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Biography Of Ludwig Van Beethoven. Autor: anton • November 12, 2010 • 3,777 Words (16 Pages) • 1,439 Views. Birth: 1770 in Bonn, Germany. Death: 1827 in napoleon rise so quickly in france, Vienna, Austria. Source: Encyclopedia of World Biography, 2nd ed. 17 Vols.
Gale Research, 1998. TABLE OF CONTENTS. The instrumental music of the German composer Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) forms a peak in the development of tonal music and is one of the crucial evolutionary developments in the history of music as a whole. The early compositions of Ludwig van Beethoven marked the culmination of the 18th-century traditions for which Haydn and Mozart had established the great classical models, and his middle-period and late works developed so far beyond these traditions that they anticipated some of the major musical trends of the late 19th century. This is especially evident in his symphonies, string quartets, and piano sonatas. In each of these three genres Beethoven began by mastering the of The of Original Design existing formal and esthetic conventions of the late 18th century while joining to these conventions signs of how did napoleon so quickly unusual originality and power. Of The Design? In his middle period (from about 1803, the year of the rise Eroica Symphony, to spinoza, about 1814, the year of his opera Fidelio in its revised form) he proceeded to develop methods of elaboration of musical ideas that required such enlargement and alteration in perception of formal design as to how did, render it clear that the conventions associated with the genres inherited from the 18th century were for him the merest scaffolding for works of the nursing learning goals highest individuality and cogency. If Beethoven's contemporaries were able to follow him with admiration in his middle-period works, they were left far behind by the major compositions of his last years, especially the how did rise to power so quickly in france last three Piano Sonatas, Op.
109, 110, and 111; the Missa solemnis; the Ninth Symphony; and the last six String Quartets, Op. 127, 130, 131, 132, 133, and 135. These works required more than a generation after Beethoven's death to be received at all by concert audiences and were at first the preserve of a few perceptive musicians. Composers as different in berg and anton were arnold, viewpoint from one another as Brahms and Wagner took Beethoven equally as their major predecessor; Wagner indeed regarded his own music dramas as the legitimate continuation of the Beethoven tradition, which in his view had exhausted the possibilities of how did rise in france purely instrumental music. Beethoven's last works continue in the 20th century to pose the deepest challenges to musical perception. Ludwig van Beethoven was born in berg and anton schoenberg's, Bonn, the Rhineland seat of an to power in france electoral court. Nursing Learning? His ancestors were Flemish (the van was no indication of any claim to nobility but merely part of the name). Napoleon Rise? His father, a tenor in the electoral musical establishment, harbored ambitions to create in his second son a prodigy like Mozart.
As Beethoven developed, it became increasingly clear that to reach artistic maturity he would have to Essay, leave provincial Bonn for a major musical center. At the age of 12 he was a promising keyboard virtuoso and a talented pupil in composition of the court musician C. G. Neefe. In 1783 Beethoven's first published work, a set of keyboard variations, appeared, and in the 1780s he produced the seeds of a number of later works. But he was already looking toward Vienna: in 1787 he traveled there, apparently to seek out Mozart as a teacher, but was forced to return owing to his mother's illness. In 1790, when the napoleon rise so quickly in france eminent composer Joseph Haydn passed through Bonn, Beethoven was probably introduced to him as a potential pupil. Years in Vienna. In 1792 Beethoven went to Vienna to study with Haydn, helped on webern were arnold schoenberg's, his way by his friend Count Ferdinand von Waldstein, who wrote prophetically in the 22-year-old Beethoven's album that he was going to Vienna to receive the spirit of Mozart from the hands of Haydn. What he actually received from Haydn in how did rise in france, lessons was little enough, and Essay Beethoven turned to how did napoleon rise so quickly in france, others of lesser talent in Vienna for help with counterpoint, including the contrapuntal theorist J. G. Albrechtsberger. Beethoven rapidly proceeded to learning goals examples, make his mark as a brilliant keyboard performer and improviser and as a gifted young composer with a number of works to his credit and powerful ambitions. Napoleon? He won entry into the musical circles of the Viennese titled upper classes and gained a number of lifelong friends and admirers among them.
In 1795 his first mature published works appeared--the three Piano Trios, Op. 1--and his career was in effect officially launched. From then until the end of his life Beethoven was essentially able to spinoza descartes, publish his works at approximately the rate at which he could compose them, if he wished to; in consequence the opus numbers of to power so quickly in france his major works are, with a few trivial exceptions, the true chronological order of his output. No such publication opportunities had existed for Haydn or Mozart, and least of all for Schubert, who spent his entire life in Vienna (1797-1828) in Beethoven's shadow, from the publication standpoint. From 1792 to his death in spinoza descartes, 1827 at the age of 57 Beethoven lived in Vienna, essentially as a private person, unmarried, amid a circle of friends, independent of any kind of official position or private service. He rarely traveled, apart from summers in napoleon rise, the countryside. In 1796 he made a trip to northern Germany, perhaps to alban berg and anton, look over the possibilities for a post; his schedule included a visit to the Berlin court of King Frederick William of Prussia, an amateur cellist, and the Op. 5 Violoncello Sonatas appear to date from this trip.
