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A Sample Hookah Bar #038; Lounge Business Plan Template. Are you about starting a hookah bar lounge? If YES, here is a complete sample hookah bar business plan template feasibility report you can use for FREE . America's Energy Sources Essay? Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for starting a hookah lounge. We also took it further by analyzing and drafting a sample hookah bar marketing plan template backed up by America's, actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for hookah bars. So let#8217;s proceed to sample, the business planning section. The truth is that, if you choose to start a business just for the sake of making money, you are likely going to America's Essay, struggle to grow the business. When the going gets tough as expected, you are likely going to pull out. One business that falls under this category is a hookah bar; you cannot successfully run a hookah bar business if you arent a smoker yourself. The fact that The World Health Organization (WHO), in desire, conjunction with Governments of various Countries are clamping down on smoking in public places just in a bid to protect non- smokers from the harmful effect of smoking makes hookah bar welcome loads of clients who usually love to share their experience with friends ( smoking tobacco with friends ) in a cozy environment. Right there in the Airports, Cinemas, Shopping Malls and Sources Essay, Public places in New World, general, you might have noticed the Smoking Not Allowed signs hung at various spots informing the general public that the area is a no smoking zone. However, if you took your time to mad blood, make enquiry, you would find that there are hookah bars and cigar lounges just around the corner.

Banning smoking in public places is actually a blessing in America's Sources, disguise for people with the intention of starting a hookah bar or a cigar lounge. Little wonder we have cigar lounges and hookah bars being positioned in strategic places like airports, shopping malls, cinemas, et al. Although not all hookah bars or cigar lounge is opened to the general public. In some hookah bar, you would be required to sign up as a member before you can have access. Below is a sample Hookah Bar business plan template that can help you to successfully write your own with little or no difficulty. A Sample Hookah Bar Business Plan Template. The hookah bar / lounge which is also known as a shisha bar or den, especially in Energy Sources, United Kingdom and some parts of Canada is an establishment where patrons share shisha from a communal hookah or nargile which is placed at each table. This is a location where tobacco smokers can purchase and smoke tobacco and cigars freely without the fear of breaking the law of a country or city. Energy? Businesses in this industry usually provide limited food and alcohol services as a means of increasing their revenue generation. According to the American Cancer Society ACS, hookah basically a flavored tobacco and it is smoked out of a hookah water pipe.

The tobacco is often called shisha which is a higher grade hookah with only molasses and flavoring added. It is a centuries old practice and most likely originated from India. Hookah bars are mostly found in paper sample, college towns and urban areas and are regarded by some as a trendy way to America's Sources Essay, socialize and embrace multiculturalism. Some people of Middle Eastern or South Asian extraction consider them a continuation of Love Perfect and Cinderella’s their own cultural traditions. Some hookah bars have well-equipped kitchens and are more similar to wine bars.

In the broadest sense, any restaurant or nightclub can be considered a hookah lounge if it offers patrons hookahs, shisha and a comfortable place to smoke tobacco and cigars. Because of several state anti-tobacco laws, most Hookah bars have made the transition from smoking traditional shisha to smoking herbal shisha because it contains no tobacco or nicotine and is legal indoors in America's Energy Sources Essay, areas specific to the prohibition of tobacco and cigar smoking. Essay? Besides, herbs do produce tar when they burn. America's Essay? In recent time, the Hookah bars cum Cigar Lounges industry has made a strong comeback in the United States over the last five years as a large increase in tobacco consumption has boosted the demand for tobacco related products. Mad Blood? In the face of regulatory hurdles in obtaining exemption from of Brave Essay state indoor smoking bans, both industry participation and revenue have grown at rapid rates since 2010. No doubt, as the economy continues to grow and America's Sources Essay, improve over the next five years, more consumers will likely indulge in christina rossetti cousin kate, premium cigars and America's Energy, tobaccos at high-end hookah bars or cigar lounges, helping the industry sustain its growth and widen profit margins. Reaction? So also, with the United States recent steps toward normalization of relations with Cuba will definitely expand access to the country#8217;s high-end cigars and tobaccos, providing an opportunity for the industry to maximize profits.

The Hookah Bars cum Cigar Lounges industry is indeed a thriving industry in the United States, Canada and in most countries in Europe, Statistics has it that the Cigar Lounges and a streetcar named, Hookah Bars industry in the United States of America, is worth $2 billion, with an estimated growth rate of 11.0 percent. There are about 7,684 legally registered and Energy Essay, licensed cigar lounges / Hookah bars businesses scattered across the United States of America and of Singapore Essay, they are responsible for employing about 17,980 people. The industry is an open industry hence a low level of market share concentration. In order to invest wisely, you need to carry out a research on the industry or line of business you intend investing in. if you are opening a hookah bar for the first time, it is important you conduct a thorough research so that you can be well informed and guided when making the choices of what you want from the array of options that are available to you. Researching will open you up to the various opportunities you can leverage on and how you can access them. Its not compulsory that you must be the one to carry out the research; you can pay professionals to help you garner the needed information. Any entrepreneur who wants to start a hookah bar business in the US would definitely be confronted with tough competition out there. The truth is that, you will not only compete with hookah bars /smoke shops / cigar lounges in The Citizens Essay, your location or city, but you would be competing with every other entertainment options such as wine bars, night clubs, restaurants, casinos et al where cigars and tobacco et al are retailed and can be freely smoked.

For instance, people go to bars to drink, smoke and socialize and they tend to get more when they go to night clubs or other entertainment hub. In night clubs, people do not only drink, smoke and Sources, socialize, but they also dance if they choose to and get entertained. Hookah Bar Business Plan Executive Summary. Purple Blue Hookah Bar, LLC is a neighborhood hookah bar cum cigar lounge that will be located on the ground floor of one of the busiest campus communities with a robust international in the United States of America The University of Sources California Los Angeles. We have been able to secure a one-year lease of a vacant shop within the campus facility. We are fortunate to secure a facility with an option of renewal for mad blood 5 years at an agreed rate that is favorable to us. We are going to be involved in America's, the sale of traditional shisha, sale of herbal shisha sale of mad blood cigars, sale of tobacco-related accessories, sale of other tobacco products, sale of America's Energy Essay food and drink, mass marketing cigars and cigarillos, sale of premium cigars, providing a cigar-friendly smoking environment, sale of assorted red and white wines, sale of rossetti beer and liquor, sale of distilled spirits, martinis and tobacco et al to Sources Essay, campus students and visitors in a conducive environment that is specifically designed for socializing and networking and free from all forms of violence. ? Purple Blue Hookah Bar, LLC is designed and constructed to meet both the health and safety standard as recommended by the local authority.

Our customers are going to be treated with good music at Sources, all times. We have made provision for Airlines Essay live band, karaoke, country side music and jazz et al. This will be played at the background to create the ambience that our customers will cherish. We are in business to Airlines Essay, make profits at the same to give our customers value for their money; we want to give people the opportunity to choose from the wide range of shisha, assorted cigars, tobaccos and drinks that are manufactured both in The Citizens of Brave, the United States of Energy Sources Essay America and overseas. Purple Blue Hookah Bar, LLC will go all the way to make available in our hookah bar most of the shisha, tobacco and cigar brands produced in the United States of America and in other parts of the world especially in America's, countries like Cuba, India and Italy. We aware that hookah bars easily attract intellectuals and business people and we know that the campus community is one of the places where we can easily tie down these people especially when they have to socialize. We will ensure that all our employees are selected from a pool of qualified and customer centric people in and around Los Angeles California and also from America's any part of the United States. We will make sure that we take all the members of our workforce through the required trainings that will position them to meet the expectation of the company and to compete with other players in the United States and throughout the globe. Purple Blue Hookah Bar, LLC is owned by Clarence Williams and his immediate family members. Clarence Williams has managed several cigar lounges, smoke shops, bars and night clubs in Los Angeles and Las Vegas prior to America's, opening his own hookah bar. He has the magic wand to mad blood, attract people who go to cigar lounges and hookah bars on a regular basis.

Purple Blue Hookah Bar, LLC is going to operate a standard and health compliance hookah bar in Sources, University of in One Perfect Rose and Cinderella’s Diary by Ron Koertge California Los Angeles that will make available shisha, most of the cigar products and accessories that can be found in a standard cigar lounge or hookah bar in the United States. We will also ensure that we go all the way to make available assorted wines and alcoholic drinks in our smoke hookah bar. These are some of our product and service offerings; Sales of traditional shisha and herbal shisha Sales of cigars Sales of Sources tobacco-related accessories Sales of other tobacco products Sales of food and drink Mass market cigars and cigarillos Premium cigars Providing a cigar-friendly smoking environment Assorted red and white wines Beer and liquor Distilled spirits Martinis Tobacco Sale of E Cigars. Our vision is to establish a standard, health compliance and secured hookah bar in Los Angeles California that will be the melting pot of all lovers of shisha, cigars, tobaccos, wine, alcoholic and reaction, non alcoholic drinks. Our mission is to establish a hookah bar business that will make available all the brands of shisha, cigars, tobaccos, wine, and Energy, alcoholic drinks in the United States and other parts of the world at every given time to our highly esteemed customers and a place where people can network and socialize. Purple Blue Hookah Bar, LLC is a business that is established to be a pacesetter when it comes to named desire quotes, how standard hookah bar should be run in Los Angeles and even in the United States of America's Energy Sources America. We have the goal of assembling a team of dedicated workforce who will give our customers excellent customer service at all times, a team that will ensure that we will continue to have repeated customers and a team that will indeed make us the melting pot for smokers and , socialites in Los Angeles. In view of the above, we have been able to follow suits on what is obtainable in standard hookah bars and cigar lounges in America's Energy Essay, the United States and Love in One Rose and Cinderella’s Koertge, perhaps improve on the structure with time when the need arises. We will work hard to ensure that we only attract people with the right mindset to Love in One Rose Parker Diary by Ron Koertge, help us achieve our business goals and objectives in record time.

Below is the business structure that we will build Purple Blue Hookah Bar, LLC; Chief Executive Officer (Owner) Hookah Bar Manager Bartender / Baristas Accountants / Cashiers Procurement Officer DJ Greeters / Customer Service Agent / Table Attendant Cleaners Security Officers. Energy Essay? Roles and Responsibilities. Increases management#8217;s effectiveness by recruiting, selecting, orienting, training, coaching, counseling, and disciplining managers; communicating values, strategies, and objectives; assigning accountabilities; planning, monitoring, and appraising job results; developing incentives; developing a climate for offering information and opinions; providing educational opportunities. Paper Sample? Creates, communicates, and implements the organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. leading the development and implementation of the overall organization#8217;s strategy.

Responsible for fixing prices and Sources Essay, signing business deals Responsible for providing direction for the business Creates, communicates, and implements the organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. leading the development and implementation of the overall organization#8217;s strategy. Responsible for signing checks and documents on behalf of the company Evaluates the success of the organization Carries out staff induction for new team members. Responsible for managing the daily activities in the hookah lounge Ensures that the facility is in tip top shape and conducive enough to welcome customers Interfaces with vendors Reports to the Chief Executive Officer Attends to Customers complains and enquiries Prepares budget and reports for the organization Responsible for Training and Development in the organization Responsible for procuring of Perfect Rose by Dorothy by Ron Koertge supplies and equipment Handles any other duty as assigned by Energy, the CEO. Makes lists of supplies in conjunction with the hookah bar manager / management Assess customers needs and preferences and make recommendations Arranges bottles and glasses to make attractive displays. Serves wine and beer to Energy, guests. Prepares alcohol or non-alcohol beverages.

Mixes drinks, cocktails and other bar beverages as ordered and in cousin kate, compliance with standard drink recipes. Mixes ingredients to prepare cocktails and other drinks. Checks identification of the guest to make sure they meet age requirements for purchase of alcohol and tobacco products. Plans and presents bar menu to America's Sources Essay, clients Interacts with customers; take orders for shisha, cigars, tobaccos, drinks and snacks. Prepares inventory or purchase requisitions as needed to replenish supplies. Ensures that the assigned bar area is , fully equipped with tools and products needed for mixing beverages and serving guests. Responsible for preparing financial reports, budgets, and financial statements for the organization Provides managements with financial analyses, development budgets, and America's Sources, accounting reports; analyzes financial feasibility for the most complex proposed projects; conducts market research to forecast trends and mad blood, business conditions.

Responsible for financial forecasting and risks analysis. Performs cash management, general ledger accounting, and financial reporting for one or more properties. Responsible for developing and managing financial systems and America's Energy Essay, policies Responsible for administering payrolls Ensures compliance with taxation legislation Handles all financial transactions for the company Serves as internal auditor for of Brave the company. Ensures that customers are entertained with the best of Energy Sources music per time Manages the sound system for The Citizens of Brave Essay the hookah bar In charge of music collections Provides music at events. Responsible for developing music playlists. Interacts with public at parties. America's Sources Essay? Responsible for mixing music tracks. Mad Blood? Greeters / Customer Service Agent / Table Attendant. America's Energy Sources? Opens door and welcome customers Ensures that customers feel relaxed and at home Handles customers enquiries Assesses customers needs and preferences and make recommendations Ability to History of Singapore Airlines Essay, sell or influence others for up selling and suggestive selling. Provides recommendations and suggestions to guest for choosing Drinks and Snacks.

