you structure your personal narrative , breaking it down into parts. The “Hook” Start your paper with a statement about your story that catches the reader’s attention, for example : a relevant quotation, question, fact, or . First-person narrative , Grammatical person , Grammatical tense 789 Words | 5 Pages. About Narrative Essay Narrative essay is a popular topic on the Continuous Writing section and . Privatization Of American! students should take note that this topic has appeared in the SPM examination almost every year since the paper was introduced. Many people think that writing a story is a difficult task, but believe me, it is biography much easier than what you think because you are not confined to any particular point.
Therefore, you are free to voice out everything that is in your mind. A narrative essay is a piece of writing. A Story , Character , Essay 1134 Words | 3 Pages. joke about this accident. Things can seem horrible but really are insignificant moments in life.
I can look back and The Evolution Common Tale Essay laugh hysterically on a day I thought . was the jay sean, end of the Essay, world. Jay Sean Biography! Narrative essay assessment rubric/score sheet Due date: __________________ Narrative essays must be typed, double spaced using 12 point font with a 1 inch margin. Headings must be left justified and include name, class period, title and homogamy theory section, assignment and jay sean date, and be single spaced. Titles. Middle school , Sensory 754 Words | 4 Pages.
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age of homogamy theory expansion following on an age of discovery, its expansion led to still further discovery about architectural design and decoration. Section A: . Interiors S.Maria Della Salute (1631-1682) The interior of S.Maria Della Salute is biography a very good example of Baroque Architecture and design. And Safety Is Important! It displays the jay sean biography, Baroque essence in a way but is not completely over ornamented nor does it contain any unsuitable details. Marble is mainly used in Essay the columns and the base appears to be gilded in bronze. Sculptures. Baroque , Baroque music , Dome 1264 Words | 4 Pages. Kevin Heart . Jay Sean! 4-3-12 English-110 Narrative essay Murder is the unlawful killing of Essay on Baroque Basilicas another human being with malice afterthought, and generally this state of mind distinguishes murder from jay sean other forms of unlawful homicide (such as manslaughter). As the loss of a human being inflicts enormous grief upon the individuals close to the victim, as well as.
Capital punishment , Capital punishment in Privatization of American Prisons Essay the United States , Death 1056 Words | 3 Pages. within a narrative are very important. They help set the stage so the jay sean, reader can understand the story from the author’s perspective. A . narrative is structured so the reader can see things clearly. The structure contains the introduction, the body, and the conclusion. The introduction has a thesis statement. A thesis statement is a sentence that states the Essay, main point of the narrative . The introduction will clarify the main points the writer will make throughout the body of the narrative . The body.
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Essay , Maya Angelou , Narrative 1226 Words | 4 Pages. SECRET TALENT When we talk about jay sean talent then first question that comes in our mind is barriers “what is talent?” .Talent is any natural ability or power of a . person. Talent actually means that someone has special ability or power in some specific field. Jay Sean Biography! For example someone has power to Privatization change the peoples mind through his/her speaking power it means that that person has speaking ability and biography power in significant americans united states was first sparked by his/her voice that can affect the biography, peoples mind. It’s called talent.
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An Example Of Narrative Animation. ?An Example of Narrative Animation: Duck Amuck During the golden age of Hollywood short cartoons, from the jay sean biography, 1930s to the 1950s, . Disney and Warner Bros. were rivals. Disney animators had far greater resources at their disposal, and their animation was more elaborate and detailed than the simpler style of the significant immigration of asian americans, Warner product. Jay Sean Biography! Warner cartoonists, despite their limited budgets, fought back by exploiting the comic fantasy possible in animated films and playing with the medium in The Evolution of the Common Tale Essay imaginative ways. In Warner. Animation , Bugs Bunny , Chuck Jones 1216 Words | 3 Pages. Examples from jay sean Reflection Essays Disciplinary Awareness “The research I did this summer focused on tariff barriers sorption of cesium and . strontium by soils.
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For example , a couple of years ago I was in jay sean biography my house alone. I was walking towards the front door and a pair of scissors fell from the of the Fairy Tale, countertop and on to the floor. It scared me to death and it was like the scissors had been thrown. I do not know if it was. Cryptid , Ghost , Loch Ness Monster 1320 Words | 5 Pages.
mess you up for life. Therefore these experiences will become a necessary example to jay sean teach you how to deal with the unfairness . in life. Homogamy Theory! When I first started middle school I felt so out of place, I mean I had to deal some very flaky people and I was very stressed out a lot. The reason why I was so stressed out biography was because of the changes that I had to endure around and to me. Why Health! For example I had to deal with the disturbing fact that I was growing hair in jay sean various places on my. College , English-language films , High school 1128 Words | 3 Pages. ? Eng 121 Narrative Essay 02/13/2014 Education is the key to homogamy theory success and as such the only way to get to jay sean biography the top.
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I had been practicing for the most important showcase of the year for over a month now. I t was my first solo performance and my nerves were rattling. I was only nine! How was I supposed to handle the jay sean biography, most important part of the entire routine all on why health my shoulders? I stared around at biography the gym.
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