Later Beethoven made several trips to Budapest and to spas in Bohemia. In 1808 Beethoven received an invitation to become music director at Kassel. This alarmed several of his wealthy Viennese friends into unprecedented generosity; three of them (Princes Lichnowsky and Kinsky and how did to power so quickly in france Archduke Rudolph) formed a group of backers and spinoza descartes agreed to guarantee Beethoven an annual salary of how did napoleon rise in france 1,400 florins on Review of The Essay, condition that he remain in Vienna. How Did Napoleon Rise? He thus became, in principle, one of the first musicians in history to be freed form menial service and to be enabled potentially to live as an independent artist-although, as it happened,
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? Essay on napoleon rise to power so quickly in france the role of education in Supporting Commercial Venture, society Education, has a great social importance specially in the modern, complex . industrialised societies . Philosophers of all periods, beginning with ancient stages, devoted to it a great deal of attention. Napoleon Rise To Power In France? Accordingly, various theories regarding its nature and objective have come into Collapse being. Let us now examine some of the significant functions of education. 1. To complete the socialization process. The main social objective of education is to complete the.
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9 Ways to how did napoleon rise to power so quickly in france Make Speech Therapy Homework Work for You. There are many benefits of doing speech therapy exercises at home. More practice usually means faster improvement 1 , and therapy with software 2 at home or with a volunteer 3 has been shown to be effective. But do you or a loved one find yourself going home from the speech therapist’s office with the best of intentions only to lose enthusiasm after a day or two? Don’t get discouraged! This may be the descartes first time you’ve had to do “homework” in years and rise to power so quickly, you may need to (re)establish good homework habits to set yourself up for success. The Growth Commercial Venture. Here are some tips to help you get started: Put homework on the calendar like any other important appointment. Pick a time of day when you have energy and can focus. Schedule your speech therapy exercises for that time every day to how did establish a habit. If your goal is an hour of practice every day, don’t feel that you have to descartes do it all at once.
You can break up homework into 20- or 30-minute chunks to help prevent mental fatigue and boredom. Remember: consistency is what matters. Just 20 minutes a day for 4 weeks #8212; that#8217;s all it took for how did napoleon rise in france every single participant with aphasia to show improvement using our Language Therapy 4-in-1 app at child refugees home in how did so quickly, a research study at Cambridge. If your speech-language pathologist (SLP) doesn’t give you a specific set of exercises, it may be up to you to Review of Original Design Essay decide what you’re going to do each day and when. It’s a good idea to make a “sandwich” of difficulty. That is, start with something that’s not too challenging to warm up the brain, then move to the harder tasks, then finish up with something a bit easier to leave yourself feeling confident. Find a place in your home that’s comfortable, but not too comfortable to do your work. If the couch or a recliner leaves you too relaxed, your focus may relax too. Sitting at the kitchen table or at a desk is a good idea, as it can put you into a work mindset.
Of course, if sitting upright in a chair is physically uncomfortable, you won’t be able to focus on your work either. Background noise makes it difficult to focus, so turn off the TV or radio when you do your homework. Silence the alerts on how did napoleon so quickly in france your phone and Collapse Essay, computer. Pick a time when family members aren’t all in the same room. Sometimes a peaceful background of music can help you focus, so experiment with what works for you. A communication partner can be a big help with speech therapy exercises.
A helper can let you know whether an to power so quickly in france answer is correct or clear, provide cues when you’re stuck, or engage in conversation to help you practice a strategy. They may be able to offer technical help, should you need it, if you’re practicing with a computer or tablet. Having your helper attend some of your speech therapy sessions can be useful too. The helper will learn tips from the child refugees therapist that they can reinforce at home. Homework helpers can join you via Skype, Facetime, or phone as well, so your loved ones can still support you even if they don’t live nearby.
One way to start is by using Conversation Therapy, an app designed to be used by two or more people. The interesting topics and structured questions encourage discussion and back-and-forth communication to help you work on speech and language goals at home. Even couples who can seemingly read each others#8217; minds will find something new to napoleon to power in france talk about using this app. If you find yourself getting angry or frustrated while you’re practicing, stop. Take a break. Breathe deeply and nursing learning goals examples, calm down. Practice is supposed to help you get better. If the speech therapy exercises leave you feeling frustrated, they’re probably too hard or you’re too tired. Ask for napoleon in france help.
Or pick an child refugees easier activity or setting. If you start to associate homework with negative emotions, you probably won’t stick to your schedule. You need to watch out for negative feelings, and napoleon, change what you’re doing the Essay instant you feel them. How Did Napoleon In France. It’s important to set goals for yourself, and just as important to Essay reward yourself when you reach them. Simply sticking to so quickly your practice schedule is a huge achievement, so give yourself credit for that. The number of items you get correct doesn’t matter as much as the fact that you’re trying. Your efforts will pay off over time, and that can be its own reward. 8) Use your Skills Outside Homework Time. The point of home speech therapy exercises isn’t to get good at home exercises—it’s to improve your thinking and nursing learning examples, communication skills while you’re engaged in to power so quickly in france, activities that matter to descartes you. This is what SLPs call “carryover.” It isn’t always easy, but carryover is the goal of any exercise. Practice your homework strategies throughout the day.
If you’ve been working on to power so quickly in france describing words, for child refugees example, try to how did rise in france describe the words you can’t think of Supporting Commercial, during dinner conversation. How Did Napoleon Rise So Quickly In France. Ask family and friends to encourage you to use your strategies as you go about your day. Nobody likes being corrected all the time, though, so it’s okay to set times when you want reminders and times when you just want to be left to speak as you please. Make sure you’re clear with friends and families about which times are which. Try combining these tips with an app that’s specifically designed to help adults recover their language skills after a stroke or some other type of spinoza, acquired brain injury.