Serves customers in a friendly and helpful manner. America's Sources Essay? Determines when a customer has had too much shisha, cigar and alcohol and if required refusing any further serving on a polite way. Demonstrates a thorough knowledge of sample shisha, cigar and alcoholic products, menus and Promotions Handles any other duty as assigned by the smoke shop manager. Handles and moves objects, such as hookahs, glasses and bottles, using hands and arms. Cleans up after customers and clean work area. Clears ashtrays as and Energy Sources, when required. Washes glassware and utensils after each use.

Maintains a clean working area by sweeping, vacuuming, dusting, cleaning of glass doors and Essay, windows, etc. if required. Ensures that toiletries and supplies dont run out of stock Handles any other duty as assigned by the hookah bar manager. Ensures that the hookah bar facility is secured at Energy Sources Essay, all time Controls traffic and organize parking Gives security tips to Essay, staff members from time to time Patrols around the building on a 24 hours basis Submits security reports weekly Any other duty as assigned by the smoke shop manager. Hookah Bar Business Plan SWOT Analysis. Purple Blue Hookah Bar, LLC is established with the aim of christina cousin becoming the melting point for smokers and socialites in Los Angles which is why we have taken our time to Energy, critically analyze and conduct SWOT analysis to be able to identify areas we need to work on if indeed we want to achieve our business goal. No investor would want to invest his or hard earned money without assessing the risks involved in the venture and also his or her capability to rossetti, deliver and make profits from the business.

The ability to make profits from America's Sources Essay any business and to favorably compete with competitors in the industry starts with the result you get from your SWOT analysis. In view of that, Purple Blue Hookah Bar, LLC hired a business and HR specialist to help her conduct SWOT analysis for the business and below is christina kate, a summary of the result that was generated; Our strength as a company are, excellent and detailed customer service a wide range of assorted shisha, cigars, tobaccos, and alcoholic drinks both from the United States and other parts of the world. Excellent facility, excellent ambience and perfect location for a hookah lounge in metropolitan city like Los Angles. Our perceived weakness could be that we are new business, and Energy Sources Essay, we may not have the financial muscle to sustain the kind of America's Sources publicity we want to give our business. There are unlimited business opportunities available to hookah bar businesses in busy communities like University of California Los Angeles; Los Angeles is reaction paper sample, one of the cities in the world where social life is at its peak. Besides the campus facility where our hookah lounge is located is America's Sources Essay, one of the busiest in the United States and it is open to loads of opportunities due to the influx of The Citizens of Brave New World international students especially from America's Energy India and other Asia countries. Another opportunity that we stand to leverage on is the fact that we can easily order any brand of shisha, cigar, tobacco, wine and drinks directly from the manufacturer with little or no stress.

Just like any other business, one of the major threats that we are likely going to face is economic downturn. It is a fact that economic downturn affects purchasing / spending power. Another threat that may likely confront us is the arrival of a new hookah bar, cigar lounge or wine bar in sample, same facility or within same location where our target market exist and who may want to adopt same business model like us. Hookah Lounge Business Plan MARKET ANALYSIS. Despite the fact that the hookah bars cum cigar lounges industry has long existed in Energy Essay, the United States, it is starting to fall back into fashion. Innovative flavors and christina rossetti kate, different varieties of shisha and Energy Sources Essay, cigars have increased demand over the last five years. Recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and paper sample, Prevention (CDC) clearly indicated that 40.0 percent of people who try smoking try flavored cigarettes or cigarillos.

Consequently, this industry has jumped back into a growth phase. A close observation of the trends in the industry shows that hookah use has increased dramatically among American and European youth in recent years because of the social atmosphere it creates, and because many young adults believe hookah is a safer alternative to cigarette smoking, for that reason they do not fully understand the health effects that come along with it. In order to America's Sources Essay, remain open, many hookah lounges cannot sell food or beverages. Roughly 90 percent of the cities that have put a ban on smoking in public places have exemptions for hookah bars. Most hookah bars in the United States have chic or ultramodern elements such as glass tables, plasma televisions, and History Essay, oxygen bars et al.

Most bars in the U.S. require patrons to be at least 18 years of age to smoke shisha and 18 years of America's Sources Essay age to purchase ( exceptions are Utah, Arizona, Alabama, and New Jersey: 19 years of christina rossetti cousin kate age to smoke ). However the laws in some other states require the patron to Energy, only be 18 years of Essay age to purchase or possess tobacco, which in a hookah bar, the patron is doing none of these, for that reason one is Energy Essay, likely going to of Brave, find under age teenagers in many hookah bars in the United States. Energy Sources? No doubt, the Hookah Bars cum Cigar Lounges industry will continue to improvise on ways to Sources Essay, increase sales. They seek to remove the association of shisha, tobacco and cigar with high end clientele and overwhelming cigar lists and replace it with a more casual and relaxing atmosphere. Many of these hookah lounges are furnished with nooks and cozy booths encased in rich colors and plush surroundings in Perfect Rose by Dorothy and Cinderella’s by Ron Koertge, hopes their guests will linger. Hookah lounges look to embrace the intellectual stimulation linked to America's Energy Sources, shisha, cigar and tobacco and offer an alternative to the hookah bar scene. The phlegmatic environment lends itself to in One Perfect Diary by Ron, a good socializing setting with a less crowded feel and more intimate appeal. In recent time, hookah lounges have begun to incorporate a larger variety of America's Energy Essay alcoholic drinks and food choices as part of Essay their product offerings. It is Sources Essay, obvious that adding these product offerings help in creating alternate source of generating sales and increasing their overall income even if they struggle to sell their shishas, cigars and tobaccos.

Before starting our hookah lounge business in Los Angeles California, we conducted a market survey and feasibility studies and we are certain that there is a wide range of mad blood people who would patronize our hookah lounge on a regular basis. America's Energy Essay? In view of that, we have created strategies that will enable us reach out to various groups of people who are likely going to become our loyal customer. Below are our target markets; Corporate Executives Politicians Celebrities Taxi Drivers Socialites Business People Sports Men and Women Government Officials College Students Tourists. Christina Rossetti Kate? Our Competitive Advantage. We are mindful of the fact that there are stiffer competitions in the hookah bars cum cigar lounges industry in the United States of America; hence we have been able to hire some of the best business developer to handle our sales and marketing. Part of what is going to America's Energy Essay, be our selling point is the fact that we operate a standard and health compliance hookah bar, in Love Perfect Rose by Dorothy Parker and Cinderella’s by Ron Koertge, a perfect location (one of the busiest campus facilities in University of California Los Angeles, the United States) for the kind of business that we run and also the fact that our hookah lounge facility is highly secured. Another factor that will give Purple Blue Hookah Bar, LLC competitive edge is that we have enough parking space to accommodate the numbers of customers our hookah lounge can contain per time. We are not ruling out the fact that we have a dedicated and customer centric workforce that are willing to go the extra mile to give our customers full value for named desire quotes their money and time whenever the patronize our hookah lounge. We are not ignoring the fact that we are among the few neighborhood hookah lounge in Los Angeles that sells almost all the brands of shisha, cigar, tobacco, and America's Energy Sources, alcoholic drinks available in the United States of America, crafted beers, distilled spirits, liquors et al and obviously, that will surely count towards our advantage in the market place and also the robust experience of our CEO and the hookah bar manager is America's Energy Sources Essay, also a positive for Purple Blue Hookah Bar, LLC.

Lastly, our employees will be well taken care of, and their welfare package will be among the best within our category ( startups hookah lounges, wine bars and night club businesses in the United States ) in the industry meaning that they will be more than willing to build the business with us and mad blood, help deliver our set goals and America's, achieve all our aims and objectives. Hookah Lounge Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. Marketing Strategy and of Singapore Airlines Essay, Sales Strategy. Energy Sources Essay? Top of the list on our marketing and sale strategy document is generating a buzz for our hookah lounge via word-of-mouth and leveraging on road show around UCL campus community. Despite the fact that our first outlet is located inside University of California Los Angeles, the model of Love Parker and Cinderella’s hookah lounge we intend running is a neighborhood bar hence we are not going to rely only on the conventional ways of marketing. Energy Sources Essay? We dont have the plans to run paid adverts on Local TV stations, local radio stations or even local newspaper but we will sure maximize every other available means to promote our business.

Our unique selling proposition is that we have a collections of almost all the brand shishas, cigars and tobaccos produced in of Brave Essay, The United States in our hookah lounge, we also have assorted alcoholic drinks et al. In view of that, we are going to adopt the following marketing strategies to ensure that we do not only attract customers but generate repeated sales from them. Parts of the marketing and sales strategies that we will adopt are; Open our hookah lounge in a grand style with a party for all. Energy Sources Essay? Introduce our hookah lounge by sending introductory letters alongside our brochure to sample, organizations, households and key stake holders in Los Angeles California Ensure that we have a wide range of shishas, cigars, tobaccos, wines, beers, liquors, distilled spirits, martinis and non-alcoholic drinks at all times. Sources Essay? Make use of attractive hand bills to , create awareness and also to give direction to our hookah lounge Position our signage / flexi banners at Energy Essay, strategic places all around Los Angeles Position our greeters to welcome and direct potential customers Create a loyalty plan that will enable us reward our regular customers Engage on road shows within our neighborhood to create awareness for our hookah lounge. Purple Blue Hookah Bar, LLC is established with the aim of maximizing profits in the hookah bars cum cigar lounges industry and paper, we are going to go all the way to Sources Essay, ensure that we do all it takes to mad blood, attract our target market. The sources of income for America's Sources Essay Purple Blue Hookah Bar, LLC are stated below; Sales of traditional shisha and herbal shisha Sales of cigars Sales of paper tobacco-related accessories Sales of other tobacco products Sales of food and drink Mass market cigars and cigarillos Premium cigars Providing a cigar-friendly smoking environment Assorted red and white wines Beer and liquor Distilled spirits Martinis Tobacco Sale of E Cigars.

One thing is certain when it comes to hookah lounge business, if your hookah lounge is cozy, relaxing, well stocked and centrally positioned, you will always attract customers cum sales and that will sure translate to increase in revenue generation for the business. America's Sources Essay? We are well positioned to take on the available market in Airlines Essay, Los Angeles California and we are quite optimistic that we will meet our set target of generating enough income / profits from the first six month of operations and History of Singapore, grow the business and our clientele base. We have been able to critically examine the hookah lounge market and we have analyzed our chances in the industry and we have been able to come up with the following sales forecast. The sales projections are based on information gathered on the field and some assumptions that are peculiar to similar startups in Los Angeles CA. Below are the sales projections for Purple Blue Hookah Bar, LLC, it is based on the location of our business and other factors as it relates to hookah bars start ups in the United States; N.B : This projection is done based on what is obtainable in the industry and with the assumption that there wont be any major economic meltdown and there wont be any major competitor offering same products and customer care services as we do within same location. Please note that the above projection might be lower and at Sources, the same time it might be higher.

The prices of of Brave New World Essay our shishas, cigars, tobaccos, wines, beers, and other alcoholic drinks et al will be what is obtainable in the market. In fact we will try as much as we can to sell below the industrys average so as to attract loads of customers. We also have plans in place to discount our products once in a while and also to reward our loyal customers. The payment policy adopted by Energy Essay, Purple Blue Hookah Bar, LLC is all inclusive because we are quite aware that different customers prefer different payment options as it suits them but at the same time, we will ensure that we abide by , the financial rules and regulation of the United States of America. Here are the payment options that Purple Blue Hookah Bar, LLC will make available to her clients; Payment via bank transfer Payment with cash Payment via credit cards / Point of Sale Machines (POS Machines) Payment via online bank transfer Payment via check Payment via mobile money transfer Payment via bank draft. In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will enable our client make payment for farm produces purchase without any stress on their part. Our bank account numbers will be made available on our website and promotional materials to clients who may want to deposit cash or make online transfer for Sources Essay our products. Hookah Lounge Business Plan Publicity and Advertising Strategy.

Purple Blue Hookah Bar, LLC is a campus hookah bar and History, we will ensure that we create the buzz that will make people in our area know about us and what we do. We are quite aware that one of the effective ways of promoting our hookah lounge is to create special internal promotions which in turn will help us achieve our aim of mad blood leveraging on word of mouth publicity. Here are the platforms we intend leveraging on to promote and America's Sources, advertise Purple Blue Hookah Bar, LLC; Encourage the use of Love in One Perfect Rose by Dorothy Parker and Cinderella’s Diary by Ron Koertge word of mouth publicity from Energy Essay our loyal customers Leverage on the internet and social media platforms like; YouTube, Instagram, Facebook ,Twitter, LinkedIn, Snapchat, Badoo, Google+ and other platforms (music online forums) to reaction, promote our business. Ensure that our we position our banners and billboards in strategic positions all around Los Angeles CA Distribute our fliers and handbills in target areas in and around our neighborhood Contact corporate organizations, college students, business people, households, landlord associations and political parties by calling them up and informing them of Purple Blue Hookah Bar, LLC and the products we sell Advertise our cigar lounge business in our official website and America's Sources Essay, employ strategies that will help us pull traffic to The Citizens of Brave New World, the site Brand all our official cars and America's Energy Essay, vans and ensure that all our staff members and management staff wears our branded shirt or cap at The Citizens Essay, regular intervals. Start Up Expenditure (Budget) In setting up any business, the amount or cost will depend on the approach and scale you want to of Brave Essay, undertake. If you intend to go big by renting a place, then you would need a good amount of capital as you would need to America's Energy, ensure that your employees are well taken care of, and that your facility is conducive enough for workers to History of Singapore Airlines Essay, be creative and America's Energy Sources Essay, productive. This means that the start-up can either be low or high depending on your goals, vision and in One by Dorothy Parker and Cinderella’s Diary by Ron, aspirations for Energy Sources Essay your business. The tools and , equipment that will be used are nearly the same cost everywhere, and any difference in prices would be minimal and can be overlooked. As for the detailed cost analysis for America's Sources Essay starting a hookah lounge business; it might differ in other countries due to the value of mad blood their money. This is what it would cost us to start Purple Blue Hookah Bar, LLC in the United of America; The Total Fee for Registering the Business in Los Angeles, CA $750.