Tactus Therapy apps are designed by a Speech-Language Pathologist to allow you to how did rise practice the same skills you work on in therapy, at home. You can trust that the speech therapy exercises are based on techniques known to Design Essay help adults with acquired communication disorders. We want you to succeed! With a Tactus Therapy app, you can get in how did to power so quickly, more repetitions and the Growth of a Essay, practice between therapy sessions—and this can help speed up your progress. Try any or all of our apps for FREE by how did napoleon to power so quickly in france downloading the and anton webern were arnold Lite versions. Start with Language Therapy Lite, a sample of our best-selling app for to power so quickly aphasia, on the App Store or Google Play. Answer a few simple questions and you#8217;ll be shown the best apps for nursing learning examples you with our App Finder wizard. Then you can try them for free!
Do you have clients who would benefit from receiving these homework success tips? Download this handout and share it with them. How Did Napoleon Rise So Quickly. 1: Bhogal, SanjitK., Robert Teasell, and Mark Speechley. Child Refugees. #8220;Intensity of aphasia therapy, impact on recovery.#8221; Stroke 34.4 (2003): 987-993. Full Text. 2: Palmer, Rebecca, et al. How Did Napoleon To Power So Quickly. #8220;Computer Therapy Compared With Usual Care for People With Long-Standing Aphasia Poststroke A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.#8221; Stroke 43.7 (2012): 1904-1911. Full Text.
3: Brady, Marian C., et al. Child Refugees. #8220;Speech and language therapy for napoleon in france aphasia following stroke.#8221; Cochrane Database Syst Rev 5 (2012): CD000425. Full PDF. Top 10 Dysphagia Education Resources for Clinicians. Best practice in swallowing disorders is of Leadership, changing quickly as the science evolves. Don't let your . read more. To Power So Quickly. 10 Tips for Leading an Aphasia Writing Therapy Group. Learn about writing impairments (dysgraphia) in descartes, aphasia and how to treat them.
Guest SLP Megan . read more. Swallowing disorders are serious business, and the speech-language pathologists who assess and treat them need . read more. Comments are closed. We r so busy this fall! Working on a new #slpapp, updating older apps w/ cool new features getting ready 4 #ASHA17! What r ur projects?
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Essay: Listening comprehension in the EFL environment. LISTENING COMPREHENSION – THEORY OVERVIEW. This chapter contains an overview of theory related to listening comprehension in EFL environment. First, the importance of listening comprehension is napoleon rise, discussed. Second, difficulties in listening comprehension for child refugees EFL learners are illustrated. Third, listening comprehension processing is discussed. Fourth, evidences from previous related research that listening instruction could lead to improvement, as measured by pre-tests and how did so quickly in france, post-tests, were discussed. Fifth, nature and the Growth Commercial Essay, characteristics of children’s learning are reviewed.
Lastly, research questions of the how did napoleon, present study are stated. 1. The Importance of Listening Comprehension. The increased importance of listening comprehension in language learning may be attributed largely to the development of communicative language teaching approach, which attempts to prepare learners to transfer their classroom skills to real-life context, over Supporting of a Essay the past three decades (Asher, 1977; Krashen, 1982; Omaggio Hadley, 2001; Vande Berg, 1993). There has been a shift from non-teaching listening comprehension in the audio-lingual period to teaching listening comprehension in a strategy-based approach (Mendelsohn, 1998). How Did Napoleon So Quickly! Before World War II, the teaching of reading was given the of Leadership, most attention while that of how did napoleon in france, listening comprehension was the most infertile and the least understood language skill (Winitz, 1981). Under the predominant audio-lingual approach in the 1960’s and the Growth, the early 1970’s, the teaching of how did napoleon rise to power, listening comprehension was still minor.
With the alban and anton, increasing interest towards communicative language teaching approach, several researches revealed the importance of listening comprehension (Brown #038; Yule, 1983; Faerch #038; Kasper, 1986; Feyten, 1991; Long, 1985). Listening comprehension has ever since received a lot more attention in how did to power so quickly language teaching. On the one hand, technological advances and the growing awareness of the importance of listening in the world have made listening even more important in the communication process (Mendelsohn, 1998). In current globalized society, with universal and massive exposure to radio, television, satellite broadcasts, and internet, individuals are expected to of The Protection be increasingly prepared to receive information through listening and speaking, more than ever before (Dunkel, 1991; Vande Berg, 1993). On the other hand, some scholars (Nord, 1981; Wintiz, 1981) considered proficiency in listening comprehension as a necessary condition for acquiring production language skills, specifically speaking and writing. The comprehension-based teaching approach supports that students at the beginning level should be allowed to keep silent until they feel safe and ready to produce the target language. Thus, it can be reasonably concluded that students are probably engaged in listening before they are able to speak and write in the target language, which means that second language instruction at how did rise to power so quickly a beginning level should focus on of The Protection of Original developing learners’ listening comprehension ability. Still, other scholars (Dunkel, 1991; Long, 1985; Rost, 1990; Vogely, 1999) stressed that listening is important because it provides input as the how did napoleon rise in france, raw material for nursing learning learners to process in napoleon rise language learning. Without correctly understanding the Review of The Design, input, any learning simply cannot begin (Rost, 1994). How Did So Quickly! Furthermore, the failure of listening comprehension of the target language is an impetus, not merely an obstacle, to language learning as well as to Collapse of Leadership communication interaction (Rost, 1994). The recognition of the importance of how did rise to power so quickly in france, listening comprehension has resulted in an increased number of listening activities in students’ textbooks and of The Protection Essay, even in how did napoleon comprehension-based methodology texts designed specifically for teaching listening (Anderson #038; Lynch, 1988; Rost, 1990; Underwood, 1989; Ur, 1984).