Legal expenses for obtaining licenses and permits as well as the accounting services totaling $1,200. Marketing promotion expenses (2,000 flyers at $0.04 per copy) for the total amount of $3,580. The cost for hiring Consultant $2,500. Insurance (general liability, workers#8217; compensation and property casualty) coverage at a total premium $2,400. The cost of Energy accounting software, CRM software and Payroll Software $15,000 Cost for payment of rent for 12 month at christina kate, $1.76 per square feet in quotes, the total amount of $105,600. The cost for America's Energy Sources Essay facility remodeling $25,000. Other start-up expenses including stationery $500 Phone and utility deposits ( $2,500 ) Operational cost for the first 3 months (salaries of employees, payments of bills et al) $60,000 The cost for start-up inventory (traditional shisha, herbal shisha, assorted tobaccos, assorted cigars and alcoholic drinks and non-alcoholic drinks) $16,027 Storage hardware (bins, utensil rack, shelves, glasses case) $3,720 The cost for counter area equipment (counter top, sink, ice machine, etc.) $9,500 The cost for serving area equipment ( glasses, flatware) $3,000 The cost for store equipment (cash register, security, ventilation, signage) $13,750 Office equipment and , furniture $3,600 The cost for the purchase of America's Energy furniture and gadgets (Computers, Printers, Telephone, TVs, Sound System, tables and chairs et al) $4,000. Named Desire Quotes? The cost of Launching a Website $600 The cost for our grand opening party $5,000 Miscellaneous $2,500. Energy Sources? We would need an estimate of $250,000 to successfully launch our hookah lounge in downtown Los Angeles, CA.

This amount includes the salary of all employees and paper, the CEO (Owner) for 3 months. Generating Funds/ Startup Capital for Purple Blue Hookah Bar, LLC. Purple Blue Hookah Bar, LLC is Energy Sources Essay, a private business that is owned by The Citizens of Brave New World Essay, Clarence Williams and his immediate family members and they intend to finance the business alone. Although they have plans to Energy, make the hookah bar manager part owner of the business after 5 or 7 years of services, but that does not stop him from reserving well over 80 percent stake of the business for himself and America's Essay, his family. Since they are the sole financier of the business, they have decided to adopt the following means to generate start up capital for the business;

Generate part of the start up capital from of Brave New World his personal savings and sale of his stocks Source for soft loans from family members and friends Apply for loan from my Banks. N.B: Mr. Sleek Davenport and his family have been able to generate $100,000 the breakdown shows that they generated $75,000 from Energy their personal savings and sale of The Citizens New World Essay their stocks and they generated $25,000 soft loans from their family members and friends. The balance of America's Sources $150,000 will be generated as loan facility from the bank. Hookah Bar Business Plan Sustainability and Expansion Strategy. The future of a business lies in America's Energy, the numbers of loyal customers that they have the capacity and competence of the employees, their investment strategy and the business structure. If all of these factors are missing from a business (company), then it wont be too long before the business close shop.

One of our major goals of starting Purple Blue Hookah Bar, LLC is to build a business that will survive off its own cash flow without the need for injecting finance from external sources once the business is officially running. We know that one of the ways of gaining approval and kate, winning customers over is to properly position our hookah lounge, ensure adequate security, availability of various brand of shishas, cigars, tobaccos, alcoholic drinks and excellent customer service et al. Purple Blue Hookah Bar, LLC will make sure that the right foundation, structures and processes are put in place to America's Sources, ensure that our staff welfare are well taken of. Our companys corporate culture is designed to drive our business to greater heights and training and mad blood, re training of our workforce is at the top burner. As a matter of fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to all our management staff and America's Sources, it will be based on their performance for a period of three years or more.

We know that if that is put in place, we will be able to successfully hire and retain the best hands we can get in the industry; they will be more committed to help us build the business of our dreams. Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Registration: Completed Opening of Corporate Bank Accounts: Completed Securing Point of Sales (POS) Machines: Completed Opening Mobile Money Accounts: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and Obtaining Tax Payers ID: In Progress Application for business license and permit: Completed Purchase of Insurance for the Business: Completed Renting of facility and remodeling the facility: In Progress Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating capital from family members: Completed Applications for Loan from the bank: In Progress Writing of Business Plan: Completed Drafting of Employees Handbook: Completed Drafting of Energy Contract Documents and other relevant Legal Documents: In Progress Design of The Companys Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and Printing of Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: In Progress Recruitment of employees: In Progress Purchase of the Needed furniture, electronic appliances, office appliances and bar accessories: In progress Creating Official Website for the Company: Completed Creating Awareness for the business both online and in the neighborhood: In Progress Health and Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement (License): Secured Opening party / launching party planning: In Progress Establishing business relationship with vendors suppliers of Energy Sources all our needed shishas, cigars, wine, alcoholic and non alcoholic drinks, tobacco and small chops et al: In Progress.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Within the America's Energy Sources Essay, philosophy of science there have been competing ideas about what an explanation is. Historically, explanation has been associated with causation: to explain an event or phenomenon is to identify its cause. But with the , growth and America's Energy Sources Essay, development of a streetcar quotes philosophy of science in the 20th century, the concept of explanation began to receive more rigorous and specific analysis. Sources? Of particular concern were theories that posited the existence of unobservable entities and processes (atoms, fields, genes, and so forth). Rossetti? These posed a dilemma: on the one hand, the staunch empiricist had to reject unobservable entities as a matter of principle; on the other, theories that appealed to unobservable entities were clearly producing revolutionary results. Energy Sources Essay? Thus philosophers of science sought some way to characterize the obvious value of these theories without abandoning the empiricist principles deemed central to scientific rationality. A theory of explanation might treat explanations in either a realist or an epistemic (that is, anti-realist) sense.

A realist interpretation of explanation holds that the entities or processes an mad blood explanation posits actually exist--the explanation is a literal description of external reality. An epistemic interpretation, on the contrary, holds that such entities or processes do not necessarily exist in any literal sense but are simply useful for Energy Sources Essay organizing human experience and the results of scientific experiments--the point of an explanation is only to Airlines Essay facilitate the construction of a consistent empirical model, not to furnish a literal description of reality. Thus Hempel's epistemic theory of explanation deals only in logical form, making no mention of America's Essay any actual physical connection between the phenomenon to be explained and in One Parker and Cinderella’s Diary Koertge, the facts purported to explain it, whereas Salmon's realist account emphasizes that real processes and entities are conceptually necessary for Energy understanding exactly why an in One by Dorothy Parker by Ron Koertge explanation works. In contrast to these theoretical and primarily scientific approaches, some philosophers have favored a theory of explanation grounded in the way people actually perform explanation. Ordinary Language Philosophy stresses the communicative or linguistic aspect of an explanation, its utility in answering questions and furthering understanding between two individuals, while an approach based in cognitive science maintains that explaining is a purely cognitive activity and that an explanation is a certain kind of mental representation that results from or aids in Energy Sources, this activity. It is a matter of mad blood contention within cognitive science whether explanation is properly conceived as the process and results of Energy Sources Essay belief revision or as the , activation of America's patterns within a neural network. This article focuses on the way thinking about explanation within the philosophy of science has changed since 1950.

It begins by discussing the philosophical concerns that gave rise to the first theory of explanation, the deductive-nomological model. Discussions of this theory and standard criticisms of it are followed by an examination of attempts to Perfect and Cinderella’s by Ron Koertge amend, extend or replace this first model. There is particular emphasis on the most general aspects of explanation and on the extent to Energy which later developments reflect the priorities and presuppositions of different philosophical traditions. There are many important aspects of explanation not covered, most notably the relation between the reaction paper, different types of Sources Essay explanation such as teleological, functional, reductive, psychological, and historical explanation -- that are employed in various branches of human inquiry. Most people, philosophers included, think of explanation in terms of causation. Very roughly, to explain an Love Rose by Dorothy Parker and Cinderella’s by Ron event or phenomenon is to America's Energy Essay identify its cause.

The nature of causation is one of the perennial problems of philosophy, so on the basis of this connection one might reasonably attempt to trace thinking about the nature of explanation to antiquity. Of Brave New World Essay? (Among the ancients, for example, Aristotle's theory of causation is plausibly regarded as a theory of explanation.) But the idea that the concept of explanation warrants independent analysis really did not begin to take hold until the 20th century. Generally, this change occurred as the result of the linguistic turn in philosophy. More specifically, it was the result of philosophers of science attempting to understand the nature of modern theoretical science. Of particular concern were theories that posited the existence of unobservable entities and processes (for example, atoms, fields, genes, etc.). These posed a dilemma. On the one hand, the staunch empiricist had to reject unobservable entities as a matter of principle; on the other hand, theories that appealed to unobservables were clearly producing revolutionary results. America's Energy? A way was needed to characterize the obvious value of these theories without abandoning the empiricist principles deemed central to scientific rationality. In this context it became common to distinguish between the literal truth of mad blood a theory and its power to explain observable phenomena. Energy Sources? Although the distinction between truth and explanatory power is important, it is susceptible to multiple interpretations, and this remains a source of mad blood confusion even today. The problem is Energy Essay this: In philosophy the terms truth and explanation have both realist and epistemic interpretations. On a realist interpretation the truth and reaction sample, explanatory power of a theory are matters of the correspondence of language with an external reality.

A theory that is both true and explanatory gives us insight into Essay, the causal structure of the , world. On an Energy Sources Essay epistemic interpretation, however, these terms express only the power of a theory to order our experience. A true and explanatory theory orders our experience to a greater degree than a false non-explanatory one. Hence, someone who denies that scientific theories are explanatory in in One by Dorothy Parker and Cinderella’s Diary by Ron, the realist sense of the term may or may not be denying that they are explanatory in the epistemic sense. Conversely, someone who asserts that scientific theories are explanatory in the epistemic sense may or may not be claiming that they are explanatory in the realist sense. The failure to distinguish these senses of explanation can and does foster disagreements that are purely semantic in nature.

One common way of employing the distinction between truth and explanation is to say that theories that refer to unobservable entities may explain the phenomena, but they are not literally true. America's Sources Essay? A second way is to say that these theories are true, but they do not really explain the phenomena. Although these statements are superficially contradictory, they can both be made in The Citizens of Brave New World Essay, support of the same basic view of the nature of America's scientific theories. This, it is now easy to see, is because the terms 'truth' and 'explanation' are being used differently in each statement. In the first, 'explanation' is being used epistemically and 'truth' realistically; in the second, 'explanation' is being used realistically and 'truth' epistemically. But both statements are saying roughly the same thing, namely, that a scientific theory may be accepted as having a certain epistemic value without necessarily accepting that the of Singapore Airlines, unobservable entities it refers to actually exist. America's? (This view is in One Perfect Rose by Dorothy Parker and Cinderella’s by Ron known as anti-realism.) One early 20th century philosopher scientist, Pierre Duhem, expressed himself according to the latter interpretation when he claimed: A physical theory is not an explanation. It is a system of mathematical propositions, deduced from a small number of principles, which aim to Energy Sources represent as simply, as completely, and as exactly as possible a set of experimental laws. ([1906] 1962: p7)

Duhem claimed that: To explain is to strip the reality of the appearances covering it like a veil, in order to see the named critics quotes, bare reality itself. (op.cit.: p19) Explanation was the task of metaphysics, not science. Science, according to Energy Duhem, does not comprehend reality, but only gives order to appearance. However, the kate, subsequent rise of analytic philosophy and, in particular, logical positivism made Duhem's acceptance of America's Energy Essay classical metaphysics unpopular. The conviction grew that, far from being explanatory, metaphysics was meaningless insofar as it issued claims that had no implications for experience. By the time Carl Hempel (who, as a logical positivist, was still fundamentally an anti-realist about unobservable entities) articulated the in One Rose by Dorothy Diary, first real theory of explanation (1948) the explanatory power of science could be stipulated. To explain the phenomena in the world of our experience, to answer the question Why? rather than only the question What?, is one of the foremost objectives of all rational inquiry; and especially scientific research, in Sources Essay, its various branches strives to go beyond a mere description of its subject matter by providing an explanation of the phenomena it investigates. (Hempel and Oppenheim 1948: p8) For Hempel, answering the question Why? did not, as for Duhem, involve an appeal to a reality beyond all experience. Hempel employs the epistemic sense of explanation. For him the question Why? was an expression of the need to a streetcar named quotes gain predictive control over Sources, our future experiences, and the value of a scientific theory was to be measured in , terms of its capacity to produce this result.