Several studies have found that through the use of of Original, effective pre-listening activities, instructors can increase students’ understanding of the how did napoleon rise, listening passages, which in turn develops their listening proficiency and contributes to their mastery of the target language (Herron, 1994; Richards, 1983; Rubin, 1994; Teichert, 1996; Vande Berg, 1993). 2. Difficulties in Listening Comprehension for EFL Learners. The first difficulty in listening comprehension for EFL learners is that they are less likely to nursing goals share the same schema with native speakers (Ur, 1984; Harmer, 2001). As Kant (1781/ 1963) claimed, new information, new concepts, and new ideas can have meaning only when they can be related to something the individual already knows. So Quickly In France! This applies as much to Supporting Essay second language comprehension as it does to comprehension in one’s native language. The empirical research in the related field has come to be known as schema theory and has demonstrated the truth of Kant’s original observation and napoleon rise to power in france, of the opening quote from Anderson et al (1977). Schema theory research has shown the importance of Collapse Essay, background knowledge in language comprehension (Bartlett, 1932; Rumelhart, 1980; Rumelhart #038; Ortony, 1977). According to schema theory, a text provides directions for listeners or readers as to how they should retrieve or construct meaning from their own previously acquired knowledge.
This previously acquired knowledge is called the listeners’ or readers’ background knowledge, and the previously acquired knowledge structures are called schemata (Bartlett, 1932; Adams #038; Collins, 1979; Rumelhart, 1980). The prior knowledge, or schema, that a L2 listener brings to the listening task plays a vital part in how did so quickly interpreting the spinoza descartes, material, and should be considered in napoleon the evaluation of learners’ listening comprehension (Long, 1990; Raphan, 1996). Child Refugees! Based on schema theory, the process of how did rise so quickly in france, interpretation and spinoza, comprehension is how did to power, guided by the principle that every input is mapped against some existing schema and that all aspects of that schema must be compatible with the child refugees, input information (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983). Efficient language comprehension requires the to power, ability to relate the textual input to one’s own background knowledge, which means that understanding words, sentences, and entire texts relies not merely on one’s linguistic knowledge but also the knowledge of the world (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983). According to the Growth Commercial Venture Richards (1983), much of our knowledge of the world is organized around scripts, which is our memory about particular situations, the goals, participants, and procedures commonly associated with them, and the information needed to understand is therefore not explicitly present in the utterance but is provided by the listeners from how did rise so quickly in france, their repertoire of Collapse, scripts.
This means that the how did napoleon rise so quickly in france, connections between events need not be specified when we talk about them, since they are already known and examples, can be inferred. Without the right kind of pre-existing knowledge, or relevant script, comprehension may become very difficult (Harmer, 2001; Richards, 1983). Non-native speakers may have a different shared knowledge of cultural reference and discourse patterning in their own language and culture; their individual scripts may differ in certain degree and content from target language scripts, and that poses additional problems for some foreign language learners who have to work twice as hard to how did to power in france understand what they hear. Nursing Learning Goals Examples! (Harmer, 2001; Richards, 1983; Underwood, 1989). The second difficulty is that EFL learners are usually much less familiar with different accents and napoleon, that they sometimes have considerable problems when they encounter a new accent in the listening process (Kennedy, 1978). Accent is potentially an important variable in listening comprehension (Buck, 2001).
Many foreign-language learners who are used to the accent of their own teacher are surprised when they find they have difficulty understanding someone else (Ur, 1984). An unfamiliar accent can cause problems in communication and may disrupt the whole comprehension process (Buck, 2001; Kelly, 1991). Native speakers are generally used to listening to a variety of accents while EFL learners are less exposed to different accents (Buck, 2001). Of The! Besides, learners who have more experience in listening to and understand a number of different accents are more likely to be able to cope successfully with listening tasks than those who have only how did rise heard one or two (Ur, 1984). Child Refugees! Therefore, it seems reasonable to napoleon rise so quickly conclude that it generally takes a L2 learner much longer to adjust to the voice if the accent is very different from any with which he is familiar than a native speaker (Buck, 2001; Kelly, 1991).
The third difficulty is Supporting Essay, that EFL learners are less capable of napoleon to power so quickly, perceiving prosodic features in English speech which have a direct impact on how listeners process and Review Protection Essay, interpret discourse segments (Buck, 2001; Lynch, 1998; Rubin, 1994). How Did Rise! The rhythmic pattern of spoken English is Review Protection Design Essay, one of its distinctive features (Richards, 1983). Unlike many languages in the world that are syllable-timed, which means that the length of time required to how did napoleon in france pronounce an utterance depends upon Collapse of Leadership Essay, the number of to power in france, syllables it contains, English is learning examples, a stressed-timed language (Buck, 2001; Richards, 1983). What this means is that the time between stressed syllables is reasonably constant in any utterance, and the remaining syllables in the utterance, no matter how many there are, must accommodate to the rhythm established by the stressed syllables (Buck, 2001; Richards, 1983; Vann Lier, 1995). As a stressed-timed language, the following English sentences would take about the same amount of how did napoleon so quickly in france, time to articulate, even though the number of syllables contained in each sentence is very different (Richards, 1983; Vann Lier, 1995):
The CAT is INTerested in proTECTing its KITTens. LARGE CARS WASTE GAS. The result of the stress-timed language is that the words between the stressed syllables are pronounced very quickly, with no stress or mild stress, and spinoza descartes, if there are more words they are pronounced even quicker to fit in napoleon rise so quickly the short time, subjecting to considerable phonological modification (Buck, 2001). Also, Vanderplank (1988) argues that perception of Venture Essay, stress is an important factor in rapid and efficient listening comprehension. This adds another dimension to the listener’s task, since listeners must learn the complex set of rules that determine the pronunciation of connected speech and be able to identify words according to how did rise to power the rhythmic structure within which they occur (Buck, 2001; Richards, 1983). Any lack of such phonological knowledge can pose comprehension difficulty (Buck, 2001). In the research of Henricksen (1984), most native speakers had little difficulty understanding words in their modified form in an utterance whereas the presence of child refugees, phonological modification significantly reduces comprehension for second-language listeners. In addition, Vanderplank (1985) found interesting differences in native speakers’ and non-native speakers’ ability to perceive stress by addressing that ‘native speakers were in general agreement as to sentence stress location, while only a small number of non-native speakers agree with native speaker judgments as to stress location, and the ability to perceive stress location was not significantly linked to level of English ability in learners’ (p.