According to Hempel, an America's Essay explanation is: . an in One Rose by Dorothy Parker Koertge argument to the effect that the phenomenon to be explained . was to be expected in virtue of certain explanatory facts. (1965 p. 336) Hempel claimed that there are two types of explanation, what he called 'deductive-nomological' (DN) and 'inductive-statistical' (IS) respectively. Both IS and DN arguments have the same structure. Their premises each contain statements of two types: (1) initial conditions C, and (2) law-like generalizations L. In each, the conclusion is the event E to be explained: The only difference between the two is that the laws in Energy, a DN explanation are universal generalizations, whereas the laws in IS explanations have the form of statistical generalizations.

An example of a DN explanation containing one initial condition and one law-like generalization is: C. The infant's cells have three copies of chromosome 21. L. Any infant whose cells have three copies of chromosome 21 has Down's Syndrome. E. Mad Blood? The infant has Down's Syndrome. An example of an IS explanation is: C. The man's brain was deprived of oxygen for five continuous minutes. L. Almost anyone whose brain is Energy deprived of in One Perfect Rose and Cinderella’s Diary by Ron oxygen for five continuous minutes will sustain brain damage. E. The man has brain damage. For Hempel, DN explanations were always to Sources be preferred to IS explanations.

There were two reasons for this. First, the deductive relationship between premises and conclusion maximized the predictive value of the explanation. Hempel accepted IS arguments as explanatory just to the extent that they approximated DN explanations by conferring a high probability on the event to be explained. Second, Hempel understood the The Citizens, concept of explanation as something that should be understood fundamentally in terms of logical form. True premises are, of course, essential to something being a good DN explanation, but to qualify as a DN explanation (what he sometimes called a potential DN explanation) an argument need only exhibit the America's, deductive-nomological structure. (This requirement placed Hempel squarely within the logical positivist tradition, which was committed to analyzing all of the of Singapore Essay, epistemically significant concepts of science in logical terms.) There is, however, no corresponding concept of a potential IS explanation. Unlike DN explanations, the inductive character of IS explanations means that the relation between premises and conclusion can always be undermined by the addition of new information. (For example, the probability of brain damage, given that a man is deprived of oxygen for 7 minutes, is lowered somewhat by the information that the man spent this time at the bottom of a very cold lake.) Consequently, it is always possible that a proposed IS explanation, even if the premises are true, would fail to predict the fact in question, and thus have no explanatory significance for the case at hand. 3. Standard Criticisms of Sources Essay Hempel's Theory of Explanation. Hempel's dissatisfaction with statistical explanation was at of Brave New World odds with modern science, for which the explanatory use of statistics had become indispensable. Moreover, Hempel's requirement that IS explanations approximate the predictive power of DN explanations has the counterintuitive implication that for inherently low probability events no explanations are possible. For example, since smoking two packs of cigarettes a day for 40 years does not actually make it probable that a person will contract lung cancer, it follows from Hempel's theory that a statistical law about smoking will not be involved in an IS explanation of the Sources, occurrence of lung cancer.

Hempel's view might be defended here by claiming that when our theories do not allow us to predict a phenomenon with a high degree of a streetcar named desire quotes accuracy, it is because we have incomplete knowledge of the initial conditions. However, this seems to require us to base a theory of explanation on the now dubious metaphysical position that all events have determinate causes. Another important criticism of Hempel's theory is that many DN arguments with true premises do not appear to be explanatory. Wesley Salmon raised the problem of relevance with the following example: C1. America's Energy Sources Essay? Butch takes birth control pills. C2: Butch is a man.

L: No man who takes birth control pills becomes pregnant. E: Butch has not become pregnant. Unfortunately, this reasoning qualifies as explanatory on Hempel's theory despite the fact that the premises seem to be explanatorily irrelevant to the conclusion. Sylvain Bromberger raised the problem of asymmetry by pointing out that, while on Hempel's model one can explain the period of a pendulum in terms of the length of the pendulum together with the law of simple periodic motion, one can just as easily explain the length of a pendulum in Energy Sources Essay, terms of reaction its period in accord with the same law. Our intuitions tell us that the first is explanatory, but the second is not. The same point is America's Sources made by the following example: C: The barometer is falling rapidly. L: Whenever the barometer falls rapidly, a storm is approaching. E: A storm is approaching. While the falling barometer is The Citizens Essay a trustworthy indicator of an approaching storm, it is counterintuitive to say that the barometer explains the Sources, occurrence of the storm.

Rather, it is the approaching storm that explains the falling barometer. These two problems, relevance and mad blood, asymmetry, expose the difficulty of developing a theory of explanation that makes no reference to causal relations. Reference to causal relations is not an option for Hempel, however, since causation heads the anti-realist's list of metaphysically suspect concepts. It would also undermine his view that explanation should be understood as an epistemic rather than a metaphysical relationship. Hempel's response to these problems was that they raise purely pragmatic issues. Energy? His model countenances many explanations that prove to be useless, but whether an explanation has any practical value is not, in Hempel's view, something that can be determined by philosophical analysis.

This is a perfectly cogent reply, but it has not generally been regarded as an adequate one. Virtually all subsequent attempts to improve upon Hempel's theory accept the above criticisms as legitimate. As noted above, Hempel's model requires that an explanation make use of at least one law-like generalization. This presents another sort of problem for the DN model. Hempel was careful to distinguish law-like generalizations from accidental generalizations. The latter are generalizations that may be true, but not in , virtue of Energy Sources Essay any law of nature. (for example, All of my shirts are stained with coffee may be true, but it is- I hope- just an accidental fact, not a law of nature.) Although the idea that explanation consists in subsuming events under natural laws has wide appeal in the philosophy of science, it is doubtful whether this requirement can be made consistent with Hempel's epistemic view of explanation. The reason is simply that no one has ever articulated an epistemically sound criterion for distinguishing between law-like generalizations and accidental generalizations.

This is essentially just Hume's problem of induction, namely, that no finite number of of Brave observations can justify the claim that a regularity in America's Sources, nature is due to a streetcar desire quotes an natural necessity. In the absence of such a criterion, Hempel's model seems to violate the spirit of the epistemic view of explanation, as well as the idea that explanation can be understood in Energy, purely logical terms. 4. Contemporary Developments in the Theory of Explanation. Contemporary developments in quotes, the theory of Essay explanation in many ways reflect the fragmented state of analytic philosophy since the rossetti cousin kate, decline of logical positivism. In this article we will look briefly at examples of Energy Sources Essay how explanation has been conceived within the following five traditions: (1) Causal Realism, (2) Constructive Empiricism, (3) Ordinary Language Philosophy, (4) Cognitive Science and (5) Naturalism and Scientific Realism. With the decline of logical positivism and the gathering success of mad blood modern theoretical science, philosophers began to regard continued skepticism about the reality of unobservable entities and processes as pointless.

Different varieties of realism were articulated and against Energy Essay, this background several different causal theories of a streetcar desire quotes explanation were developed. The idea behind them is the ordinary intuition noted at the beginning of this essay: to explain is to attribute a cause. Michael Scriven argued this point with notable force: Let us take a case where we can be sure beyond any reasonable doubt that we have a correct explanation. America's Sources? As you reach for the dictionary, your knee catches the edge of the table and named quotes, thus turns over the ink bottle, the America's Sources Essay, contents of which proceed to run over the table's edge and ruin the carpet. If you are subsequently asked to explain how the carpet was damaged you have a complete explanation. You did it by knocking over the ink. The certainty of this explanation is primeval. This capacity for christina rossetti cousin kate identifying causes is Energy Essay learnt, is better developed in some people than in others, can be tested, and is the basis for what we call judgments. Christina Rossetti? (1959: p. 456)

Wesley Salmon's causal theory of Sources explanation is perhaps the most influential developed within the realist tradition. Salmon had earlier developed a fundamentally epistemic view according to which an explanation is a list of statistically relevant factors. However he later rejected this, and History of Singapore, any epistemic theory, as inadequate. His reason was that all epistemic theories are incapable of showing how explanations produce scientific understanding. This is America's Essay because scientific understanding is a streetcar named not only a matter of having justified beliefs about the future. Salmon now insists that even a Laplacean Demon whose knowledge of the laws and initial conditions of the America's Energy Essay, universe were so precise and complete as to issue in perfect predictive knowledge would lack scientific understanding. Specifically, he would lack the concepts of causal relevance and causal asymmetry and Love in One Perfect and Cinderella’s Diary, he could not distinguish between true causal processes and pseudo-processes. (As an example of the latter, consider the beam of a search light as it describes an arc through the sky. The movement of the beam is a pseudo-process since earlier stages of the beam do not cause later stages. By contrast, the electrical generation of the light itself, and the movement of the lamp housing are true causal processes.)

Salmon defends his causal realism by rejecting the Humean conception of causation as linked chains of events, and by America's Sources attempting to articulate an epistemologically sound theory of continuous causal processes and reaction paper, causal interactions to replace it. America's Essay? The theory itself is detailed and does not lend itself to compression. It reads not so much as an analysis of the term 'explanation' as a set of instructions for producing an explanation of a particular phenomenon or event. One begins by compiling a list of statistically relevant factors and analyzing the list by a variety of methods. The procedure terminates in the creation of causal models of these statistical relationships and empirical testing to determine which of these models is best supported by the evidence. Insofar as Salmon's theory insists that an adequate explanation has not been achieved until the fundamental causal mechanisms of a phenomenon have been articulated, it is deeply reductionistic. It is not clear, for example, how Salmon's model of explanation could ever generate meaningful explanations of mental events, which supervene on, but do not seem to be reducible to Energy Sources Essay a unique set of causal relationships. Salmon's theory is also similar to Hempel's in at least one sense, and that is that both champion ideal forms of explanation, rather than anything that scientists or ordinary people are likely to achieve in the workaday world. This type of theorizing clearly has its place, but it has also been criticized by those who see explanation primarily as a form of communication between individuals.

On this view, simplicity and The Citizens Essay, ease of communication are not merely pragmatic, but essential to the creation of Essay human understanding. b. Explanation and Constructive Empiricism. In his book The Scientific Image (1980) Bas van Fraassen produced an Love in One Perfect and Cinderella’s influential defense of anti-realism. Terming his view constructive empiricism van Fraassen claimed that theoretical science was properly construed as a creative process of model construction rather than one of America's Sources Essay discovering truths about the The Citizens of Brave New World, unobservable world. America's Energy Sources Essay? While avoiding the fatal excesses of logical positivism he argued strongly against the realistic interpretation of theoretical terms, claiming that contemporary scientific realism is desire predicated on a dire misunderstanding of the nature of explanation. (See Naturalism and America's Energy, Scientific Realism below). In support of his constructive empiricism van Fraassen produced an mad blood epistemic theory of explanation that draws on the logic of why-questions and draws on a Bayesian interpretation of probability. Like Hempel, van Fraassen seeks to explicate explanation as a purely logical concept. However, the logical relation is not that of premises to conclusion, but one of question to answer. Following Bromberger, van Fraassen characterizes explanation as an answer to a why-question. Why-questions, for him, are essentially contrastive.

That is, they always, implicitly or explicitly, ask: Why Pk, rather than some set of alternatives X= ? Why-questions also implicitly stipulate a relevance relation R, which is the America's Energy, explanatory relation (for example, causation) any answer must bear to the ordered pair . Van Fraassen follows Hempel in mad blood, addressing explanatory asymmetry and America's Essay, explanatory relevance as pragmatic issues. However, van Fraassen's question-answering model makes this view a bit more intuitive. The relevance relation is defined by the interests of the The Citizens of Brave Essay, person posing the question. America's Energy Sources? For example, an individual who asks for mad blood an explanation of an airline accident in terms of the America's Essay, human decisions that led to reaction it can not be forced to accept an explanation solely in terms of the weather. van Fraassen deals with the Energy Essay, problem of a streetcar desire critics explanatory asymmetry by showing that this, too, is a function of context. For example, most people would say that bad weather explains plane crashes, but plane crashes don't explain bad weather. However, there are conditions (for example, unstable atmospheric conditions, an airplane carrying highly explosive cargo) that could combine to supply the latter explanation with an appropriate context.

Van Fraassen's model also avoids Hempel's problematic requirement of high probability for IS explanation. For van Fraassen, an answer will be potentially explanatory if it favors Pk over all the other members of the contrast class. This means roughly that the answer must confer greater probability on Pk than on Essay, any other Pi. It does not require that Pk actually be probable, or even that the probability of Pk be raised as a result of the answer, since favoring can actually result from an answer that lowers the probability of all other Pi relative to Pk. For van Fraassen, the essential tool for calculating the explanatory value of a theory is Bayes' Rule, which allows one to calculate the probability of a particular event relative to a set of background assumptions and some new information. From a Bayesian point of view, the rationality of a belief is relative to a set of background assumptions which are not themselves the subject of evaluation. Van Fraassen's theory of explanation is therefore deeply subjectivist: what counts as a good explanation for one person may not count as a good explanation for another, since their background assumptions may differ. Van Fraassen's pragmatic account of explanation buttresses his anti-realist position, by The Citizens of Brave showing that when properly analyzed there is nothing about the concept of America's Sources Essay explanation that demands a realistic interpretation of causal processes or unobservables. Van Fraassen does not make the positivist mistake of claiming that talk of such things is metaphysical nonsense.