38). Still, Bond and how did rise in france, Garnes (1980) agree that speech perception is also subject to what they call ‘heuristic strategies’ such as paying attention to spinoza stress, intonation patterns, and stressed vowels. Therefore, listeners need to know how the sound system works in English speech, in order to be able to how did napoleon to power so quickly in france process natural listening task in real time (Buck, 2001). The fourth difficulty is that hesitation and pausing could cause perceptual problems and thus comprehension errors for non-native speakers (Voss, 1979). The Growth! In his study, 22 non-native speakers of English were asked to how did rise so quickly listen to a passage of spinoza descartes, spontaneous speech, about 210 words long. Results indicated that nearly one-third of all perception errors were related to hesitation phenomena. How Did To Power So Quickly In France! These errors were due to listeners’ either misinterpreting hesitations as words, or parts of words, or to misinterpreting parts of words as hesitations (Voss, 1979). Spinoza! In contrast, some researches indicated that hesitation and pausing help listening comprehension (Blau, 1990; Blau, 1991; Dunkel, 1988; Friedman #038; Johnson, 1971; Johnson #038; Friedman, 1971). However, Voss is the only one among these researchers who used real and spontaneous speech.
All of the other studies used a written text read aloud. Voss (1979) suggests that native speakers are usually not bothered by hesitation phenomena since they possess strategies to recognize and process such phenomena while focusing on meaning, and non-native speakers get stuck in how did rise to power in france bottom-up processing of phonetic utterances that do not affect meaning, while native speakers discard these utterances in favour of top-down processing. There are indications that in Collapse Essay some cases hesitation and pausing can help listening comprehension, and in others they may cause problems (Buck, 2001). In the researches of Friedman #038; Johnson (1971) and Johnson #038; Friedman (1971), pauses inserted at meaningful syntactic boundaries can benefit comprehension, whereas random pauses do not. When one-second pauses were introduced into a text at napoleon to power so quickly in france the juncture between clauses, comprehension improved, while pauses inserted randomly into of The Protection of Original Essay, the text resulted in lower levels of comprehension (Friedman #038; Johnson, 1971; Johnson #038; Friedman, 1971). Napoleon Rise To Power So Quickly! Consequently, the of Original, ability to understand spoken English must include the ability to how did to power in france deal with hesitation and pausing (Buck, 2001). Hesitation and pausing also affects our impression of the pace of speech (Richards, 1983). The impression of faster or slower speech generally results from the amount of pausing that speakers use (Richards, 1983). Stanley (1978) suggests that when speech was faster, language learners ‘constantly failed to perceive individual phonemes and hence words with which they were already familiar’ (1978: 289). Comprehension declines as the speakers talk faster, and the weight of the alban berg and anton were schoenberg's, evidence suggests that the rise to power in france, decline in comprehension is rather slow until a threshold level is reached, at descartes which time an increased speech rate leads to napoleon rise in france a much more rapid decline in comprehension (Buck, 2001).
Griffiths (1990) found potential evidence that speech faster than two-hundred words per minute (w.p.m.) is difficult for lower-intermediate learners to child refugees understand. He found that this level of students perform best at 127 w.p.m. Moreover, Griffiths (1992) investigated the effects of so quickly, three different speech rates (127, 188, and spinoza, 250 w.p.m.) on in france listening comprehension of second-language learners and concluded that comprehension was significantly better at the slowest speech rate and worse at nursing goals examples the higher rates. On the how did napoleon so quickly, other hand, Blau (1990; 1991) found that speech ranging from 145 to 185 w.p.m. did not significantly affect listening comprehension of intermediate- and advanced-level L2 learners. As for spinoza descartes the general concept of speech rate, Rivers (1981) cites the following figures: Fast: above 220 w.p.m. Moderately fast: 190-220 w.p.m. Average: 160-220 w.p.m. Moderately slow: 130-160 w.p.m. Slow: below 130 wpm.
Besides, Sticht (1971) quotes a normal speech rate of 165 to napoleon rise so quickly in france 180 words per minute for native speakers of English. Based on the researches abovementioned, speech rate is one of the nursing, variables that affect listening comprehension, which may relate to text variables, such as vocabulary, syntax or topic, type of text used, and amount of background knowledge required (Buck, 2001; Rubin, 1994). The fifth difficulty is how did napoleon to power so quickly in france, that learners tend to alban and anton webern arnold think they have to completely understand what they hear, consequently causing anxiety (Rubin, 1994; Ur, 1984). Most foreign-language learners run into a psychological problem: they have a kind of obligation to understand everything, even things that are not important, and they feel discouraged and may even completely give up listening if they encounter an incomprehensible word (Rubin, 1994; Ur, 1984). Foreign language beginning learners have to understand all when they hear only single words or short sentences. However, when listening comprehension passages get longer, they still assume that total comprehension is successful comprehension, and find it very difficult to get used to the idea that they can be competent listeners with less than one hundred percent comprehension (Ur, 1984). From the anecdotal evidence in rise to power so quickly the research of O’Malley et al. (1989), it is found that ”effective listeners seemed to be aware when they stopped attending and made an effort to Supporting the Growth Commercial Venture redirect their attention to napoleon the task’ (p.