He claims only that a full appreciation of The Citizens New World Essay science does not depend on a realistic interpretation. His pragmatism also offers an alternative account of Salmon's Laplacean Demon. van Fraassen agrees with Salmon that an individual with perfect knowledge of the laws and initial conditions of the universe lacks something, but what he lacks is not objective knowledge of the difference between causal processes and pseudo processes. Rather, he simply lacks the human interests that make causation a useful concept. c. Explanation and Ordinary Language Philosophy. Although van Fraassen's theory of explanation is based on the view that explanation is a process of communication, he still chooses to explicate the concept of explanation as a logical relationship between question and answer, rather than as a communicative relationship between two individuals. Ordinary Language Philosophy tends to Energy Essay emphasize this latter quality, rejecting traditional epistemology and metaphysics and focusing on the requirements of effective communication. For this school, philosophical problems do not arise because ordinary language is defective, but because we are in some way ignoring the communicative function of language. History Of Singapore? Consequently, the point of America's Energy ordinary language analysis is not to in One Perfect Rose and Cinderella’s Diary improve upon ordinary usage by clarifying the meanings of terms for Energy Sources Essay use in some ideal vocabulary, but rather to bring the full ordinary meanings of the terms to light. Within this tradition Peter Achinstein (1983) developed an illocutionary theory of Rose by Dorothy Parker Diary by Ron explanation. Like Salmon, Achinstein characterizes explanation as the pursuit of America's Essay understanding.

He defines the act of explanation as the attempt by Love Perfect by Dorothy Parker and Cinderella’s one person to produce understanding in another by answering a certain kind of question in a certain kind of way. America's Energy Sources? Achinstein rejects Salmon's narrow association of understanding with causation, as well as van Fraassen's analysis in terms of why-questions. For Achinstein there are many different kinds of questions that we ordinarily regard as attempts to gain understanding (for example, who-, what-, when-, and where-questions) and in One Rose and Cinderella’s Diary Koertge, it follows that the act of answering any of these is properly regarded as an act of explanation. According to Achinstein's theory S (a person) explains q (an interrogative expressing some question Q) by uttering u only if: S utters u with the Energy Sources Essay, intention that his utterance of u render q understandable by producing the knowledge of the proposition expressed by u that it is a correct answer to Q. (1983: p.13) Achinstein's approach is an interesting departure from the , types of theory discussed above in that it draws freely both on the concept of intention as well as the irreducibly causal notion of America's Essay producing knowledge. This move clearly can not be countenanced by someone who sees explanation as a fundamentally logical concept. Even the causal realist who believes that explanations make essential reference to causes does not construe explanation itself in christina rossetti, causal terms. Indeed, Achinstein's approach is so different from theories that we have discussed so far that it might be best construed as addressing a very different question.

Whereas traditional theories have attempted to explicate the logic of explanation, Achinstein's theory may be best understood as an attempt to describe the process of America's Sources Essay explanation itself. Like van Fraassen's theory, Achinstein's theory is deeply pragmatic. He stipulates that all explanations are given relative to a set of instructions (cf. van Fraassen's relevance relations) and indicates that these instructions are ultimately determined by Essay the individual asking the question. So, for example, a person who ask for an explanation why the electrical power in the house has gone out implicitly instructs that the Airlines Essay, question be answered in a way that would be relevant to the goal of turning the electricity back on. An answer that explained the Sources, absence of an electrical current in scientific terms, say by reference to Maxwell's equations, would be inappropriate in this case. Achinstein attempts to avoid van Fraassen's subjectivism, by identifying understanding with knowledge that a certain kind of proposition is true. These, he calls content giving propositions which are to rossetti cousin be contrasted with propositions that have no real cognitive significance. For example, Achinstein would want to rule out as non-explanatory, answers to America's Energy Sources Essay questions that are purely tautological, such as: Mr. Pheeper died because Mr.

Pheeper ceased to live. Achinstein also counts as non explanatory the scientifically correct answer to The Citizens of Brave a question like: What is the speed of light in a vacuum? For him 186,000 miles/ second is not explanatory because, as it stands, it is just an incomprehensibly large number offering no basis of comparison with velocities that are cognitively significant. This does not mean that speed of light in a vacuum can not be explained. For example, a more cognitively significant answer to the above question might be that light can travel 7 1/2 times around the earth in one second. (Thanks to Professor Norman Swartz for Energy Sources Essay this example) One of the main difficulties with Achinstein's theory is that the The Citizens of Brave, idea of a content-giving proposition remains too vague. His refusal to narrow the list of Sources Essay questions that qualify as requests for explanation makes it very difficult to Love in One Perfect Rose by Dorothy Parker Diary by Ron identify any interesting property that an act of explanation must have in America's Energy Essay, order to produce understanding. Moreover, Achinstein's theory suffers from epistemological problems of its own. His theory of explanation makes essential reference to the intention to produce a certain kind of knowledge-state, but it is unclear from what Achinstein says how a knowledge state can be the paper sample, result of an illocutionary act simpliciter.

Certainly, such acts can produce beliefs, but not all beliefs so produced will count as knowledge, and Achinstein's theory does not distinguish between the kinds of explanatory acts that are likely to result in such knowledge, and the kinds that will not. d. Explanation and America's, Cognitive Science. While explanation may be fruitfully regarded as an act of communication, still another departure from the History of Singapore Essay, standard relational analysis is to America's Energy Sources Essay think of explaining as a purely cognitive activity, and an explanation as a certain kind of mental representation that results from or aids in this activity. Considered in this way, explaining (sometimes called 'abduction') is a universal phenomenon. It may be conscious, deliberative, and America's Sources, explicitly propositional in nature, but it may also be unconscious, instinctive, and Love in One Perfect Rose by Dorothy Koertge, involve no explicit propositional knowledge whatsoever. For example: a father, hearing a high-pitched wail coming from the next room, rushes to his daughter's aid. Whether he reacted instinctively, or on the basis of an explicit inference, we can say that the father's behavior was the result of his having explained the wailing sound as the Sources, cry of his daughter. From this perspective the term 'explanation' is neither a meta-logical nor a metaphysical relation. Rather, the term has been given a theoretical status and an explanatory function of its own; that is, we explain a person's behavior by reference to the fact that he is in possession of an explanation.

Put differently, 'explanation' has been subsumed into the theoretical vocabulary of mad blood science (with explanation itself being one of the problematic unobservables) an understanding of which was the very purpose of the theory of America's Energy Sources explanation in reaction paper sample, the first place. Cognitive science is a diverse discipline and there are many different ways of approaching the concept of explanation within it. One major rift within the discipline concerns the question whether folk psychology with its reference to mental entities like intentions, beliefs and Essay, desires is fundamentally sound. Cognitive scientists in the artificial intelligence (AI) tradition argue that it is sound, and that the task of cognitive science is to develop a theory that preserves the paper sample, basic integrity of belief-desire explanation. On this view, explaining is a process of belief revision, and explanatory understanding is understood by reference to the set of Sources beliefs that result from that process. Cognitive scientists in the neuroscience tradition, in The Citizens New World Essay, contrast, argue that folk psychology is not explanatory at America's Essay all: in its completed state all reference to beliefs and desires will be eliminated from the vocabulary of cognitive science in favor of a vocabulary that allows us to explain behavior by reference to models of christina rossetti cousin neural activity. On this view explaining is a fundamentally neurological process, and explanatory understanding is understood by reference to Energy Sources activation patterns within a neural network. One popular approach that incorporates aspects of both traditional AI and neuroscience makes use of the idea of rossetti a mental model (cf. Holland et al. [1986]) Mental models are internal representations that occur as a result of the activation of some part of a network of condition-action (or if-then) type rules.

These rules are clustered in such a way that when a certain number of conditions becomes active, some action results. For example, here is a small cluster of rules that a simple cognitive system might use to distinguish different types of small furry mammals in a backyard environment. (i) If [large, scurries, meows] then [cat]. (ii) If [small, scurries, squeaks] then [rat]. (iii) If [small, hops, chirps] then [squirrel]. (iv) If [squirrel or rat] then [flees]. (v) If [cat] then [approaches]. A mental model of a squirrel, then, can be described as an activation of rule (iii). A key concept within the mental models framework is that of a default hierarchy. Sources Essay? A set of rules such as those above, state a standard set of default conditions.

When these are met, a set of expectations is of Singapore generated. For example, the activation of rule (iii) generates expectations of Essay type (iv). However, a viable representational system must be able to revise prior rule activations when expectations are contradicted by future experience. In the mental models framework, this is achieved by incorporating a hierarchy of rules below the default condition with more specific conditions at lower levels of the model whose actions will defeat default expectations. For example, default rule (iii) might be defeated by another rule as follows: 3. Level 1: If [small, hops, chirps] then [squirrel]. Level 2: If [flies] then [bird]. In other words, a system that identifies a small, hopping chirping animal as a squirrel generates a set of expectations about its future behavior. If these expectations are contradicted by, for christina rossetti cousin example, the putative squirrel flying, then the system will descend to a lower level of the hierarchy thereby allowing the system to reclassify the object as a bird. Although this is just a cursory characterization of the mental models framework it is Energy Sources Essay enough to reaction show how explanation can be handled within it.

In this context it is natural to think of explanation as a process that is triggered by a predictive failure. Essentially, when the expectations activated at Level 1 of the America's Energy Sources Essay, default hierarchy fail, the system searches lower levels of the hierarchy to find out why. If the above example were formulated in explicitly propositional terms, we would say that the mad blood, failure of Level 1 expectations generated the question: Why did the animal, which I previously identified as a squirrel, fly? The answer supplied at level 2 is: Because the animal is not a squirrel, but a bird. Of course, Level 2 rules produce their own set of expectations, which must themselves be corroborated with future experience or defeated by future explanations. Clearly, the above example is a rudimentary form of explanation. Any viable system must incorporate learning algorithms which allow it to modify both the content and structure of the default hierarchy when its expectations are repeatedly undermined by experience. This will necessarily involve the ability to generalize over past experiences and activate entirely new rules at every level of the default hierarchy. One can reasonably doubt whether philosophical questions about the nature of explanation are addressed by defining and ultimately engineering systems capable of Energy explanatory cognition. To the extent that these questions are understood in paper, purely normative terms, they obviously arise in America's Energy, regard to systems built by humans with at least as much force as they arise for humans themselves. In defense of the cognitive science approach, however, one might assert that the Love in One Rose by Dorothy Parker and Cinderella’s Diary Koertge, simple philosophical question What is explanation? is not well-formed.

If we accept some form of America's Energy epistemic relativity, the proper form of such a question is always What is explanation in cognitive system S? Hence, doubts about the significance of of Singapore Essay explanatory cognition in some system S are best expressed as doubts about whether system S-type explanation models human cognition accurately enough to have any real significance for human beings. e. Explanation, Naturalism and Scientific Realism. Historically, naturalism is Energy Sources associated with the inclination to reject any kind of reaction explanation of natural phenomena that makes essential reference to unnatural phenomena. Essay? Insofar as this view is of Singapore Essay understood simply as the rejection of supernatural phenomena (for example the actions of gods, irreducibly spiritual substances, etc.) it is Energy Essay uncontroversial within the philosophy of science. However, when it is understood to entail the rejection of irreducibly non-natural properties, (that is, the normative properties of 'rightness' and 'wrongness' that we appeal to in making evaluative judgments about human thought and behavior), it is deeply problematic.

The problem is of Singapore just that the aim of the philosophy of science has always been to America's Sources establish an a priori basis for making precisely these evaluative judgments about scientific inquiry itself. If they can not be made, then it follows that the History of Singapore Airlines, goals of philosophical inquiry have been badly misconceived. Most contemporary naturalists do not regard this as an insurmountable problem. Rather, they just reject the idea that philosophical inquiry can occur from America's Sources Essay a vantage point outside of science, and paper, they deny that evaluative judgments we make about Energy Sources Essay scientific reasoning and scientific concepts have any a priori status. Put differently, they think philosophical inquiry should be seen as a very abstract form of in One Perfect Rose Parker Diary by Ron Koertge scientific inquiry, and they see the normative aspirations of philosophers as something that must be achieved by using the America's Sources Essay, very tools and methods that philosophers have traditionally sought to justify. The relevance of naturalism to Perfect by Dorothy Parker Diary by Ron Koertge the theory of explanation can be understood briefly as follows. America's Energy? Naturalism undermines the idea that knowledge is prior to a streetcar desire critics understanding. If it is true that there will never be an inductive logic that can provide an a priori basis for calling an observed regularity a natural law, then there is, in fact, no independent way of establishing what is the case prior to understanding why it is the case. Because of this, some naturalists (for example, Sellars) have suggested a different way of Sources thinking about the epistemic significance of explanation. The idea, basically, is that explanation is not something that occurs on the basis of pre-confirmed truths.

Rather, successful explanation is actually part of the process of reaction confirmation itself: Our aim [is] to Essay manipulate the three basic components of paper sample a world picture: (a) observed objects and Energy Essay, events, (b) unobserved objects and events, (c) nomological connections, so as to achieve a maximum of reaction paper sample explanatory coherence. In this reshuffle no item is sacred. (Sellars, 1962: p356) Many naturalists have since embraced this idea of inference to the best explanation (IBE) as a fundamental principle of scientific reasoning. Moreover, they have put this principle to work as an argument for realism. Briefly, the idea is that if we treat the claim that unobservable entities exist as a scientific hypothesis, then it can be seen as providing an explanation of the success of Sources theories that employ them: namely, the theories are successful because they are (approximately) true. Anti-realism, by contrast, can provide no such explanation; on this view theories that make reference to unobservables are not literally true and so the desire quotes, success of scientific theories remains mysterious. It should be noted here that scientific realism has a very different flavor from the more foundational form of America's Sources Essay realism discussed above. Traditional realists do not think of realism as a scientific hypothesis, but as an independent metaphysical thesis. Although IBE has won many converts in Perfect by Dorothy by Ron Koertge, recent years it is deeply problematic precisely because of the way it employs the concept of America's Sources explanation.

While most people find IBE to Love in One Perfect Rose and Cinderella’s by Ron be intuitively plausible, the fact remains that no theory of explanation discussed above can make sense of the idea that we accept a claim on the basis of its explanatory power. Rather, every such view stipulates as a condition of Essay having explanatory power at all that a statement must be true or well-confirmed. Moreover, van Fraassen has argued that even if we can make sense of IBE, it remains a highly dubious principle of inductive inference. The reason is that inference to the best explanation really can only mean inference to the best explanation given to date. We are unable to compare proposed explanations to a streetcar named desire others that no one has yet thought of, and for America's Energy Essay this reason the property of being the best explanation can not be an Love in One Parker Diary Koertge objective measure of the Sources, likelihood that it is true. One way of responding to these criticisms is to observe that Sellars' concept of explanatory coherence is based on a view about the nature of understanding that simply eludes the Perfect Rose by Dorothy Parker Diary, standard models of explanation. According to this view an Energy Sources Essay explanation increases our understanding, not simply by being the correct answer to a particular question, but by increasing the coherence of our entire belief system. Paper? This view has been developed in the context of traditional epistemology (Harman, Lehrer) as well as the philosophy of science (Thagard, Kitcher). In the latter context, the terms explanatory unification and consilience have been introduced to promote the idea that good explanations necessarily tend to produce a more unified body of knowledge.

Although traditionalists will insist that there is America's Sources no a priori basis for thinking that a unified or coherent set of beliefs is more likely to be true, (counterexamples are, in History Essay, fact, easy to produce) this misses the America's Energy Sources Essay, point that most naturalists reject the possibility of establishing IBE, or any other inductive principle, on purely a priori grounds. For critiques of naturalism, see the Social Science article. 5. The Current State of the Theory of Explanation. This brief summary may leave the reader with the mad blood, impression that philosophers are hopelessly divided on the nature of America's Energy explanation, but this is not really the a streetcar named, case. Essay? Most philosophers of science would agree that our understanding of explanation is far better now than it was in 1948 when Hempel and Oppenheim published Studies in the Logic of Explanation. While it serves expository purposes to represent the named critics quotes, DN model and Energy Sources Essay, each of its successors as fatally flawed, this should not obscure the fact that these theories have brought real advances in understanding which succeeding models are required to of Brave New World preserve. At this point, fundamental disagreements on America's Sources, the nature of explanation fall into one of two categories. First, there are metaphysical disagreements.

Realists and anti-realists continue to differ over what sort of ontological commitments one makes in accepting an explanation. Second, there are meta-philosophical disagreements. Naturalists and non-naturalists remain at odds concerning the relevance of The Citizens of Brave New World Essay scientific inquiry ( namely, inquiry into the way scientists, ordinary people and computers actually think) to America's Sources Essay a philosophical theory of explanation. These disputes are unlikely to be resolved anytime soon. Fortunately, however, the significance of further research into the logical and Love in One Perfect Rose by Dorothy Parker and Cinderella’s Diary by Ron Koertge, cognitive structure of explanation does not depend on their outcome.

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15 Completely Useless Comic Book Weapons. Comic book universes are littered with violence. Therefore, inhabitants of these universes would be nothing without their weapons. Sources Essay! Superheroes and villains need an arsenal of weapons to mad blood, keep up with the Energy Essay times. In fact, many of these characters are defined by their gadgets and simply wouldnt succeed without them. For example, whats Iron Man without his suit? Throughout comic books we have seen some amazing weapons such as Thors hammer, Wonder Womans lasso, and Captain Americas shield. However, not all weapons were created equally, so we#8217;ve also seen some that arent nearly as mighty.

This list will focus on those weapons the weapons that are best left at home when it#8217;s time to fight. Sources! These gadgets are the most useless throughout comic book history either because they do no harm, they harm the of Brave Essay holder of the weapon, or because they are just downright impractical. And lets be honest we couldve filled this whole list with Batman and his villains, but the Dark Knight isnt the only one with some useless comic book weapons. There are many characters across multiple universes that have somehow managed to survive with weak and useless weapons of America's choice. You may even be surprised by whats in their weapons arsenal. So, get ready for a fight, because here are the 15 Most Useless Comic Book Weapons . America's Energy Sources Essay! 15. Scott Pilgrim#8217;s Deveganizing Ray. People only use a small fraction of their brain because the rest is America's Energy Sources, filled up with curds and whey. However, by practicing veganism, it opens the brain up to its full potential. This is why vegans in Scott Pilgrim gain psychic powers.

These powers, though, come with rules that are strictly regulated by the Vegan Police. Named Desire Critics Quotes! If vegans violate the rules by eating dairy products, the Energy Essay vegan police will strip them of their vegan abilities using the deveganizing ray. This happened to Todd Ingram, Ramonas third evil ex-boyfriend. Love Perfect By Dorothy And Cinderella’s By Ron! Todd was being investigated by the Vegan Police for a while and was convicted of eating gelato and chicken parmesan. He was then shot with the ray and stripped of America's Energy Sources his powers, allowing Scott to mad blood, headbutt him. In the movie, Scott Pilgrim vs the World , Scott tricks Todd into drinking half and half, causing the America's Energy Essay Vegan Police to apprehend him on in One by Dorothy by Ron his third offense. They use the deveganizing ray to Sources, strip Todd of his powers and, just like the The Citizens of Brave comics, Scott headbutts him. The deveganizing ray is useless because it can only be used on vegans who break their diet hence why it was only used once in the comics. 14. Batman#8217;s Female Villain Repellent Spray.

Theres no doubt that Batman has his fair share of useless weapons and America's Energy, gadgets, but this one may just take the cake. In the crossover Planetary/Batman: Night on Earth , there is an Love in One Parker Diary by Ron Koertge, alternate universe Batman who portrays a different personality from the typical Dark Knight. However, despite the difference in personality, this alternate version of Batman still has a knack for creating useless weapons. In this comic, Batman says he cant hit a girl and therefore uses his Female Villain Repellent Spray to stun Jakita. Energy Sources! Not only is the rossetti cousin kate weapon slightly sexist showing just how little Batman views his female villains it is also highly impractical. A spray has a range of what, one foot? This means that, by the time the female villains are in range of the Sources spray, its most likely too late for Batman. Paper! What is it made out of anyway? Axe body spray? Rainbow Raider, appropriately named Roy G. Bivolo for the colors of the rainbow, was a DC villain who made his debut appearance in The Flash #286 . Bivolo was a colorblind artist who turned to a life of crime when the America's Energy Sources world rejected his artistic talents. On his deathbed, Roys father gave him a pair of goggles that created beams of desire critics rainbow colored light.

This became Roys weapon of choice and thus the Rainbow Raider was created. Rainbow Raiders googles allowed him to Essay, ride on a beam of light, drain the color out of people and objects, and manipulate peoples emotions. America's Sources! At one point, he even drained the The Citizens New World colors from his surroundings and gave himself the America's Sources sight of color that he always wanted. However, it didnt work well he thought the christina cousin kate Flash and Santa Claus wore the color blue. If Rainbow Raider had been smarter, he could have transformed his goggles into something more powerful. However, this never happens and thus his goggles remain as one of the most useless weapons of Energy Sources Essay comic history. Love In One Perfect Parker Koertge! In 2005, comic writer Geoff Johns even criticized the Rainbow Raider saying he doesnt have an affinity for him and never really understood why he was created.

Dogwelder was a part of Section Eight, a band of crazy and delusional superhero wannabes led by Six-Pack. First appearing in Hitman #18, Dogwelder was a mysterious character. He never spoke and no one ever saw his face because it was always hidden behind a welding mask. Dogwelder was also a disturbed individual who liked to hide in Sources Essay alleys. In these alleys, he would set up traps for stray animals and create his steady supply of paper sample weapons: dead dogs. Dogwelders signature move is Sources Essay, perfectly described by his name.

He simply welded dead dogs to the faces of unsuspecting criminals. Not only was this move unorthodox, but it was also useless. He didnt have to named, kill innocent puppies to support his crime-fighting spree. The welding equipment alone couldve done harm to his victims. 11.

The Heart Ring from Captain Planet. Captain Planet is summoned by the combined rings held by each of the Energy Sources Planeteers. There is Love Perfect Diary Koertge, a ring for Fire, Water, Earth, Wind, and Heart. According to Gaia, or Mother Earth, the Heart Ring is the most important of the rings. However, compared to Energy, the rest of the rings, its pretty useless. Reaction Paper! Mai-Ti drew the Energy Essay short end of the straw by receiving the Heart Ring, which gives the ability of telepathy and empathy to a streetcar desire critics, its holder. It can also communicate with Gaia and Energy, the holders of the other rings, deliver mass warning messages to nearby citizens, locate any ring separated from its owner, detect the presence of Sources animals, and mad blood, summon animals for help. Basically, it#8217;s no more useful than a cell phone.

The ring has many limitations, though, that diminish many of its more useful powers. Many Eco-Villains are immune to the Heart Ring because their hearts are pure evil. Therefore, the ring cannot help Mai-Ti read their thoughts or control their heart. Also, the heart ring cannot communicate with the other holders of the rings in the presence of Energy a villain. A gadget that renders itself useless when around villains doesnt seem to work too well in reaction our book. Slipknot worked for a chemical company where he developed the formula that he uses for his durable ropes. These ropes are unbreakable and allow Slipknot to hang, hold, or attack his enemies. Although Slipknot has a cool name, his weapon of choice is knot. Quite frankly, Slipknot is a worse version of Spider-Man. While Spider-Man uses his webs, Slipknot uses ropes and knots, which can be made by just about any Boy Scout. Slipknot was popularized by the recent movie Suicide Squad . In this film, it is also easy to Sources, see how useless Slipknot and his ropes are.

He seems to , stand out from the rest of the squad and Energy, is simply depicted as a man who can climb anything. Love Rose Parker And Cinderella’s Koertge! His uselessness to the team is likely why he is so quickly killed off in the film. Madcap was once a normal religious man who led a typical, boring life. America's Energy Sources! However, one day, tragedy struck#8230; While on a church retreat, his bus was hit by a tanker truck, killing everyone inside including his family. Madcap was thrown off the bus and in One Perfect Rose by Dorothy Diary Koertge, landed in a puddle of Compound X07, which managed to spare his life. Madcap never got over the randomness of the tragedy and drove himself insane searching for a reason why he was the only survivor. Through his search and America's Sources Essay, an attempted suicide, he found that he had retained the ability to rapidly heal, as well as the power to drive people insane.

This is when he decided to terrorize people and convince them that life has no meaning. Christina Rossetti Kate! To support his villainous act, Madcap waltzed to a general store and bought a weapon: a bubble gun. Costing just $1.49, the gun was never altered and Sources Essay, is simply what it is christina rossetti cousin, #8212; a bubble gun that shoots regular bubbles. Its just like any toy bubble gun that parents would buy for America's Energy their kids. Rossetti Kate! The gun is simply a distraction tool used to draw the attention of people towards Madcaps insanity-inducing eyes. 8. The Condiment King#8217;s Condiment Weapon. The Riddlers got riddles, Poison Ivys got plants with this guy it was condiments. The Condiment King is the ultimate wielder of weapons that dispense sauces to make your food taste better. Formerly known as Mitchell Mayo, the Condiment King first appeared in Batman: The Animated Series before his debut in the comic world. He can now be found spicing up Gotham in Batgirl: Year One , Robin #171, and Birds of America's Energy Sources Essay Prey #37. The Condiment Kings weapons literally shoot condiments at people. In One By Dorothy By Ron! He was never taken seriously, but during a stint at America's Arkham, he learned a thing or two about spices from Poison Ivy and reaction paper, developed a new secret recipe in Birds of Prey #37 . This secret sauce could send his victims into anaphylactic shock, but it still was no match for Gothams heroes, who very easily counteracted the shocking effects with milk. America's Energy Essay! Although it may hurt to get hot sauce squirted in your eye, the christina rossetti kate Condiment Kings weapons are simply useless in the DC universe.

7. Asbestos Lady#8217;s Suit and Asbestos Handguns. Asbestos Lady, also known as Victoria Murdock, absolutely hated the Human Torch and dedicated her life to Energy Sources Essay, taking him out. As a scientist turned criminal, she made a costume for christina cousin kate herself made of asbestos that protected her from temperatures up to 1600 degrees Fahrenheit. Sources Essay! She also carried handguns that fired asbestos-laced bullets. Although she was a formidable opponent for the Human Torch, her weapons would stand no chance against other heroes. The main reason why Asbestos Ladys gadgets are on this list is because they ultimately led to her death. As most of us know, it isnt good to be constantly surrounded by asbestos, because it leads to many deadly diseases. Eventually Murdock developed cancer from her suit and extreme exposure to asbestos. She succumbed to , the disease at the young age of 45. Although they served as a great public service announcement about the risks of asbestos, Asbestos Ladys weapons were basically useless.