428) and goals examples, ‘ineffective listeners reported that when they encountered an so quickly unknown word or phrase in a listening text, they usually just stopped listening or failed to Protection of Original Essay be aware of their inattention’ (p. How Did Napoleon So Quickly In France! 428). Foreign-language learners have this difficulty probably because their receptive system is overloaded (Ur, 1984). They have to work much harder at Collapse Essay decoding than native listeners and to power so quickly, try to webern were interpret every detail as it comes up instead of relaxing and taking a broader view. Compared with reading and how did napoleon so quickly, writing, listening is more stressful for learners since it involves serious time constraints on of Leadership Essay processing, which cause learners’ anxiety (Ur, 1984). 3. Listening Comprehension Processing. Most models of how did rise so quickly in france, listening perception in language learning include what is usually referred to Collapse of Leadership Essay as top-down, bottom-up and interactive processing. 3.1.
Top-down processing. In top-down processing, the so quickly, listeners need to and anton were arnold use their pre-existing knowledge to interpret or get a general view of the rise to power in france, listening passage and to create appropriate and plausible expectation of what they are about to descartes come across (Harmer, 2001; Goodman 1967; Shohamy #038; Inbar, 1991; Smith 1971). Top-down processing occurs as the perceptual system makes general predictions based on general schemata, or prior knowledge, and then searches the input, either visual or auditory, for napoleon rise in france information to fit into, or verify these predictions, and thus top-down processing is conceptually-driven or knowledge-based (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983; Shohamy #038; Inbar, 1991). Spinoza Descartes! In the study of Shohamy and Inbar (1991), it was reasonably hypothesized that listeners who employed a knowledge-based approach first made predictions about the passage they were about to how did napoleon rise to power listen to, basing their predictions on the questions they previewed prior to listening. Child Refugees! In the first listening listeners might have checked their hypotheses and rise to power in france, only afterwards, in a second listening, may have filled in the information gaps by supplying the spinoza descartes, local cues. Bacon (1989) and Vande Berg (1993) found that appropriate pre-listening activities could benefit learners’ comprehension for napoleon so quickly in france various listening exercises. Advance organizers, such as brainstorming (Vande Berg, 1993), illustrations and key words (Teichert, 1996), picture prediction (Harmer, 2001) and making inferences after listening to a series of sentences (Brown, 2001), can be used to facilitate learners’ top-down processing and help them be engaged in listening tasks. 3.2.
Bottom-up processing. In bottom-up processing, the listener focuses on individual words and phrases by decoding the linguistic input rapidly and alban berg webern were schoenberg's, accurately to refute implausible interpretation, and achieves understanding by combining these detailed elements together to build up a whole view of the listening passage (Harmer, 2001; Carrell 1983, 1988; Carrell #038; Eisterhold 1983; Rost 1990). Thus, bottom-up processing is napoleon rise in france, data-driven or text-based (Carrell #038; Eisterhold, 1983; Rubin, 1994). There are two types of comprehension strategies identified by Van Dijk and Essay, Kintsch (1983): one is local strategies which require learners’ attention to relations and links between the facts denoted by local clauses and sentences, and the other is how did napoleon so quickly in france, global/ macro-strategies which require a focus on the overall coherence, gist or topic of a text. Based on child refugees the statements above mentioned, it can be concluded that the local strategies are related to bottom-up processing while the global/ macro-strategies are related to top-down processing. Kelly (1991) proposed that in the early stages of foreign language learning, learners rely very much on bottom-up processing when listening and only when they consider that they are making progress to how did rise to power so quickly in france the proficiency and skills in Supporting the Growth of a the foreign language, they bring into semantic and other knowledge related to top-down processing. Some bottom-up pre-listening activities were proposed by several researchers to rise so quickly make listening comprehension easier. Review Of The! Providing listeners with key vocabulary before listening proved valuable in Raphan’s (1996) and Rost’s (2002) studies. How Did To Power In France! Harmer (2001) mentioned a bottom-up processing activity of finding differences between a written text and a recorded account of the Review of The of Original Essay, same events that can be implemented in teaching listening. Another bottom-up activity for how did rise so quickly beginning listeners is to listen to Collapse a series of sentences and how did rise so quickly in france, then circle one (out of three) verb form contained in the sentences (Brown, 2001).
3.3. Interactive processing. Listening comprehension is considered by some researchers as an learning interactive process between top-down and bottom-up processing and as a continuous modification of a developing interpretation in response to incoming information and pre-existing knowledge (Brownell, 1996; Buck, 1991; Harmer, 2001). Perception occurs when sufficient information has been provided both from the expectations set up by top-down processing and from linguistic input by napoleon rise in france bottom-up processing (Kelly, 1991). According to examples Kelly (1991), if the sound signal is weak, obscured or incomplete, the listener will probably make greater use of so quickly in france, top-down processing; similarly, it is when the listener’s expectations are low or not sensible that he will need to rely more on the sensory level and to hear clearly what is being said by bottom-up processing, and child refugees, such view of perception processing would probably fit in with almost all current models of auditory speech perception. Napoleon So Quickly! Similarly, some studies have indicated that effective listening comprehension takes place when the listener can successfully monitor their interpretation by constantly checking it against the incoming linguistic cues and to modify their hypotheses accordingly (Tyler #038; Warren, 1987; Buck, 1990).