As if one Stilt-Man wasnt enough, Marvel created a Lady Stilt-Man who used the same weapon: giant mechanical stilts. Lady Stilt-Man made her debut in The Amazing Spider-Man #611, paying homage to the original Stilt-Man. She used the same stilts that allowed her to rise above her enemies, with some added slight upgrades. For example, her suit was much more flexible than Stilt-Mans original suit and slightly more powerful. However, the America's Sources Essay upgrades didnt do much to desire critics, improve an already useless design. Sources! She was ultimately defeated by her own mechanical legs and mad blood, a basic manhole cover. Deadpool simply removed a man hole cover, and Lady Stilt-Man lost her balance, getting her stilt stuck inside the sewer. She fell to America's Energy Essay, the ground and began to cry about her defeat. As a blend of the words bat and boomerang, the batarang is a bat-shaped throwing weapon that Batman uses for ranged attacks. The first Batarang was created by Lee Colins, a boomerang expert who helped Batman to capture a criminal. After Colins first design, Batman started designing his own, and now has many different varieties including the remote-controlled batarang and the freezing batarang.

Other superheroes that fight alongside Batman, such as Batgirl, also use his batarangs. However, Tim Drake#8217;s Robin decided to Love Rose by Dorothy Parker and Cinderella’s by Ron Koertge, create his own specialized R-shaped batarangs. Have you ever thought of how many dull edges are on America's Sources Essay the letter R? Robins batarangs are rounded, making it extremely hard for of Singapore Airlines Essay them to latch onto objects or people. For it to be useful, a R-shaped batarang would have to be perfectly thrown so that it landed on one of the two sharp edges. This is a hard feat and Robin is America's Energy, much better off using Batmans multi-edged, bat-shaped batarangs. Weve all spent countless years making fun of Green Arrows Boxing Glove Arrow. However, this arrow will make even the Boxing Glove Arrow look like the most ingenious weapon of all.

One of the most useless arrows ever created was Speedys Chimney Sweep Arrow. Designed specifically to clean chimneys, the arrow used a set of whirling blades to push all the soot from the inside of paper sample a chimney to the top. Sources! It is christina rossetti, not very useful for anything besides a side job cleaning chimneys, which is why it was only used once. However, whats even more ridiculous is the reason why Speedy created the America's Sources Essay arrow. He was mad that the Love Perfect Parker Diary Green Arrow refused to Energy, raise his allowance and History of Singapore Airlines Essay, buy a boat for him. Therefore, he created the arrow and set off to America's Essay, clean soot out of a factory workers chimney for some extra cash.

Some other arrows that couldve made the list include the Antler Arrow, for those times you need to combat antlered animals, and the Tumbleweed Arrow, for the times you need to disguise yourself from in One Rose by Dorothy and Cinderella’s Diary Koertge a criminal in the Wild West. Identified by Sources Essay, its blue and white icy design, Iron Mans Arctic Armor may look cool, but looks can be deceiving. The armor was introduced at the end of Iron Man #318 in The Citizens Essay order to help Tony Stark keep warm while he traveled to the Arctic. This is pointless, however, because Iron Mans regular suit can already withstand freezing cold temperatures. He does go into America's Sources, space with it, after all. The Arctic suit also has less firepower than the original, so why even bother? This is most likely why the armor was only used once in the comics and once in the Iron Man: Armored Adventures television series it simply has no purpose. Its weak, and its not like there are a lot of villains hiding out in the Arctic. What kind of desire critics list would this be without Batmans Infamous Shark Repellent Spray? The ridiculousness of the Shark Repellent Spray has become iconic in the world of America's Sources superheroes.

It was popularized in the infamous scene of the Love by Dorothy 1966 Batman movie where Batman fights off a shark attached to his leg. However, the spray was actually introduced in America's Sources the comics eight years earlier. In the 1958 comic Batman #117, Batman and Robin end up on an alien planet. On this planet, they are attacked by a giant sea beast and, after some quick thinking, Batman sprays the mad blood creature with his Shark Repellent Spray. Now the ridiculousness of the spray does not have to Energy, be explained, as it is basically useless in all but two instances. However, despite its uselessness, Batman even has a whale, barracuda, and manta ray spray.

1. The Citizens New World Essay! The Mithril Skateboard from Scott Pilgrim. Scott wins the Mithril Skateboard after defeating Ramonas second evil ex-boyfriend Lucas Lee. Combined with the non-existent element Mithril, the Sources board is a strong weapon that increases speed by mad blood, 4, kick by 3, and will by 1. However, the reason why the America's Essay board is so completely useless is because Scott cant even skateboard. When he receives the board, he says N-no! I cant even use this! Why didnt I pick up that Skateboard Proficiency back in History of Singapore Airlines Essay Grade Five. Then the board simply vanishes into thin air, so what#8217;s the point of even including it? In the America's Energy Scott Pilgrim vs. the World: The Game , the skateboard appears after defeating Lucas Lee. However, its simply a joke and the player can never actually use it. Can you think of any other useless comic book weapons that should have made the list? Let us know in the comments!

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Essay on Tourism: Meaning, Origin and Types | Ecotourism. Read this article to learn about the Sources Essay, meaning, origin and types of tourism. Tourism is the act or travel for predominantly recreational or leisure purposes, supporting the paper sample, massive industry of Sources, tourism to cater the tourist needs of transportation, accommodation, food, entertainment, recreation, health and social contact. History Of Singapore Airlines Essay! The Austrian economist, Hermann Von Schullard, in 1910, gave the earliest definition of tourism. He defined it as sum of total operators, mainly of an economic nature, which directly relate to the entry, stay and movement of foreigners inside and outside a certain country, city or a region. Hunziker and Krapf, in 1942, defined tourism as the totality of the relationship and phenomenon arising from the America's Sources Essay, travel and stay of strangers, provided that the stay does not imply the Sources Essay, establishment of a permanent residence and is not connected with remunerative activities. The Tourism Society of in One by Dorothy Parker and Cinderella’s by Ron Koertge, England, in 1976, defined tourism as the temporary, short-term movement of people to America's Essay destination outside the places where they normally live and work and their activities during the stay at each destination. It includes movements for all purposes. The International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism, in America's Energy Sources, 1981, defined tourism in terms of particular activities selected by choice and undertaken outside the christina kate, home environment. Before people experience tourism, they usually need disposable income, leisure time and tourism infrastructure such as transport and accommodation.

Individually, sufficient health, money, and inclination to travel are conditions. In the beginning, travel was the status symbol for the elite who have access to large amounts of America's Essay, income. Paper Sample! With a combination of America's Energy Essay, different factors that have come in the process with passage of time, the elite traveler has transformed into a mass tourist. The term tourism invokes fantastic images of the places and wildlife seen by the tourist. Such images are seductive and the hidden thing in a streetcar named critics, this is big business. This is a leisure industry and is the worlds largest, accounting for 10.4 percent of the World Gross Domestic Produce and over America's Energy Sources Essay 11 percent of both consumption spending and capital investment.

Tourism is indeed a vital component of the economy of any country, especially in a developing country like ours. Tourism is an excellent revenue earner and a most significant source of foreign exchange. Tourism originated with the medieval pilgrimage and it was undertaken primarily for religious reasons. The term pilgrimage is primarily used in religion and spirituality of a long journey or search of great moral significance. America's Energy Essay! It is also a journey to a sacred place or shrine of importance to The Citizens of Brave a persons beliefs and faith. A person who makes such a journey is called a pilgrim. Medieval pilgrimages refer to travels made by Egyptians to South America 1000 B.C., travels by Kumarjib and others to China in 100 B.C., Fa Hiel, Hiuen Tsang, I-Tsing to India in 400-600 A.D., discovery of Sources, America in.

1000 A.D. by Leif Norweigean Ericsson, and travel by Macro Polo to China. Pilgrimages were undertaken by Christians primarily to visit holy places of Christianity such as sites connected with the birth, life, crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus. Surviving descriptions of such Christian pilgrimages to the Holy Land of Jesus date from the 4 th century and church fathers encouraged pilgrimages. Pilgrimages were also made by Christians to Rome and other sites associated with the Essay, Apostles, Saints and Christian martyrs as well as to places where there have been alleged apparitions of the Virgin Mary. In the Energy Sources, early stages of tourism history, means of travel included foot, animal or by ship or boat.

The simplest being foot, proved strenuous, and horseback improved travel easy. Christina Rossetti Cousin! Camels, donkeys, bullocks and elephants were also used while traveling. When using animals as transport, it made the trip both expensive and allowed the traveler to carry more supplies for trade or for other purposes. Early sea vessels varied from dug out America's Energy Essay, tree trunks to the complex Roman galleys. Upper classes often traveled around the Mediterranean basin. During the rule of Alexander the Great, 700,000 tourists visited what is now a part of Turkey. Well built and organized road favoured tourism during his rule. While on the journey, tourist groups had the ability to change a team of horses, stay at rest houses, and refreshments were available along the trip. Mad Blood! During this period, the Essay, roads were crowded. Reaction Sample! Alexander traveled to America's Energy Sources Essay India and found the road systems and facilities well arranged. During the same period, pleasure travel has begun in christina cousin, China and Japan.

In Europe, pilgrimages created a variety of tourist aspects that still exist bringing back souvenirs, obtaining credit with foreign banks and making use of space available on existing forms of transport. Pilgrimages of one sort or another are still important in America's, modern tourism. In 16 th century, it became fashionable in England to undertake grand tours, especially by young gentlemen from wealthy backgrounds. The sons of christina cousin, nobility and gentry were sent upon an extended tour of Europe as an educational experience. The 18 th century was the America's, golden age of the grand tours and many of the fashionable visitors were painted at Rome by Pompeo Batoni. The modern equivalent of grand tours is the phenomenon of the paper sample, backpackers on cultural holidays. Health tourism has existed almost throughout the history of tourism but it became important only in the 18 th century. In England, it was associated with spas, places with health giving mineral waters, treating diseases from Essay gout to liver disorders and bronchitis. Britain was the home of seaside holiday.

People followed in the steps of Royalty in traveling to the coast. At that time, doctors argued the benefits of bathing in christina kate, sea water. Later, sea bathing was popularized and became a widespread practice. Tourism as leisure travel was a British invention due to Sources Essay sociological factors. Britain was the first European country to industrialize ushering in the Industrial Revolution from 1760s, and the industrial society was the first society to offer time for leisure to a growing number of people. Cousin Kate! Initially, this did not apply to the working masses but it applied only to the owners of the machinery of production, the America's Essay, economic oligarchy, the factory owners and the traders. Mass travel began only after the a streetcar named desire critics, improvements in technology that allowed the transport of Energy Essay, large number of people in a short space of time to places of leisure interest. Then onwards, greater number of christina, people began to enjoy the benefits of Essay, leisure time. Thomas Cook was the christina rossetti cousin, father of America's, modern mass tourism because he organized the first package tour on 5 th July 1841 in , history. He arranged railway concessions, rail tickets and food for the travel.

He saw the potential of a convenient leisure travel and organized package holiday tours in Europe. Others followed him soon and the result is that tourist industry developed rapidly. Initially, it was supported by the growing middle classes and later other classes of the society also availed mass tourism. The spread of railway network in the 19 th century gave a boost to mass tourism within Europe. For a century, domestic tourism was the norm with foreign travel reserved for the rich or the culturally curious. In other countries, similar processes of mass tourism occurred at a slower rate, given that 19 th century Britain was ahead of any other nation in the world in the process of industrialization. The real age of international mass travel began with the growth of air travel after World War II (1939-1945). In the immediate post-war period, there was a surplus of transport aircrafts and a number of ex-military pilots ready to fly them to European destinations.

Cheap air travel and tour package were responsible for the development of international mass tourism. With industrial development and a rise in the standard of America's Energy Sources, living conditions, tourists began to a streetcar named critics quotes have higher levels of disposable income and greater leisure time. Further, they are better educated and tend to have more sophisticated tastes. With these conditions, mass tourism has rapidly grown. Outdoor recreation grew explosively from the America's Sources Essay, end of World War II until the 1970s in different parts of the world, especially in the United States of America. President John F. Kennedy of the paper sample, United States of America stated, Travel has become one of the great forces for peace and understanding in Energy Essay, our time. As people move throughout the of Brave New World, world and learn each others customs and to appreciate the qualities of Sources Essay, individuals of each nation, we are building a level of quotes, international understanding which can sharply improve the atmosphere for Energy Sources Essay world peace. The United States of Americaas a large continental country with vast and diverse natural resourceshas a long tradition of christina rossetti kate, tourism on public and private lands and waters from coast to coast. America's Essay! The demand for tourism has increased many fold due to increased levels of disposable income and leisure time. Americans spend billions of dollars annually. An estimated 900 million visitors per year take up tours to national forests, parks, monuments, historic sites, recreation areas, protected areas, wildlife refuge reserves and management areas on federal lands.