In his research, Buck (1990) indicated that a number of listeners monitored the incoming information with what they had already heard before or with their background knowledge to develop their interpretation of the listening text. Further, there were instances in his study that serious comprehension problems had occurred when listeners failed to notice their developing interpretations were incompatible with the incoming information. In addition, O’Malley, Chamot, and Kupper (1989) indicated that bottom-up processing is only fragmentary for efficient EFL listeners; they activate more L1 knowledge in the form of schemata and use both top-down and bottom-up strategies to construct meaning. Hildyard and Olson (1982) found that efficient listeners and readers use the knowledge-based interactive mode of spinoza descartes, text processing, while low level students relate mostly to local details. According to Rumelhart (1980), both top-down and bottom-up processing should be occurring at all levels simultaneously: bottom-up processing ensures that the listeners will be sensitive to information that is new or contradictory to their ongoing hypotheses about the text; top-down processing helps the listeners to resolve ambiguities or to select between alternative possible interpretations of the incoming data. 3.4. Effectiveness of top-down and bottom-up processing. There is continuous discussion about the role of top-down and bottom-up processing in listening comprehension, but little could we conclude whether top-down or bottom-up processing is napoleon rise to power so quickly in france, more important to Commercial Venture Essay a listener. Some studies indicated that successful listening comprehension depends more on top-down processing. In the researches of Carrell #038; Eisterhold (1983), Conrad (1981, 1985), Hildyard #038; Olson (1982), Kelly (1991), Meyer #038; McConkie (1973), Rumelhart (1983), Shohamy #038; Inbar (1991), Van Dijk #038; Kintsh (1983), it is rise to power, found that skilled listeners, like proficient readers, use a knowledge-based mode of text processing, namely top-down processing, whereas less-skilled listeners and readers both attend mostly to local details as in the bottom-up processing. Similarly, Voss (1984) found that ‘successful speech perception depends on alban berg and anton arnold an active reconstruction process applying top-down strategies to napoleon rise to power so quickly the acoustic input, i.e., assigning ultimate values to segments and other lower-order units on the basis of hypotheses about a larger stretch’ (p.
148). Nursing Goals Examples! In Weissenreider’s (1987) study, schemata which are crucial in top-down processing were found to be beneficial in listening comprehension. Her results show that both textual schemata (knowledge about the newscast processing) and content schemata (topic familiarity with specific news) help the listening comprehension of non-native speakers, particularly when participants are capable of incorporating cognitive strategies. Lund (1991) provides evidence for top-down processing in his study by comparing listening and reading of first-, second-, and third-semester university students of German. He concluded that participants relied considerably on top-down processing in listening tasks. Wolff (1987) worked with twelve- to eighteen-year-old German students of English and how did rise so quickly in france, found that while students appeared to make a simultaneous use of bottom-up and top-down processing with an easy listening text, they used more top-down processing strategies for more difficult texts. In addition, some researches indicated that beginners rely very heavily on background knowledge and hardly use other cues in listening comprehension while learners with better linguistic proficiency use their greater linguistic knowledge and experience to help them understand a text (Mueller, 1980; Vandergrift, 1997). Thus, providing background information and of Leadership Essay, previewing are particularly important and effective for the less proficient language student to how did comprehend a text (Hudson, 1982).
Nevertheless, some studies indicated that successful listening comprehension relies more on of The Protection Design Essay bottom-up processing than on top-down strategies. Schemata in top-down processing can also have dysfunctional effects on listening comprehension (Long, 1990; O’Malley et al., 1989). In Long’s (1990) study, participants completed a survey of their background knowledge of two topics used, namely, gold rush and rock groups, and he found that participants overextended their gold rush schemata onto a set of data that were clearly incompatible. It is clear, then, that schemata can hurt, as well as help listening comprehension and it can also be inferred that linguistic knowledge plays a prominent role in comprehension when appropriate schemata are not available to the listener (Long, 1990). 4. Evidences from Previous Research Related to Listening Comprehension.
Results from previous research that instruction can lead to listening improvement, as measured by so quickly in france pre-tests and post-tests, are inconsistent. On the one hand, there was no significant improvement in the studies of Johnson and and anton were arnold, Long (2007), O’Malley et al. (1985), and McGruddy (1995). Johnson and Long (2007) assessed listening competency of how did napoleon to power so quickly, college students through the Watson-Barker Listening Test (Watson #038; Barker, 2000). There were no significant differences between the Collapse, scores of pre- and post-test after listening instruction, indicating that listening instruction did not influence performance-based listening ability. O’Malley et al. (1985) found differences, but not statistically significant, in the scores at the post-test of EFL learners who received different types of listening instruction. In the research of McGruddy (1995), significant differences in how did in france pre-test and descartes, post-test were observed merely in a non-standardized listening test rather than in a standardized test. On the other hand, some studies revealed more success in terms of listening instruction. In the study of how did to power, Nichols, Brown and Collapse, Keller (2006), the trained group of 31 freshman students made significant gains in scores during the period of listening instruction.
In Kohler’s (2002) study, 70 learners of Spanish at a university received listening instruction. Napoleon Rise In France! Their listening comprehension significantly increased, compared with the non-intervention group. However, there does not appear to Review Essay have been a pre-test of learners’ listening comprehension, without which it is rise to power in france, difficult to conclude Kohler’s claim of significant improvement in listening comprehension of the experimental group. In addition, in goals examples the study of Graham and Macaro (2008), 151 senior high school students of how did napoleon to power so quickly, French as a foreign language in Review Essay England were targeted, and a positive impact of listening strategy instruction was noticed. Students who underwent listening instruction significantly outperformed those who did not receive such instruction, and rise in france, students reported that they themselves recognized this improvement. 5. Characteristics of Children’s Learning. Based on the theory of Piaget and Inhelder (1969), there are four phases of children’s cognitive development, which are sensory-motor period, preoperational period, concrete operation period and formal operation period. The period of concrete operation generally represents the learning goals examples, elementary school students, ranging from 7 to napoleon rise 12 years old. Children in the concrete operation period begin to think logically. Operations are associated with personal experience and are in concrete situation, but not in abstract manipulation. Children’s learning in Review Protection of Original Design Essay this period relies heavily on operational activities, such as objects, pictures and physical experiments.
Another theory concerning children’s learning is the scaffolding theory (Wood, Bruner, #038; Ross, 1976) which was developed based on the concept of zone of proximal development proposed by Vygotsky (1978). Zone of proximal development refers to the differences between the level of actual development and the level of potential development; the rise in france, level of actual development means children’s actual independent problem-solving competence while the level of potential development means children’s problem-solving competence developed either through the leading or guidance from adults or instructors or through the collaboration or cooperation with more competent peers (Wertsch, 1984). The zone, or the the Growth of a Venture, difference, of proximal development does not mean a fixed distance or concrete space of learning; rather, it refers to the possible, learnable scope created by the interaction between people and its changes with the development of individuals (Cole, 1985; Moll, 1990). Scaffolding, when applied in teaching practices, generally refers to the development of learners’ gradual comprehension of knowledge through the interaction between the how did napoleon to power so quickly in france, instructor and the learners. Review Of The Of Original! In such interaction, teachers, as assistants in children’s learning process, provide necessary assistance to napoleon rise to power so quickly foster learners’ cognition with the examples, consideration of learners’ development level. The interaction which is the scaffolding in the teaching process generally follows the pattern of question asking from the teacher, replying from students, specific guidance of so quickly in france, asking further questions from the teacher, and then replying from students. According to Supporting Commercial Venture Harmer (2001), young children learn differently from adolescents, and adults in napoleon rise to power many ways. Children tend to respond to the Growth Venture meaning even if they do not understand individual words. They learn from everything around them rather than only focusing on the precise topic they are being taught.
Their understanding comes not just from how did napoleon to power in france, explanation, but also from what they see and hear and, crucially, from what they have a chance to touch and interact with. In addition, children have a limited attention span, unless activities are extremely engaging or interesting they can easily get bored, losing interest after around ten minutes. In the light of these characteristics, teachers at this level need to provide a rich diet of Supporting of a Venture Essay, learning experiences which encourages students to get information from a variety of sources (Harmer, 2001). In addition, in the process of scaffolding in teaching, it is essential for teachers to be skilful in asking questions to activate students’ thinking and creativity, which are helpful in deepening and broadening the language development of the students. Teachers are suggested to avoid closed-ended, unimportant or forcing questions, but to provide open-ended, supportive or guiding ones to encourage the interaction between teachers and students. Teachers need to work with their students either individually or in how did napoleon to power so quickly groups to child refugees develop good relationships, and need to plan a range of napoleon, activities for examples a given time period, and to be flexible enough to napoleon rise move on to the next exercise when they see their students getting bored. 6. Research Questions of the Present Study. Listening comprehension is important for alban berg webern arnold EFL learners. Beginning instruction in a second language should focus on developing learners’ listening comprehension. In Romania, formal EFL beginning instruction falls in elementary education, a phase in which listening comprehension should be paid attention to.
It is likely that listening instruction in elementary school puts more emphasis on bottom-up listening processing than on top-down processing. As Kelly (1991) noted, EFL beginning learners rely very much on how did napoleon rise to power bottom-up listening processing, it is possible for elementary students to resort more to bottom-up processing when listening. Although some studies have investigated either the effects of different advance organizers on listening comprehension of undergraduate and junior-high school students (Sherman, 1997; Vande Berg, 1993; Herron, Hanley, #038; Cole, 1995) or how to of Leadership Essay teach high school students listening skills more effectively, little research has been done regarding the teaching of listening in elementary school, which is the beginning level of EFL learners. From the above discussion in the theory review, little research has targeted elementary EFL learners in terms of listening instruction. The effect of listening instruction, as measured by pre-tests and post-tests, are inconsistent in previous research which mostly involved undergraduate and high school students. Although it is apparent that listening involves both top-down and bottom-up processing, most elementary English learners tend to focus on bottom-up rather than top-down processing (Kelly, 1991). Therefore, it would be valuable to investigate the effect of listening instruction as well as the how did, listening processing of elementary EFL learners. The present study focused on descartes three research questions: (1) Do interactive processing teaching activities result in better listening performance than bottom-up teaching activities? (2) Why or why not? (3) When do elementary EFL learners rely on top-down processing, bottom-up processing and interactive processing? To address the research questions, comparison of performance between two groups was conducted after the two groups of participants had respectively received a series of listening instruction, namely interactive pre-listening activities and bottom-up pre-listening activities so that the effectiveness of how did rise so quickly, different pre-listening activities could be evaluated to investigate whether interactive processing activities lead to better performance than bottom-up processing activities. Furthermore, a questionnaire was administered for the interactive group after the post-test to investigate when elementary EFL learners rely on top-down processing, bottom-up processing and Commercial, interactive processing. Search our thousands of essays:
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