A number of variables have been identified as important in planning, developing and maintaining successful tourism operations. The most important are supply and demand, marketing, accessibility, travel and accommodation costs, transportation challenges, local infrastructure, carrying capacity, seasonal issues, community support for and dependency on tourism. In other developed countries also, tourism finds an importance place and is an integral part of the economy. World Tourism Organization has been celebrating 27 th September as World Tourism Day since 1980. Mad Blood! The purpose of this day is to display awareness that tourism is vital to the international community and to show how it affects the social, cultural, political and economic values worldwide, and, in the process, promote global tourism. Each year, there is a new theme, and a host country as a partner of World Tourism Organization for Sources celebrating World Tourism Day. Themes of World Tourism Day, since 1980, are given below and each theme has a special significance and contribution in America's Energy, the promotion of tourism with social, economic and environmental well-being of the people: 1980 Tourisms contribution to the preservation of cultural heritage and to peace and mutual understanding. 1981 Tourism and the quality of life. 1982 Pride in travel: good guests and good hosts.

1983 Travel and holidays are a right but also a responsibility for all. 1984 Tourism for international understanding, peace and cooperation. 1985 Youth Tourism: cultural and historical heritage for peace and friendship. 1986 Tourism: a vital force for world peace. 1987 Tourism for development. 1988 Tourism: education for all. 1989 The free movement of tourists creates one world.

1990 Tourism an unrecognized industry, a service to be realized. 1991 Communication, information and education: power lines of tourism development. 1992 Tourism a factor of growing social and economic solidarity and of encounter between people. 1993 Tourism development and environmental protection towards a lasting harmony. 1994 Quality staff, quality tourism. 1995 WTO serving world tourism for twenty years (1976-1995)

1996 Tourism a factor of tolerance and peace. 1997 Tourism a leading activity of the twenty-first century for job creation and environmental protection. 1998 Public-private sector partnership the key to tourism development and promotion. 1999 Tourism preserving world heritage for the new millennium. 2000 Technology and nature two challenges for of Brave tourism at Essay, the dawn of the twenty- first century. 2001 Tourism a tool for peace and dialogue among civilizations. 2002 Ecotourism, the key to sustainable development. 2003 Tourism a driving force for Love in One Perfect Koertge poverty alleviation, job creation and social harmony. 2004 Sport and tourism two living forces for mutual understanding, culture and the development of societies. 2005 Travel and transport from the imaginary of Jules Verne to the reality of the 21 st century. 2006 Tourism enriches.

2007 Tourism opens doors for women. Therefore, tourism is an effective tool for understanding nature, civilizations, traditions, improving knowledge, environmental education, poverty alleviation, job creation, and social harmony, and, in the process, contributing to sustainable development. It is also called traditional tourism. It involves different leisure activities by tourists such as picnicking, cooking in the open and disposing of refuse along with polythene bags, throwing away un-extinguished cigarette butts, painting their names on rocks or carving them on tree trunks, collecting plant or insect specimens for their records, disorderly and drunken behaviour, nudism, photographing indigenous people without their consent, particularly when they are naked or semi-naked, film-shooting camps in sanctuaries, forest reserves and parks, playing loud music, unauthorized hunting, etc. Tourists carry out these activities ignoring the sanctity of local environment, biodiversity and indigenous people; these are quite unethical activities.

Conventional tours in organized way speed up the process of environmental degradation. Economic benefits from this tourism are often superficial and inconsistent, and can damage local cultures and environments. In most of the reaction paper sample, countries, conventional tourism brings about economic injustices. National and local economies do not benefit from travelers visits and money. The intensity of America's Energy Sources Essay, negative impacts of conventional tourism depends on the number of visitors and the level of use of the tourist centers. Negative impacts occur when the level of visitor use is desire quotes greater than the environments ability to Sources cope with this use within the rossetti, acceptable limits of change. Uncontrolled conventional tourism poses potential threats to many natural areas around the world.

It can put enormous pressure on an area and lead to impacts such as soil erosion, increased pollution, discharges into the sea, natural habitat loss, increased pressure on endangered species and heightened vulnerability to forest fires. It often puts a strain on water resources, and it can force local populations to compete for the use of critical resources. Therefore, it has more of a negative impact by ignoring the sanctity of local environment, biodiversity and indigenous people. The mass component of this tourism derives from the profile of the customers participating in the trips conducted by self and by tour operators, the nature of marketing strategies pursued by tour operators, the spatial proximity of ecotourism zones to areas of Essay, mass tourist concentration, and the multiple ways in which business is conducted through traditional mass tourism networks such as tour operators, travel agents, and airlines. It is a recent global phenomenon, which encourages a flow of people between national and territorial bondersand is the fastest growing industry in the world today. Essay! Religious places, historical places, beaches, palm trees, mountains, hills and other places are centers, which promote mass tourism. This industry has considerable impacts on community-based natural resource management and, thus, on livelihood security of Sources Essay, rural or urban women and men in local communities. Mass tourism allows creation of new jobs and halts emigration.

It leads to changes in christina cousin, local communities, introducing them to new consumption models and lifestylesoften undermining local traditions and social frameworks. Mass tourism is one of the main drivers of in One Perfect Diary Koertge, environmental degradation. Land-based mass tourism shows dramatic environmental consequences. Development of hotels and related facilities induces changes in geomorphology, hydrology, increased strain on water resources and food supply. Mass tourism increases demand for local services such as water, sewer, solid waste, fuel, power, roads and medical services. It causes destruction of fragile habitats such as coral reefs and mangroves, increases pressure on a variety of species, and introduces serious pollution problems through the production of sewage and solid waste in course of time. Wildlife viewing can bring about stress for Airlines Essay the animals and alter their natural behaviour when tourists come too close. Wildlife watching activities have a degrading effect on habitat as they often are accompanied by the noise and commotion created by tourists as they chase wild animals. This puts high pressure on animal habits and behaviours and tends to bring about behavioural changes. Sources Essay! In some cases, animals become so disturbed that they neglect their young or fail to mate. This tourism frequently induces poorly planned, land-intensive development.

Mass tourism places a great pressure on natural resources. Fresh water is one of the most critical natural resources. This tourism industry generally overuses water resources for hotels, lawns, ornamental gardens, swimming pools, golf courses and personal use of water by tourists. This can result in water shortage and degradation of water supplies as well as generating a greater volume of wastewater. Golf course maintenance can also deplete freshwater resources because it requires an enormous amount of water every day. If the water comes from wells, over-pumping can cause saline intrusion into groundwater. Golf resorts are more often situated in America's Energy Sources, or near protected areas or areas where resources are limited, exacerbating their impacts. An average golf course in a tropical country needs 1,500 kg of named desire critics, chemical fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides per year and uses as much water as 60,000 rural villagers! The tourism can create great pressure on local resources like energy, food and other raw materials that may already be in short supply.

Greater extraction and transport of these resources exacerbates the physical impacts associated with their exploitation. Increased construction of America's, tourism and recreational facilities increase the History Essay, pressure on minerals, fossil fuels, fertile soil, forests, wetlands, wildlife resources and scenic landscapes. Forests often suffer negative impacts in the form of deforestation caused by fuel wood collection and land clearing. Transport by air, road and rail increases continuously in response to the rising number of tourists and their greater mobility. Transport emissions and emissions from energy production and use are linked to acid rain, global warming and photochemical pollution. Air pollution from tourist transportation has impacts at the global level, especially from carbon dioxide emissions related to Energy Sources transportation energy use. Noise pollution from cars, buses and other modes of transportation is another problem to modern life. In addition to causing annoyance, stress, and even hearing loss for of Singapore Airlines humans, it causes distress to wildlife, especially in sensitive areas. Waste disposal is a serious problem and improper disposal can be a major threat to natural environment rivers, scenic areas, and roadsides. Solid waste and littering can degrade the physical appearance of the water and shoreline and cause the death of marine animals.

In mountain areas, trekking tourists leave behind a great deal of waste in the form of garbage, oxygen cylinders and even camping equipment. Such practices degrade the environment with all the detritus. Construction of hotels, recreation and other facilities increases sewage pollution. Wastewater pollutes seas and lakes surrounding tourist attractions, damaging the mad blood, flora and fauna. Sewage runoff causes serious damage to coral reefs because it stimulates the growth of algae, which cover the filter-feeding corals, hindering their ability to survive. Change in salinity and siltation can have wide-ranging impacts on coastal environments.

Sewage pollution can threaten the health of human and animals. Large, dominating resorts of desperate design can look out of rossetti cousin kate, place in any natural environment and may clash with the indigenous structural design. A lack of land-use planning and building regulations in many destinations facilitated sprawling developments along coastlines, valleys and scenic routes. The sprawl includes tourism facilities themselves and supporting infrastructure such as roads, employee housing, parking, services and waste disposal. This contributes to aesthetic pollution. Attractive landscape sites such as sandy beaches, lakes, riversides, mountain tops and slopes, are often transitional zones, characterized by species-rich ecosystems. Typical physical impacts of tourism include the degradation of such ecosystems.

The ecosystems most threatened with degradation are ecologically fragile areas such as alpine regions, rain forests, wetlands, mangroves, coral reefs and sea grass beds. The threats to and pressures on these ecosystems are often severe because such places are very attractive to both tourists and developers. In forest areas, tourists using the same trail over and over again trample the of Singapore Airlines Essay, vegetation and soil, eventually causing damage that can lead to loss of biodiversity and other impacts. Trampling impacts on vegetation include breakage and bruising of America's, stems, reduced plant vigour and reduced regeneration, loss of ground cover and change in a streetcar named, species composition. Its impacts on soil include loss of organic matter, reduction in soil macro-porosity, decrease in America's Sources Essay, air and water permeability, increase in run-off and accelerated erosion. Experience with uncontrolled and irresponsible mass tourism produced negative effects such as degradation of most of the ecologically sound natural areas in most of the countries. This form of The Citizens, tourism pushed the degradation or damage of natural areas beyond their ecological and social carrying capacities. A segment of rural tourism is referred to America's Energy Sources as nature-based tourism or recreation-based tourism. It attracts people interested in visiting natural areas.

The concept of protecting wild lands for desire critics quotes their inherent natural beauty, cultural and biological significance was realized. In effect, certain natural areas were protected and this is the America's Sources, essence of sample, nature-based tourism. Valentine (1992) defined nature-based tourism as primarily concerned with the direct enjoyment of some relatively undisturbed phenomenon of nature. Nature-based tourism that is ecologically sustainable and is based on relatively undisturbed natural areas is non-damaging and non-degrading, and contributes directly to the continued protection and management of protected areas, and is subject to an adequate and appropriate management regime. The motivations of this tourism include the desire to get back in touch with nature, a desire to escape the pressures of everyday life, seeing wildlife before it is too late and specific interests and activities such as trekking, bird watching, canyoning, white-water rafting, etc.

Valentine (1992) identified three major dimensions pertaining to experience, style and location. The experience in Energy Essay, this tourism varies in nature dependency, intensity of interaction, social context and duration. Different styles are associated with different levels of infrastructure support, group size and type, cultural interaction factor, willingness to pay and length of visit. Locations vary in terms of of Brave New World, accessibility, development contribution, ownership and contribution. Some debatable points arise in nature-based tourism. Does a drive through a forest area qualify as nature-based?

If one does wander in Energy Sources Essay, the forest area, how long must this wander be for the individual to be considered a nature-based tourist? Does walking through regenerated forest areas or swimming in slightly polluted or littered lakes or streams, or public beach constitute a nature-based experience? Does a sight-seeing flight to Antarctica qualify as a nature-based experience? Nature-based tourism, in principle is Love by Dorothy and Cinderella’s Diary by Ron Koertge based on natural resources in different forms. This concept essentially speaks about tourism based on the ecology and environment of reaction paper sample, different natural areas. It also recognizes the need to conserve and manage natural areas for sustaining tourism and, in the process, contributes to the welfare of local communities. Nature-based tourism has been referred to as ecotourism which, in recent times, is drawing the attention of all people throughout the Energy Sources, world.

The most important point of nature-based tourism is that it differs from conventional and mass tourism in which there are no set principles or guidelines to follow while in natural areas so that loss to environment can be minimized. In other words, nature-based tourism is the opposite of earlier types of named desire, tourism. It survives only on natural areas while emphasizing the need to follow certain principles to minimize environmental impacts and to take steps for the conservation and management of areas to continue tourism activities. Therefore, ecotourism is a refined form of nature-based tourism. With increasing appreciation of nature and heightened awareness of declining biodiversity worldwide, nature-based tourism has evolved as a rapidly growing sector of a globally significant industry. A successful nature tourism involves benefits to America's Energy Essay wildlife and traditional inhabitants. Setting aside protected areas imposes restrictions on the use of these areas by locals. When indigenous inhabitants or remote rural communities are denied access to their livelihood with no alternatives available to replace the income lost by the local people who traditionally depended on harvesting forest products, they would attempt to acquire natural resources via unlawful means.

Incidents of poaching and forest encroachment become commonplace and can lead to the breakdown of natural ecosystems. America's! If tourism can provide employment and communities can benefit from activities in protected areas, wildlife, their habitats, and other natural features, the The Citizens New World, objects of nature tourism can be sustained. Tourism and conservation can then coexist or the two can even be symbiotic. The challenge for developing nature-based tourism is to make it symbiotic with conservation. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: