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Apa yang diputuskan oleh sekelompok elite di sidang PBB akan berpengaruh terhadap kehidupan para petani di Banglades dan sebaliknya. Keputusan untuk berhenti bertani yang dilakukan oleh salah seorang petani di pelosok Irian akan berpengaruh pada persediaan pangan dunia. Dunia sedang mencari bentuknya. Quote. Dunia sedang berevolusi ke satu tingkat peradaban baru yang lebih berkualitas daripada tingkat peradaban sebelumnya. Hal ini berarti. Effects Of Road To The Environment Essay. Words: 1678 - Pages: 7. Will Be Boys. Analisa Pengaruh Leadership Terhadap Perubahan Corporate Culture. To The Essay. . Will Be Boys Quote. perusahaan dengan corporate culture yang tidak sejalan dengan visi dan misi perusahaan.
Kita melihat dalam kasus ini bahwa CEO dengan leadership yang baik dan menjadi sosok role model memiliki pengaruh yang kuat dalam keberhasilan organizational change, dalam kasus ini perubahan corporate culture yang dilakukan BRI untuk melewati krisis moneter yang terjadi. Bab II Landasan Teori Corporate culture merupakan nilai-nilai dominan yang disebarluaskan dalam organisasi dan diacu sebagai filosofi kerja karyawan (Mc Shane, 2010). Corporate culture menentukan apa yang penting dan tidak penting dalam suatu organisasi, dan sebagai konsekuensinya mengarahkan setiap orang dalam organisasi untuk melakukan hal yang benar. Business Partnership Advantages. Corporate culture memiliki fungsi utama yaitu sebagai bentuk kontrol atas perilaku para karyawan, perekat sosial dalam mempersatukan anggota mencapai tujuan bersama, dan membantu proses sense making (membantu karyawan memahami apa dan mengapa suatu hal terjadi dalam peusahaan). Corporate culture memiliki peranan yang sangat penting dalam perusahaan. Will Be Boys Quote. Corporate culture menciptakan pembeda yang jelas antara satu organisasi dengan organisasi yang lain, membawa identitas bagi anggota organisasi, meningkatkan pertumbuhan komitmen, dan meningkatkan kemantapan sistem sosial (Robbins, 2001). Fall. Perusahaan dengan corporate culture yang kuat dan sejalan dengan visi misi perusahaan cenderung lebih sukses ketimbang perusahaan lain dengan corporate culture yang lemah. Boys Be Boys Quote. Corporate.
Words: 1642 - Pages: 7. Partnership. Jalan Tol vs Ketahanan Pangan (Toll-Road vs Food Tenacity) . Boys Will Be Boys. Jalan Tol vs Ketahanan Pangan LATAR BELAKANG Pemerintah merencanakan pembangunan jalan tol Trans Jawa yang akan membentang sekitar 897,7 kilometer. Effects Of Road To The Environment. Proyek Jalan Tol Trans Jawa senilai Rp 46,77 triliun ini akan menghubungkan Anyer hingga Banyuwangi. Will Quote. Jalan tol Trans Jawa akan membentang di empat provinsi dan dibagi dalam 15 ruas tol. Business. Proyek itu bakal menyatu dengan ruas-ruas tol yang telah beroperasi saat ini, yaitu Jakarta-Anyer, Tol Dalam Kota Jakarta, Jakarta Outer Ring Road, Jakarta-Cikampek, Cirebon-Kanci, Semarang Ring Road, dan Surabaya-Gempol.
Selain meningkatkan aspek pelayanan publik, fungsi utama jalan tol Trans Jawa adalah untuk mempercepat pertumbuhan ekonomi nasional. Will. Namun disamping optimisme mengenai efek percepatan pertumbuhan ekonomi dari pembangunan tersebut, muncul pula pandangan yang mengkhawatirkan bila pembangunan jalan tol Trans Jawa tersebut akan mengakibatkan berubahnya ribuan hektar lahan pertanian produktif menjadi kawaasan perumahan dan industri. Semakin meluasnya konversi lahan pertanian memiliki resiko berkurangnya produksi pangan nasional yang akan semakin mengancam ketahanan pangan nasional Indonesia. Effects. Sementara saat ini produksi pertanian Indonesia sudah tidak mampu memenuhi konsumsi dalam negeri sehingga Pemerintah Indonesia terpaksa melakukan impor pangan. Will Be Boys. Pada essay ini akan dibahas mengenai analisa kepentingan dalam kasus pembangunan jalan tol Trans Jawa dari sudut pandang ilmu ekonomi, yang diharapkan dapat memperjelas arah. Words: 4393 - Pages: 18. Aplikasi Kontrol Optimum Dalam Dinamika Makro Ekonomi. . Fall Of Soviet. ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bermaksud untuk mengaplikasikan kontrol optimal dalam model makro ekonomi sehingga diketahui pertumbuhan variabel makro ekonomi yaitu; modal, shadow value of capital dan obligasi dalam jangka waktu tertentu dan jangka panjang dengan konsumsi barang impor dan konsumsi barang domestik sebagai kontrol. Be Boys Quote. Secara khusus penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui dampak perubahan tarif barang konsumsi dan barang investasi dalam jangka waktu tertentu dan jangka panjang terhadap kesejahteraan.
Dinamika pelaku ekonomi, diantaranya dinamika produsen, dinamika konsumen dan dinamika dari pemerintah sebagai regulator, masing-masing dinamika pelaku ekonomi ditulis dalam bentuk persamaan kontrol optimal. Persamaan kontrol optimal masing-masing dinamika pelaku ekonomi dapat dinyatakan menjadi satu persamaan kontrol optimal. Business. Untuk mengetahui dampak perubahan tarif barang konsumsi dan barang investasi dilakukan simulasi numerik pada persamaan kontrol optimal dalam jangka waktu tertentu dan jangka panjang. Boys. Simulasi dengan perubahan tarif yang sama besar sebesar 50% dan 100% serta perubahan tarif barang investasi dengan tarif barang konsumsi tetap dan perubahan tarif barang konsumsi dengan tarif barang investasi tetap. Effects Of Road Salt Environment. Dari simulasi yang dilakukan dalam jangka waktu tertentu, menunjukkan bahwa dengan menetapkan titik akhir variabel keadaan yaitu modal dan obligasi akan mengakibatkan turunnya kesejahteraan.
Dampak dari peningkatan tarif yang sama besar akan. Words: 738 - Pages: 3. . Boys Quote. Akuntansi Lingkungan * Akuntansi lingkungan adalah sebuah istilah umum yang mencakup akuntansi di tingkat nasional dan perusahaan. Effects To The. Lebih penjelasan rinci tentang berbagai aspek akuntansi lingkungan disediakan di tempat lain (U.S. Boys. EPA, 1995; Business Roundtable, 1993). Of Road Salt Essay. * Selama beberapa dekade, ekonom lingkungan telah mengakui bahwa tindakan pengukuran kinerja ekonomi tradisional mengandung bias terhadap konsumsi sumber daya alam. Will Quote. Memang, seperti yang tercantum dalam laporan WRI sebelumnya, sebuah negara dapat pembuangan sumber daya mineral, menebang hutan, mengikis tanah yang, mencemari akuifer, dan berburu satwa liar dan perikanan untuk kepunahan tanpa rekaman ini terhadap pendapatan (Repetto et al, 1989). Of Soviet Union. Banyak negara bekerja untuk memasukkan penyusutan sumber daya alam ke rekening nasional (UNCTC, 1992).
Salah satu tujuannhya adalah untuk merevisi perkiraan, produk domestik bruto-pada dasarnya penghijauan PDB. * Pada tingkat perusahaan, penting untuk membedakan antara biaya lingkungan yang ditanggung oleh perusahaan dibandingkan dengan yang dikenakan pada masyarakat sebagai biaya sosial. Boys. Kesehatan efek dari menghirup polusi udara, dampak pencemaran air di perikanan, atau pencemaran tanah adalah contoh klasik dari biaya sosial, atau eksternalitas. Business Partnership. * Di sisi lain, peraturan, kebijakan perusahaan, preferensi konsumen, dan tekanan masyarakat pergeseran beberapa biaya sosial kembali ke perusahaan. Batas pengeluaran, pajak emisi, mengambil kembali produk. Be Boys. Words: 968 - Pages: 4. Strategi Bisnis Pt. On Purple Feminist. Perikanan Samodra Besar Cabang Benoa-Bali Untuk Mencapai Target Ekspor*) Nyoman Rusmini. Boys Will Be Boys. . Definition. aktivitas, rasio profitabilitas dan rasio hutang), penyediaan fasilitas, pangsa pasar ekspor, segmentasi pasar dan bauran pemasaran (meliputi beberapa variabel, seperti: diversifikasi produk, kualitas, promosi dan tempat). Be Boys. 2. Influence Of Low Reading Performance. Analisis faktor eksternal untuk identifikasi peluang dan ancaman dari lingkungan luar PT.
Perikanan Samodra Besar Cabang Benoa-Bali (Tabel 1). Boys Be Boys Quote. Tabel 1. Of Soviet. Variabel-Variabel Eksternal PT. Perikanan Samodra Besar Cabang Benoa-Bali Faktor Eksternal makro Demografi Geografi Perekonomian Sosial budaya Politik Hukum/Regulasi Variabel Tingkat pertumbuhan penduduk dunia Sumber daya kelautan Indonesia Letak geografis Bali terhadap perdagangan dunia Tingkat pertumbuhan ekonomi dunia Nilai tukar rupiah terhadap US $ Pola konsumsi Pergerakan buruh nasional Stabilitas politik nasional Kebijakan perdagangan bebas Kebijakan perdagangan luar negeri Indonesia Kebijakan pemerintah dalam pembangunan perikanan Teknologi komunikasi dan informasi Teknologi Eksternal mikro/ lingkungan industri Persaingan Persaingan antar perusahaan pengekspor produk ikan tuna Pembeli Daya tawar pembeli Pemasok Pemasok ikan 5 3. Analisis matriks profil kompetitif antara perusahaan PT. Be Boys Quote. Perikanan Samodra Besar cabang Benoa-Bali dengan pesaing utamanya PT. Effects Of Road Salt. Balinusa Windu Mas dimaksudkan untuk mengetahui posisi relatif PT.
Perikanan Samodra Besar cabang Benoa-Bali dibandingkan pesaing utamanya dengan memberikan rating pada variabel-variabel yang dianalisis. 4. Quote. Analisis matriks BCG. Essay On Purple Is To Lavender As Woman. Words: 3046 - Pages: 13. Boys Will Be Boys Quote. . When LINGO finds a solution to a linear optimization model, it is the fall union, definitive best solution? we say it is the be boys quote, global optimum. Advantages. A globally optimal solution is boys a feasible solution with an partnership objective value that is be boys quote as good or better than all other feasible solutions to the model. Of Low Socio-economic And Studentsâ€™ Reading Performance. The ability to quote, obtain a globally optimal solution is fall of soviet attributable to will quote, certain properties of of Road Salt Essay, linear models. Be Boys Quote. This is business not the boys will be boys, case for nonlinear optimization. Nonlinear optimization models may have several solutions that are local optimums. Psychology Definition. All nonlinear solvers converge to boys be boys, a locally optimal point. Essay On Purple Lavender As Woman Is To Feminist. That is, a solution for quote which no better feasible solutions can be found in the immediate neighborhood of the given solution. Of Soviet Union. Although better solutions can't be found in boys will the immediate neighborhood of the Environment Essay, local optimum, additional local optimums may exist some distance away from the will be boys, current solution. Essay On Purple Is To As Woman Is To Feminist. These additional locally optimal points may have objective values substantially better than the solver's current local optimum.
Thus, when a nonlinear model is boys be boys quote solved, we say the fall union, solution is merely a local optimum, and the user must be aware other local optimums may, or may not, exist with better objective values. Boys Be Boys Quote. Consider the fall union, following small nonlinear model involving the will, highly nonlinear cosine function: MIN = X * @COS( 3.1416 * X); X.
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Mightier than the sword – the impact of the ideas of Thomas Paine on the American Revolution. Without the pen of Paine, the be boys quote, sword of Washington would have been wielded in vain. (Joel Barlow, American diplomat and poet) There was but one topic of conversation throughout the American colonies in the summer of 1776. Although the psychology definition, settlers were locked in a bloody armed struggle with Britain the talk was not, as one would expect, of battles won or lost. Wherever people gathered, in every farmyard and factory, in every tavern and town, from the lowest paid farmhands to will be boys quote the richest merchants and landholders, the talk was the same: Common Sense. This was the definition, title of a 47-page political pamphlet which was gripping everyone's imagination with its powerful, persuasive arguments against the monarchy and in be boys quote favour of advantages, American independence. But who was the author of this unsigned work which was so dramatically changing the attitude of so many Americans towards the nature of their conflict with the ‘Mother Country'? The political and be boys intellectual elite were certain it was one of their own: . I think our friend Franklin has been principally concerned in the composition, wrote General Horatio Gates to a fellow officer.
Others credited were Thomas Jefferson and John Adams (two future presidents of the Effects Salt to the Environment, USA); others thought it was Samuel Adams, who was to will be boys become governor of Massachusetts. But it was none of these political luminaries. The author was a recent arrival on America's shores. Of Soviet Union! His name was Thomas Paine. Born on January 29, 1737, the son of a Quaker father and Anglican mother, Paine lead an interesting and eventful, but ultimately unhappy life in England. Twice married (his first wife died when he was twenty-four-years-old.), his career in his homeland was varied: privateer, teacher, preacher, customs officer and shopkeeper, he campaigned for better wages for be boys his colleagues, the poorly paid excisemen. This latter activity cost him his job as a customs officer, cost him his tobacco shop, and cost him his second wife, who divorced him. The unhappy, disillusioned Paine returned from Lewes, where he had been stationed as an exciseman, to London, where a friend introduced him to an elderly but energetic American, the Socio-economic Status and Studentsâ€™, sixty-eight-year-old scientist, writer and statesman Benjamin Franklin. Boys Will Be Boys! Franklin took an immediate liking to him and was later to olympic host boast that Thomas Paine was his . adopted political son. Sensing that Paine was the boys be boys, sort of man who belonged to the America he hoped to build, he urged him to emigrate there.
On November 30 th , 1774, Paine arrived in Philadelphia with a letter of introduction to psychology definition Franklin's son and boys be boys quote son-in-law in his pocket. Paine looked around Philadelphia, the unofficial capital of the American colonies, and liked what he saw: a society of mixed religions and ethnicity, its immigrant workers were spirited and dynamic; they were eager to seek a better life than that which they had endured in the oppressive regimes of Socio-economic Reading, England and boys be boys the rest of Europe. America breathed new life into him, it inspired him - here was an opportunity to . Fall Union! begin the world anew. It was far from perfect, this new society that Paine had joined: there were inequalities and there were social injustices; many of the richer settlers and landowners behaved just like the English gentry, and worst of all - there was slavery! But these wrongs could be put right. This was a young country peopled by many who had themselves fled from various forms of injustice and oppression in their own homelands; the ordinary men and women in this new world could, given direction and leadership, make this land the best place in the world to live in, and set a shining example for the rest of be boys, humanity. And Thomas Paine was determined to business point them in the right direction. He was excited to boys be boys quote learn that even the lowest paid workers were already demanding the right to vote in business partnership city elections, and there was even talk that the Philadelphia Militia were demanding the boys be boys, right to elect their own officers. Yes - these were people with fire in their bellies, these were people capable of shaping their own destiny.
He was in his element when he was offered a job as editor in a new periodical, The Pennsylvania magazine. Along with editing, he was also writing articles for The Pennsylvania and advantages other magazines. Be Boys Quote! He railed against slavery: That some desperate wretches should be willing to steal and enslave men by violence and psychology murder for gain, is rather lamentable than strange. But that many civilized, nay, Christianized people should approve, and be concerned in the savage practice, is surprising. (March 1775). Under his editorship The Pennsylvania became the biggest selling periodical in America. He was on the crest of a wave: his own writing was attracting critical acclaim, and boys will quote Franklin's son-in-law, Richard Bache, was introducing him to some of Philadelphia's leading citizens. Then once again things took a turn for the worse: he angered John Witherspoon (the magazine's co-publisher) by union editing some of will be boys, his work. He was obliged to resign and partnership the vindictive Witherspoon slandered him with false allegations that he was a drunkard. Paine did not drink to excess but for the rest of boys quote, his life his many detractors maliciously circulated this false rumour.
But in 1775 there were more pressing matters occupying Paine's thoughts: the partnership, quarrel between America and Britain had escalated into open warfare with the battles of Lexington and Concord in April, followed by a much bloodier confrontation at Bunker Hill in June. He concluded that the boys be boys, aims of this dispute must now be changed. It was no longer sufficient to olympic fight for boys be boys rights and justice within the framework of the British Empire; it was time for Americans to sever links with Britain and assert their independence. To this end he set himself the task of olympic countries, writing what was to boys will become the biggest-selling, most widely read and successful political pamphlet in history: Common Sense. We were blind, but on reading these enlightening words the scales have fallen from our eyes. Effects Of Road Salt Environment! Thus wrote a Connecticut reader to the Pennsylvania Post in 1776. To appreciate the impact of will be boys quote, Paine's writing it is essential to be aware of the prevailing psychology at the time. It is fall union true that there always were some who had advocated fighting for independence, but they were very much in the minority. Most people throughout all levels of society still wanted to maintain allegiance with Britain. Quote! They believed it was parliament, and not ‘good' King George, that was to blame for the unfair taxation that was being imposed upon them. Partnership! Get rid of these vile ministers and Americans would dwell with respect and dignity under the British constitution as part of the Empire.
George Washington and boys will quote his fellow officers were still drinking to the King's health; Thomas Jefferson wrote: There is not a man in the British Empire who more cordially loves a union with Great Britain than I do. Washington, one of the richest men in America, and others of his ilk, had every reason to remain locked into business partnership, the British Empire; they were alarmed by the growing confidence of the working-class whom they despised and wished to keep in their place. Statesman Gouverneur Morris referred to the common people as ‘reptiles'. And of course the ordinary people themselves, preconditioned by generations of having loyalty to king and country drilled into their psyches, were still proud to be British. Then Common Sense struck the boys be boys quote, continent like an earthquake, its shockwaves shattering the political status quo in every state along the entire East coast of America. No longer would his royal majesty be held in such reverence and awe, no longer would the workers and peasants regard the psychology, aristocracy and the landed gentry of Britain (and America) as their betters. Overnight the boys will be boys quote, people of America had become wide awake to business advantages reality, and they were demanding the boys be boys quote, right to rule themselves - total independence! Such was the power of Tom Paine's pen. Common Sense was published on January 10, 1776, and advantages the world had seen nothing like it before.
It was the most powerful and persuasive piece of political writing that had ever been produced; its irrefutable logic utterly destroyed the case for the monarchy, the aristocracy and the corrupt system of British government. The demand for the forty-seven-page pamphlet could hardly be met: it sold half a million copies. Considering the size of the population, of which a large proportion could neither read nor write, this made it the biggest seller of all time; relative to today's population the equivalent sales would be 50 million. This was achieved by one man, without any organised political party behind him. Boys Will! One can sense the excitement and growing confidence the American settlers must have felt as Paine demolished the myth of the monarchy, beginning with William the Conqueror - A French bastard landing with an armed banditti, and fall of soviet establishing himself King of England against the consent of the boys will, natives. Fall! He then went on boys be boys quote, to belittle . the Influence of Low and Studentsâ€™ Reading Performance, folly of hereditary right in boys be boys quote kings. He argued for the separation of partnership advantages, church and state, went on to discuss America's economic, military and boys quote naval potential and suggested a framework for American self government. After reading the pamphlet the vast majority of working-class Americans, and even many of the social elite, were convinced that complete independence was the Influence and Studentsâ€™ Performance, only way forward for boys will be boys quote their country. Paine's achievement was swift, incredible and irreversible.
It gained him immense popularity with ordinary Americans, but made him many bitter enemies among the loyalists and among those who feared the increasing power of the working people. There followed a concerted effort by many of the social elite to attack Common Sense , leading to an intense war of words in the Pennsylvania press between Paine and his many detractors, especially John Adams (not to be confused with John Quincy Adams), who developed a lifelong hatred for business him. But now the people's demand for independence could not be stopped. Will Be Boys Quote! Washington wrote to his secretary, Joseph Reed: . by private letters I have lately received from Virginia, I find ‘Common Sense' is working a powerful change in the minds of men. On July 4 th , 1776, Congress adopted the Declaration of Essay is to is to Feminist, Independence. These are the will be boys quote, times that try men's souls. That year Paine enlisted in the militia and became aide to General Nathaniel Greene? arguably the best general on either side. Business Partnership Advantages! Washington was now Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army. He was an imposing personality and was personally brave, but as a field commander he left much to be desired. To his credit he was aware of his shortcomings, and the shortcomings of his militia. He enlisted the will quote, Prussian officer Friedrich von Steuben to drill his troops into military efficiency and co-opted the aid of La Fayette's French army and De Grasse's French fleet to is to Feminist help America's cause.
Astonishingly, considering the availability of an abundance of expert horsemen, he never developed a cavalry wing to his army. Will Be Boys! His idea of ‘inspiring' his men was to Salt to the Environment Essay threaten them with hanging if they showed cowardice in battle, hardly the boys will quote, hallmark of a great leader. It was his good fortune that he had an able subordinate in olympic host Greene and that his British counterpart, Howe, allowed himself to be distracted from the job in hand by his American mistress. By the end of the year the outlook was bleak for America's cause: Washington's army was in retreat and will soldiers were deserting their units every day; Congress had fled from Philadelphia, fearing its occupation by British troops and everyone was anticipating defeat. Everyone except Thomas Paine. In his American Crisis (the first of many with that title) he penned the stirring words that were to fan the olympic host countries, flames of American patriotism: These are the times that try men's souls: The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of his country; but he that stands it NOW, deserves the will be boys, love and thanks of fall, man and woman. The American Crisis sold in tens of thousands, boosted morale, revived recruitment and turned the boys be boys, tide of battle. Washington ordered his officers to read Crisis to his troops.
The troops listened to Paine's words, crossed the Delaware, routed the psychology, Hessian troops and captured Trenton. The situation had been completely turned around. As with Common Sense, Paine never took a penny from the profits of his writing, he gave it all to provide clothing for the troops. Throughout the will be boys quote, Revolutionary War he devoted himself tirelessly to the cause, serving in various posts and issuing pamphlets, continuously rousing the flagging morale of the Americans: Those who expect to reap the blessings of fall, freedom, must like men, undergo the fatigues of supporting it. When Washington's depleted army was taking refuge in boys will quote Valley Forge and Congress was questioning his ability to command, it was Paine who came to his defence - a loyalty that was not reciprocated by Washington when Paine later needed his help. Partnership Advantages! He also endeavoured to patch up teething problems in the young and growing nation, advising on boys will quote, territorial disputes, taxation and other matters of government. Totally devoted to America's cause, he even sailed at his own expense on a diplomatic mission to France. On October 19, 1781, the British forces under General Cornwallis were decisively beaten by combined French and American troops. Britain's cloak of invincibility was torn to shreds and it was the beginning of the end for the mighty British Empire. America was the first revolutionary state to defeat a great European power - the war ended with the Treaty of Paris in April, 1783.
The far seeing Paine was still anxious about the future of the union, realising that many Americans took it too lightly. He feared that some states might, for reasons such as slavery and Effects Salt to the commerce, decide to break away and go it alone: I ever feel myself hurt when I hear the union, that great palladium of our liberty and safety, the least irreverently spoken of. It is the most sacred thing in the constitution of America. And the declared purpose of the ‘Union of the be boys quote, States': To see it in our power to make a world happy, to teach mankind the Effects Salt Environment, art of being so, to exhibit, on boys will, the theatre of the Universe a character hitherto unknown. I wonder you did not hang that scoundrel Paine for his blackguard libel on king, lords, and Effects commons.
I suppose the extreme scurrility of the boys be boys quote, pamphlet, or the villainy of those who wish to disperse it among the common people, has carried through so many editions. For it appears to me to definition have no merit whatever; but it may do mischief in ale-houses in England, and will quote even more in whiskey-houses in Ireland. I think it by far the of soviet, most treasonable book that ever went unpunished within my knowledge; so, pray, hang the fellow if you can catch him. (Lord Mornington.) The war was over. Thomas Paine had given his all to the revolution: the proceeds from boys be boys quote his writings had gone to to the Environment Essay help the war effort and now he was jobless and without an income. He petitioned Congress for a modest pension in acknowledgement of his contribution to boys quote the war's success. He had the fall union, support of will, Franklin, Jefferson and of Road Salt to the Environment Essay Washington.
But he had also made some powerful enemies and they were not going to make life easy for him. His fight for democracy, his egalitarianism, his zealous opposition to corruption had earned him the implacable enmity and undying hatred of many in the rich, landowning ‘aristocracy' of America. So Congress rejected his petition but agreed to a grant of will be boys, $3,000 - he would have been much, much richer if he'd kept the proceeds from his writings. Pennsylvania gave him a gift of $500 and New York gave him a farm which had been confiscated from a Tory landowner. He now had breathing space to contemplate his future. As a young man Paine had learned a lot about science and engineering by reading and attending lectures; he decided to put his knowledge to practical use. He designed an iron bridge which he believed was safer and countries more durable than the boys be boys, traditional wooden bridges of his day.
But no one in America was willing to invest in partnership advantages his project so, on Franklin's advice, he sailed for London and Paris to seek backing. Be Boys Quote! He expected to be away for a few months; it was to Essay on Purple is to Lavender as Woman Feminist be sixteen years before he saw his beloved America again. It was 1787, just two years before the storming of the Bastille. Things were changing in will be boys quote France - and in England. In France the poor and of Low Status and Studentsâ€™ Reading the middle-classes were seething with anger at the heavy taxation they suffered while the nobility shared little or none of the burden of running the country. Soldiers returning from America spoke of the more just and democratic society that was growing in the new republic and this made the French masses determined to build a more just society for themselves. Their anger would soon turn into a terrible, unstoppable rage which would eventually give rise to the ‘reign of boys, terror'.
England at that time was the Essay on Purple is to Lavender as Woman is to Feminist, most industrially advanced and commercially successful nation in the world, but its people paid a terrible price: the momentum of the industrial revolution led to merciless exploitation, inhuman working conditions and a wretched, poverty-stricken existence for will be boys the working-class. There was talk on the streets of equality and democratic rights; the ruling class were getting nervous. Paine spent two years trying to find investors for his bridge, while inevitably involving himself in the turbulent politics of the times. Fall Of Soviet Union! Then on July 14, 1789, the crowds stormed the Bastille and boys be boys quote soon afterwards began invading the great estates of the on Purple Lavender Feminist, landowning aristocracy. The next twenty-five years of European history would be written in blood as the ancien regime struggled to maintain the status quo. It was Thomas Paine's dream that the revolutionary zeal which had crossed the Atlantic to France would quickly spread throughout Europe, creating republics in place of monarchies, each republic working in harmony with its neighbours to create a humane and civilized Europe - To begin the world anew. The turncoat Edmund Burke, who had originally championed the American Revolution, was now paid by the British Government to write Reflections on the Revolution in will France , which was to give him the reputation as the father of olympic host, modern conservatism. Marx was to say of Burke: The sycophant - who in pay of the English oligarchy played the boys, romantic laudatory temporis acti against the French Revolution just as, in the pay of North American colonies at union the beginning of the American troubles, he had played the liberal against the English oligarchy, was an out and out vulgar bourgeois. Burke's condemnation of the French Revolution was considered to be a great success but it really was a wasted exercise: it was aimed at the upper classes and the well educated, preaching loyalty for the monarchy and the aristocracy. It was preaching to the converted.
And that was the difference between his writing and Paine's. Paine had the ability to boys be boys communicate with all levels of society, from the poorest to the richest: Burke's Reflections sold 20,000 copies in a year, whereas Common Sense sold several times that in fall a month. There were many radicals in England who took issue with Burke but, not surprisingly, the boys will quote, most effective reply came from Paine's Rights of Man. Burke's ridiculous argument, that monarchy and the aristocracy had served past generations well (who did he think he was fooling?), and of Road Salt Essay that the present and future generations should perpetuate this tradition, was rubbished by boys will Paine. Burke not only denied that the business partnership, people of England had the boys will be boys, right to choose or reject their own government, but also claimed: That the people of England utterly disclaim such a right, and that they will resist the practical assertion of it with their lives and fortunes.
That men should take up arms, and spend their lives and fortunes not to maintain their rights, but to maintain they have no rights, is an entire new species of discovery, and suited to the paradoxical genius of Essay is to, Mr Burke. The establishment's ‘intellectual champion' was no match for Paine. He tore apart Burke's arguments with the same irrefutable logic and scathing sarcasm that had defeated so many of his political adversaries in the past. He also encouraged the will be boys quote, spirit of revolution in Britain by advocating a system of graduated taxation on the wealthy that would provide child education; pensions for the aged; maternity benefits and other proposals for helping the poor and unemployed. He was a man ahead of his time.
But most audacious of all - he defiantly called for the establishment of a British Republic! This was too much - freedom of speech was guaranteed in England of course, but only if you said the right things - it was time to hang Tom Paine! On September 14 th , 1792, Paine, who had been elected to the new National Convention in France for Socio-economic and Studentsâ€™ Performance the purpose of writing a new constitution, left England on a boat bound for Calais. It was a fortuitous departure: Pitt and his government were poised to vent their wrath upon be boys their tormentor, but now he was out of their grasp. In vindictive fury they conducted a witch-hunt, persecuting and imprisoning everyone involved in publishing, selling and in any way promoting Paine's writings. Paine was tried in his absence and found guilty of seditious libel for writing The Rights of Man. He arrived in Calais to a hero's welcome and host countries its citizens elected him their representative to the new National Convention. These were perilous times for the people of France: surrounded by hostile nations, they were at war with Austria and Prussia, and Louis XVI was in prison for colluding with the enemy. The republicans were split into two factions: Girondins (moderates) and quote Jacobins (radicals).
It was only a matter of time before the revolution began to devour its own children. At the Convention he and the other delegates voted to abolish the monarchy and France was declared a Republic. He was then appointed to the committee responsible for drafting a new constitution. He had friends in both republican factions, but his popularity was not to last. Although Paine loathed the monarchy he opposed the execution of Louis XVI. He proposed instead that Louis be exiled to America, where he would be unable to meddle in France's affairs.
He had been sickened by the concept of capital punishment when, as a child growing up in Essay on Purple as Woman Feminist Thetford, he witnessed the horrifying spectacle of poor working-class people who had been hanged for will be boys stealing a mere pittance: there was a clear view of Thetford's Gallows Hill from the house he grew up in. But in voting against the death penalty for Louis he angered many Jacobins, especially Robespierre. And Robespierre was about to come to power. In the ensuing power struggle the Jacobins emerged victorious and showed no mercy to their political opponents; the Reign of Terror commenced. On December 28 th , 1793, Paine was arrested. There is no doubt that it would have taken just one word from George Washington to obtain his release, but Washington remained silent: he was keen to resume trade with England and he knew the British establishment wanted to see Paine dead. Business and commerce came before loyalty and friendship to the politically pragmatic Washington. This perfidy must have astonished as well as embittered Paine: Washington had previously been a loyal supporter of Paine and on Purple as Woman Feminist had given him great credit for his part in boys will America's victory over Britain. Fall Union! Equally treacherous was the American Minister to France, Gouverneur Morris. He could have effected Paine's release with little effort, but had no intention of boys will quote, doing so. Morris, who believed that no decent civilization could exist without an aristocracy, would have been delighted to see Tom Paine's head roll - and it almost did.
In July 1794 Paine was suffering from an almost fatal bout of fever which, ironically, saved his life. The day before he was due to be executed his cell mates asked that the cell door be left open to psychology definition allow the air to quote circulate and cool the fever. Psychology Definition! When the prison officers came to mark the cell doors of the condemned prisoners, Paine's door was opened wide, with the inside of the door now facing outwards and the outside face of the door tight against the wall. Because of boys will be boys quote, this the inside of the door was marked by the prison officers. When the on Purple is to as Woman, door was closed later that night the ‘condemned' mark was on the inside of the cell and was not seen by the executioners who came to be boys quote collect their victims next morning.
Thus, by sheer chance, Tom Paine missed his appointment with death. Before his execution could be rescheduled his persecutor was overthrown and it was Robespierre's head that tumbled into of soviet union, the executioner's basket. Some historians claim that Washington did nothing to save Paine because he was unaware of boys will be boys, his plight; this is naive, Paine himself had no doubts about Washington's treachery. He remained imprisoned until Morris was replaced by James Monroe, who obtained his release on November 5 th . Still severely ill, he was looked after by Monroe and his wife at their official residence. Meanwhile, his Age of Reason , published earlier that year, won him no friends. Paine was by this time a Deist, believing in God but not in organized religion. Influence Socio-economic Status Performance! He enraged church leaders by criticizing the bible, saying of the Old Testament: . a history of be boys quote, grossest vices and a collection of the most paltry and contemptible tales.
Referring to the New Testament he described Christ as a virtuous man, a reformer and a revolutionist, but dismissed the Immaculate Conception and Christ's resurrection as fraudulent stories. Homeostasis Definition! Age of boys be boys, Reason gave his enemies all the ammunition they needed to destroy his popularity in that God-fearing age. Relations between Monroe and Paine became strained as a result of Paine's hostility to Washington and in 1796 he moved out of Monroe's house. He wanted to return to America but French ports were being blockaded by the British navy so he moved in with the family of Nicolas de Bonneville, writing articles for fall union de Bonneville's paper, Bien Informe. Despite his non-stop political activity he also continued with his passion for engineering, designing canal systems, bridges and cranes. Then in 1801 Thomas Jefferson, now president, offered to bring him back to America, a decision that brought down a torrent of criticism on the president's head from the boys will be boys, political opposition. In October 1802, the sixty-five year old Paine arrived in Baltimore to be met by a storm of abuse from the Federalist press. Although he still had loyal friends he was faced with widespread hostility wherever he went, but he remained politically active, writing letters criticizing the Federalist opposition and proposing to Jefferson that the Status, United States purchase the Louisiana Territory. In 1803 Margaret de Bonneville and her three sons arrived in America: her husband was under surveillance by the French police and could not leave France, so Paine assumed responsibility for the children's education. Boys Be Boys Quote! Despite his fading health and wealth (he had to sell part of his farm to pay his debts) his pen was in constant use, writing to and for the press on homeostasis psychology, varied subjects.
When Jefferson did buy Louisiana from France in April 1803 for $15,000,000 it was the biggest land deal ever struck between two nations: the quote, Louisiana Purchase stretched east to west from the Mississippi to the Rocky Mountains, north to south from Canada to the Mexican Gulf. But Jefferson appalled Paine by allowing the establishment of slavery in the new territory. Bitterly disappointed, he pleaded with the president to permit black families to leave the ‘slave states' and settle there. Essay On Purple Is To Feminist! But Jefferson rejected his pleas and boys the curse of slavery was perpetuated until, sixty years later, it tore the country apart. In his final years his condition became pitiful: his health reduced him to a shadow of union, his once indefatigable self, and he was kept alive by the charity of friends; he was even refused the right to vote on boys, the grounds that he was not a true American. This last insult, coming after the treacherous treatment meted out to homeostasis psychology him by Washington and Morris, must have been devastating: the man who was known as ‘the voice of the revolution', the man who had done more than any man alive to inspire and motivate the people of America to boys will be boys free their young country from the shackles of British imperialism, was turned away at on Purple is to Feminist the polling station. He spent his last days in boys be boys the rented house of the de Bonneville family, where he died on the morning of June 8 th , 1809. On his deathbed he was approached by partnership Presbyterian ministers who asked him to accept the Christian Church; defiant to the end, he gave them short shrift. He was buried the next day, with few to mourn him, at his New Rochelle farm, having been refused burial at boys be boys the Quaker cemetery.
Russell is fall correct in saying that Paine is less prominent in history's hall of fame than most of his less worthy contemporaries: both as a human being and as a contributor to will be boys the momentous political events of his time he stood head and shoulders above all of them. A tireless seeker of olympic host countries, justice and truth, a dedicated champion of ordinary working people, he was generations ahead of his time in his political thinking. Even his ideas on welfare for the poor, the unemployed and the underprivileged were 150 years before their time. England, Paine's birthplace. But it is not merely his lack of self interest which accounts for his lack of historical acclaim: since his death there has been a conscious attempt by the political establishments of Britain and the USA to underplay his contribution to 18 th and 19 th century history and to slur his reputation (Theodore Roosevelt called him a ‘dirty little atheist'). Boys Quote! His lucid and logical ideas on the governance of nations would still embarrass the corrupt excuses for so-called democratic governments which prevail in the USA, Britain and the rest of Europe today. His anti-clericalism and his criticism of organised religion with all its hypocritical ‘pomp and circumstance' has incurred the indignant wrath of all branches of the religious establishment in Europe and America, and his anti-monarchist views did nothing to endear him to the British establishment. Thus the man who was a household name in homeostasis definition America, Britain, Ireland and France in his lifetime, and quote whose fame was more widespread than even Jefferson, Franklin or Washington, has been deliberately shunted into the sidelines of history. True, American presidents occasionally quote him, usually out of context, when it suits them.
But his name will not be found on the list of Founding Fathers of the partnership advantages, USA despite his enormous contribution to be boys the cause of American independence. As for of soviet union England, there are relatively few today in the land of his birth who have even heard of boys will quote, him. But things are changing: Richard Attenborough recently expressed an ambition to Essay on Purple is to Lavender as Woman is to film his life story. In the be boys quote, USA, whenever the people question what their political leaders really stand for, his reputation is definition experiencing a revival. In Morristown, New Jersey, a monument has been erected to him; his Common Sense has been listed as number one in historian E.F. Goldman's Books That Changed America ; civil liberties champion professor H.S. Commager invoked Paine's name in his fight against McCarthyism; Columbia University professor C.W. Boys Be Boys Quote! Mills (who died tragically young) put Paine on Influence Status and Studentsâ€™ Reading, a par with Max Weber and Karl Marx. Thomas Paine was a truly great man who used his genius as a writer to fight for boys be boys a better life for ordinary working people, a cause to Lavender as Woman which he dedicated his own life.
No other writer had such a dramatic and immediate impact on will be boys, the political events of his time. No other man before or since has proved so effectively that words are weapons, and business partnership that the pen is indeed mightier than the sword.
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15 Pilates Moves That Get Results. What sets Pilates apart is its focus on boys will, toning the muscles with springs, bands, or your own body weight. Alycea Ungaro, author of 15 Minute Everyday Pilates, shares her routine for beginners. Some moves are shown using Pilates studio equipment, but you can do most moves at home. Check with a doctor first if you're a man over 45 or a woman over 55, or if you have a medical condition. This classic move helps flatten the Essay on Purple is to Lavender as Woman is to, tummy by using your abs efficiently.
Hold on behind the knees, scoop the belly in, and curl down to the floor to get into position. Now curl the head and shoulders up slightly, lower back still pressed to the floor. Pump the arms up and down in small motions at your sides. Breathe in for five and out for five until you hit 50 pumps. Sit up and repeat for a total of 100 pumps. In a studio, you can try the Pilates hundred on a reformer, a spring-based resistance machine. Lie on boys, your back with your legs in table-top position or extended at a 45-degree angle. Pull the straps down next to your abdomen. Curl the head and shoulders up and pulse your arms up and union, down. Breathe in for five and boys quote, out for five until you reach 100 pulses. On Purple Is To As Woman Is To. If any move doesn't feel right, check with a fitness professional.
Begin this starter sit-up with your legs straight in front of you. Extend your arms over your legs and lower your head between your arms. Boys. Curl backward, bending your knees, and of soviet, stop halfway down. Boys Will Be Boys Quote. Raise your arms straight up and pull your abs in tightly. Exhale and business, lower your arms as you curl back up.
Do 6-8 reps at will be boys quote a moderate pace. As you become more advanced, try lowering all the way to the floor. If sit-ups give you a sore neck, try this alternative. Lie flat with the end of a resistance band or towel tucked under the center of Influence of Low and Studentsâ€™ Performance, your back. Bend your knees and grab the boys will be boys quote, other end of the band above your head.
Inhale and use your ab muscles to business slowly peel your body up, letting your head rest against the band. Will. Exhale and of Low, return to the starting position. Do five reps, making sure your abs do all the work. Will Be Boys Quote. Keep that resistance band handy for homeostasis psychology, this waist-toning move. Sit with your legs a little more than hip-distance apart. Be Boys. Hold the band between your hands and raise your arms overhead. Exhale as you turn to one side, using the of Road Salt to the Essay, muscles in boys be boys your waist. Inhale as you reach the arms out and back, keeping the hips in place. Exhale and return to starting position.
Alternate for a total of four sets on each side. Lower Back: Shoulder Bridge, Part 1. As you strengthen your abs, it's vital to tone the back of the body as well. Homeostasis Psychology Definition. Lie on your back with your knees bent and your feet hip-width apart. Will. Keep your arms at your sides and raise your hips without arching your back. Tighten the muscles of your buttocks and hamstrings, and hold for five breaths. Lower down one vertebra at a time to the floor if you're stopping here, or go on to the host countries, advanced posture.
Lower Back: Shoulder Bridge, Part 2. Keeping your hips raised, extend one leg straight up and point the foot. Kick the leg down and out, flexing the foot. Repeat, exhaling as you extend the leg up and boys will quote, inhaling as you kick it down. Keep your torso strong and Effects of Road to the, your other foot firmly on the mat. Do five reps with each leg. Toning the boys quote, upper back is the fast track to better posture. This move uses the reformer with an accessory called a long box.
Lie on your stomach with your chest just past the edge of the long box. Grab the straps in front of you with straight arms. Lift the Effects to the, head and chest as you pull the straps down toward your hips. The long box will slide forward, with you on top. Release the arms back to the starting position. Do five reps. Quote. Want to target the upper back without a reformer?
Lie face down on a mat with your feet together. Raise your head and chest slightly, and extend your arms perpendicular to your body, palms down. Exhale and sweep the arms back as you lift your chin and chest higher. Keep your waist on the mat and use your upper back muscles to bring your arms closer to your body. Return to starting position. Do five reps. This powerful upper-body toner can be done on a mat, reformer, or Wunda chair. If using a mat, sit with your legs straight in front of you, feet together and flexed. Press your hands flat on the mat, look down, and use your upper body strength to lift your backside and upper legs. Swing yourself forward and backward before lowering slowly to the mat. Do five reps.
A pair of small hand-weights adds punch to a Pilates workout at olympic host home. For this move, imagine you are twirling the weights like sparklers on the Fourth of July. Boys Will Quote. Stand with the weights held at your thighs. Turn them slightly in to face each other and make eight small circles. Each circle should be a little higher until the fall union, hands are overhead.
Make eight circles in the opposite boys will be boys, direction as you lower the arms. Repeat 2-3 times. Lower Body: Kneeling Knee Stretches. This reformer exercise is an efficient way to work the entire lower body. Kneel on the reformer and round the back, keeping the arms straight. Use the olympic countries, butt muscles and thighs to push and pull your lower body back and forth.
The platform will slide a few inches with each movement. Do five reps. As you get more advanced, do another five reps with the back arched. Here's a way to tone the thighs and boys quote, butt without a reformer. Begin by kneeling. Lean to the left, placing your left hand on the mat under the shoulder and your right hand behind the head with the elbow pointing up. Raise your right leg until it is parallel to the floor. Holding the torso steady, kick the leg to the front and of Low Socio-economic Reading, then to the back, knee straight.
Do five reps on each side. This move sculpts the legs while getting your heart rate up. Stand with your arms crossed in front of you at shoulder height. Keeping your abs tight, exhale and lift your right knee up toward the right elbow. Lower the leg quickly and boys will be boys quote, repeat on the other side. Keep switching sides for a total of 10 swings with each leg. Essay On Purple Is To Is To Feminist. Besides toning the boys quote, muscles, Pilates is known for boosting endurance.
A wall and Effects of Road to the Environment Essay, small hand-weights are the only necessities for this highly effective exercise. Stand with your back against the wall and boys will be boys, feet hip-width apart. Walk the on Purple as Woman Feminist, feet out a little, bend the knees, and slide down as if sitting in a chair. The upper legs should be parallel to the floor. Raise the arms to shoulder height and hold for be boys, 30 seconds.
Do two reps. While the focus of Pilates is strength training, you'll get some cardio in homeostasis psychology with moves like this. Stand with your belly pulled in and your arms overhead. Exhale and will be boys quote, lower your head, bending the definition, knees and boys will, swinging the arms back. Inhale and jump up with straight legs, reaching the arms overhead.
Land with the knees slightly bent and return quickly to starting position. Do 8-10 reps at a rapid pace. You should be out of breath when you finish. Countries. IMAGES PROVIDED BY: 1) Steve Pomberg/WebMD. 2) Steve Pomberg/WebMD.
3) Steve Pomberg/WebMD. 4) Steve Pomberg/WebMD. 5) Steve Pomberg/WebMD. 6) Steve Pomberg/WebMD. 7) Steve Pomberg/WebMD. 8) Steve Pomberg/WebMD. 9) Steve Pomberg/WebMD. 10) Steve Pomberg/WebMD. 11) Steve Pomberg/WebMD. 12) Steve Pomberg/WebMD.
13) Steve Pomberg/WebMD. 14) Steve Pomberg/WebMD. 15) Steve Pomberg/WebMD. 16) Steve Pomberg/WebMD. 17) Steve Pomberg/WebMD. Alycea Ungaro, physical therapist; owner, Real Pilates, New York; author, 15 Minute Everyday Pilates and Pilates Practice Companion ; Pilates Practice Companion , DK Publishing, 2010. American Council on Exercise: Pilates Primer, Can Pilates Do It All?
Dina Blair, Pilates instructor; athletic director, Concourse Athletic Club, Atlanta. Dori Ricci, NASM, CPT. Idea Health and Fitness Association: Pilates Moves Recruit Deep Abs Better Than Crunches. Pilates Method Alliance: An Exercise in Balance: The Pilates Phenomenon. Reviewed by Ross Brakeville, DPT on February 24, 2016. This tool does not provide medical advice. See additional information.
THIS TOOL DOES NOT PROVIDE MEDICAL ADVICE. It is intended for general informational purposes only and boys will be boys quote, does not address individual circumstances. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about advantages, your health. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of boys will quote, something you have read on the WebMD Site. If you think you may have a medical emergency, immediately call your doctor or dial 911. View our slideshows to learn more about your health. 2005 - 2017 WebMD, LLC. Homeostasis. All rights reserved.
WebMD does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.
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You Can Prevent Colorectal Cancer. Get the boys be boys, facts about screening. Advantages. Learn More. What to Expect During a Colonscopy. Follow a patient's first-hand experience in boys be boys, this. educational video Watch Video. Promote Colorectal Cancer Awareness. Download, print, and post graphics on social media to raise colorectal cancer awareness.
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Watch a video. Listen to a Podcast. Get the answers to your most pressing colonoscopy questions. ACG Colorectal Cancer Awareness Graphics. This infographic illustrates in a powerful, easy to understand way, the risks of colorectal cancer and the impact of getting screened. Don't take a gamble on your health. This infographic is on Purple Lavender, based on an important statistic from the American Cancer Society: Of the 50,830 people expected to die of boys quote, colon cancer in 2013, screening (or use of early detection tests) could have saved more than half of them. View infographic.
Shared Goal: Reaching 80% Screened for Colorectal Cancer by fall of soviet, 2018. ACG supports the boys be boys, National Colorectal Cancer Roundtable’s (NCCRT) new initiative “80% by 2018.” With the American Cancer Society and NCCRT, we are working toward the shared goal of reaching 80% of eligible adults screened for colorectal cancer by 2018. Find a doctor. Compared with other ethnic groups, African-Americans are diagnosed with colorectal cancer at a younger age and those with colorectal cancer have decreased survival. ACG recommends African Americans begin screening at age 45. Learn more. Audio Podcasts: ACG Experts Answer Your Most Common Questions. Colorectal Cancer Screening: Navigating the Options.
Not sure what screening test is right for you? Dr. Mark B. Pochapin offers insights on colorectal cancer prevention and detection tests and describes ACG guidelines and recommendations to help patients make sense of their options. Family History, Lynch Syndrome and Other Colorectal Cancer Risk Factors. Dr. Carol A. Burke and her patient Anita, who has Lynch Syndrome, share their insight on host countries, CRC risk factors, like family history, and the life-saving importance of screening-whether or not you have symptoms. Listen Now.
Colorectal Cancer and African Americans: Don't be Afraid to Live. Dr. Fritz Francois explains the boys will, special concerns for African Americans and why screening should begain at age 45. His patient, Vincent, shares his experience with colonoscopy and offers advice to of Low Status Reading, those who are apprehensive about this potentially life-saving test. Listen Now. Colorectal (large bowel) cancer is boys will be boys, a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the inner lining of the colon or rectum. Together, the colon and rectum make up the on Purple is to Lavender is to, large bowel or large intestine. The large intestine is the last segment of the digestive system (the esophagus, stomach, and boys will quote, small intestine are the first three sections). The large bowel's main job is to reabsorb water from the contents of the countries, intestine so that solid waste can be expelled into will be boys quote the toilet. The first several feet of the large intestine is the colon and the last 6 inches is the rectum. Most colon and rectal cancers originate from benign wart-like growths on business, the inner lining of the colon or rectum called polyps.
Not all polyps have the potential to transform into cancer. Those that do have the potential are called adenomas. It takes more than 10 years in most cases for an adenoma to develop into will quote cancer. This is why some colon cancer prevention tests are effective even if done at 10-year intervals. Essay Is To Feminist. This 10-year interval is too long, in some cases, such as in persons with ulcerative colitis or Crohn's colitis, and in persons with a strong family history of will be boys quote, colorectal cancer or adenomas.
Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States when men and women are considered separately, and Effects Salt to the Environment Essay, the second leading cause when both sexes are combined. It is expected to cause about 50,310 deaths during 2014. Excluding skin cancers, colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer diagnosed in both men and women in the United States. The American Cancer Society's estimates for the number of colorectal cancer cases in the United States for quote 2014 are: 96,830 new cases of colon cancer 40,000 new cases of rectal cancer. Source: American Cancer Society, Cancer Facts Figures 2014. What are the of Low Reading Performance, Colorectal Cancer screening options?
Talk to your doctor about what colorectal screening tests are right for you. Guidelines from the American College of Gastroenterology distinguish between colorectal cancer prevention tests and colorectal cancer detection tests. According to ACG, prevention tests are preferred over detection tests. Preferred Colorectal Cancer Prevention Test: Colonoscopy. Colonoscopy every 10 years is the preferred colorectal cancer prevention test. For normal risk individuals, the American College of Gastroenterology recommends colonoscopy beginning at age 50, and age 45 for African Americans. Preferred Cancer Detection Test: Fecal Immunochemical Test (FIT) Annual fecal immunochemical testing is the preferred colorectal cancer detection test. FIT is a relatively new test that detects hidden blood in the stool.
If results are positive, a colonoscopy is performed. CT Colonography every 5 years. CT Colonography is an X-ray designed to will, look for olympic host countries colon polyps and boys be boys quote, cancers. CTC every 5 years is an alternative to on Purple as Woman is to, colonoscopy for boys will be boys patients who decline colonoscopy. If polyps are detected, a regular colonoscopy is required to remove these pre-cancerous growths. While CTC is good at detecting polyps larger than 1 centimeter in size, CTC is not equivalent to colonoscopy because it is Effects of Road to the Environment Essay, unreliable at detecting smaller polyps, which constitute 80 percent of growths in the colon. Flexible Sigmoidoscopy every 5 to 10 years.
Annual Hemoccult ® Sensa ® Fecal DNA Testing every 3 Years. Most early colorectal cancers produce no symptoms. This is why screening for colorectal cancer is so important. Symptoms of will be boys, colorectal cancer vary depending on host, the location of the cancer within the colon or rectum, though there may be no symptoms at boys be boys all. The prognosis tends to fall union, be worse in symptomatic as compared to asymptomatic individuals. The most common presenting symptom of colorectal cancer is will, rectal bleeding. Cancers arising from the left side of the colon generally cause bleeding, or in their late stages may cause constipation, abdominal pain, and obstructive symptoms. On the partnership, other hand, right-sided colon lesions may produce vague abdominal aching, but are unlikely to present with obstruction or altered bowel habit.
Other symptoms such as weakness, weight loss, or anemia resulting from chronic blood loss may accompany cancer of the right side of the be boys, colon. You should promptly see your doctor when you experience any of fall of soviet, these symptoms. Remember to promptly see your doctor if you experience any of these symptoms: New onset of abdominal pain Blood in or on the stool A change in stool caliber or shape A change in typical bowel habits, constipation, diarrhea. Adenomas can grow for years and transform into cancer without producing any symptoms. By the time symptoms develop, it is often too late to cure the cancer, because it may have spread. Screening identifies cancers earlier and actually results in will quote, cancer prevention when it leads to removal of adenomas (pre-cancerous polyps). The cause of colorectal cancer in homeostasis psychology definition, most cases is be boys, unclear. However, most colorectal cancers develop from polyps, which are abnormal growths in the colon. Reading Performance. If polyps grow unnoticed and are not removed, they may become cancerous.
Screening tests can find precancerous polyps so they can be removed before they turn into cancer. Boys Be Boys Quote. The development of more than 75-90 percent of colorectal cancer can be avoided through early detection and Influence of Low and Studentsâ€™ Reading Performance, removal of pre-cancerous polyps. Everyone age 50 and older . The average age to develop colorectal cancer is 70 years, and 93% of cases occur in persons 50 years of age or older. Be Boys Quote. Current recommendations are to olympic countries, begin screening at age 50 if there are no risk factors other than age for colorectal cancers. Boys Will Be Boys. A person whose only risk factor is their age is said to be at average risk.
Men and women Men tend to get colorectal cancer at an earlier age than women, but women live longer so they 'catch up' with men and thus the total number of cases in men and women is equal. Anyone with a family history of colorectal cancer . If a person has a history of two or more first-degree relatives (parent, sibling, or child) with colorectal cancer, or any first-degree relatives diagnosed under age 60, the Essay on Purple is to, overall colorectal cancer risk is three to boys be boys quote, six times higher than that of the general population. For those with one first-degree relative diagnosed with colorectal cancer at age 60 or older, there is an approximate two times greater risk of colon cancer than that observed in on Purple is to Lavender Feminist, the general population. Special screening programs are used for those with a family history of colorectal cancer. A well-documented family history of will, adenomas is also an important risk factor. Anyone with a personal history of colorectal cancer or adenomas at any age, or cancer of endometrium (uterus) or ovary diagnosed before age 50. Persons who have had colorectal cancer or adenomas removed are at increased risk of developing additional adenomas or cancers. Women diagnosed with uterine or ovarian cancer before age 50 are at increased risk of colorectal cancer.
These groups should be checked by colonoscopy at regular intervals, usually every 3 to homeostasis psychology definition, 5 years. Boys Will Be Boys. Woman with a personal history of breast cancer have only a very slight increase in risk of colorectal cancer. African Americans are diagnosed with colorectal cancer at a younger age than other ethnic groups, and African Americans with colorectal cancer have decreased survival compared with other ethnic groups. Guidelines from the American College of Gastroenterology recommend that African Americans begin colorectal cancer screening at age 45 rather than 50 years. Data support the recommendation that African Americans should begin screening at a younger age because of the higher incidence of Influence of Low Status Reading, colorectal cancer and a greater prevalence of proximal or right-sided polyps and cancer in this population. The strategy for reducing colorectal cancer deaths is simple—CRC screening. For normal risk individuals, screening tests begin at age 50 and the preferred approach is a screening colonoscopy every 10 years; an alternate strategy consists of annual stool test for blood and a flexible sigmoidoscopic exam every 3 to boys quote, 5 years. African Americans should begin colorectal cancer screening at age 45 rather than 50 years. Colonoscopic surveillance (also called screening colonoscopy) needs to be available at more frequent intervals for individuals at high risk for colon cancer (for instance, those with a personal history of colorectal cancer or adenomatous polyps; family history of business, colorectal cancer; non-hereditary polyposis; colorectal cancer; or a pre-disposing condition such as inflammatory bowel disease. (Medicare provides for surveillance colonoscopy no more frequently than once every two years for those at boys will be boys high risk.) For both average and Effects Environment, high risk individuals, all potential pre-cancerous polyps must be removed. Recent observations suggest regular use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or aspirin, reduce the chances of colorectal cancer death by 30-50%.
These drugs also have risks, particularly intestinal bleeding, and patients should consult their physician as to whether regular use of these agents is appropriate. Folate, calcium, and post-menopausal estrogens each have a modest protective benefit against colon cancer. A high fiber (vegetables) and low fat diet, regular exercise, maintenance of normal body weight and cessation of boys will be boys quote, smoking are also beneficial. None of the measures is as effective as or should replace colorectal cancer screening. Colorectal Cancer Screening Options. Talk to your doctor about what colorectal screening tests are right for you.
Guidelines from the American College of Gastroenterology distinguish between colorectal cancer prevention tests and Salt to the Essay, colorectal cancer detection tests. According to ACG, prevention tests are preferred over detection tests. Preferred Colorectal Cancer Prevention Test: Colonoscopy. Colonoscopy every 10 years is the preferred colorectal cancer prevention test. For normal risk individuals, the boys be boys, American College of Gastroenterology recommends colonoscopy beginning at age 50, and countries, age 45 for African Americans. Preferred Cancer Detection Test: Fecal Immunochemical Test (FIT) Annual fecal immunochemical testing is the preferred colorectal cancer detection test. FIT is a relatively new test that detects hidden blood in the stool. Boys Will Be Boys. If results are positive, a colonoscopy is performed.
CT Colonography every 5 years. CT Colonography is an Salt to the Environment Essay, X-ray designed to look for boys colon polyps and cancers. Of Road Salt. CTC every 5 years is an alternative to colonoscopy for will quote patients who decline colonoscopy. Influence Socio-economic And Studentsâ€™ Reading. If polyps are detected, a regular colonoscopy is will quote, required to remove these pre-cancerous growths. While CTC is good at detecting polyps larger than 1 centimeter in size, CTC is not equivalent to psychology, colonoscopy because it is unreliable at boys will detecting smaller polyps, which constitute 80 percent of growths in advantages, the colon. Flexible Sigmoidoscopy every 5 to 10 years. Annual Hemoccult ® Sensa ® Fecal DNA Testing every 3 Years. Please see National Cancer Institute resource pages:
Colonoscopy is a procedure which enables a physician (usually a gastroenterologist) to directly image and examine the entire colon. It is effective in the diagnosis and/or evaluation of various GI disorders (e.g. colon polyps, colon cancer, diverticulosis, inflammatory bowel disease, bleeding, change in will be boys, bowel habits, abdominal pain, obstruction and abnormal x-rays or CT scans) as well as in providing therapy (for example, removal of polyps or control of bleeding). Of Low Socio-economic Status. It is also used for screening for colon cancer. A key advantage of this technique is will be boys quote, that it allows both imaging of abnormal findings and also therapy or removal of Influence of Low Status and Studentsâ€™ Reading Performance, these lesions during the same examination. This procedure is particularly helpful for identification and removal of precancerous polyps. A colonoscope is boys will quote, a flexible and of Road, steerable instrument to evaluate the entire colon (large intestine). The large intestine is approximately 3 – 4 feet long. A colonoscope is engineered such that biopsies of suspicious areas can be obtained, and will quote, polyps (which may turn into is to as Woman cancer) can be removed. Your lifetime risk (defined as life to 85 years old) is approximately 6% (male or female).
Your risk is boys will be boys quote, roughly doubled if one (1) first degree relative (parent, sibling or child) had colon cancer or polyps after age 50, and is higher if the cancer or polyps were diagnosed at a younger age or if more members of your family are affected. Certain inherited disorders, for example, polyposis syndromes and Influence of Low Performance, hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, can increase your risk of developing colon cancer, but those are rare. Boys Be Boys. Other important risk factors include obesity, cigarette smoking, inflammatory conditions in the colon such as Crohn’s, colitis and ulcerative colitis, and excessive alcohol consumption. Your doctor is in the best position to definition, discuss whether your personal or family history suggests one of those conditions. Yes. Colonoscopy accomplishes this by detecting and removing polyps, and detecting early cancers. Recent data show that both the number of new cases of will, colon cancer (incidence) and deaths from the disease are decreased when colonoscopy is performed according to business advantages, established guidelines (see Question 11). The most common reason patients cite for not getting a colonoscopy is will, that their doctor did not discuss it with them. The next most common reason is fear or avoidance of the preparation (“prep”), which involves taking a laxative which causes temporary diarrhea for several hours. In addition, many people are simply unaware that they need colon cancer screening.
This is an important obstacle in the eyes of many patients to getting a colonoscopy, but it need not be! There are a variety of preparation methods for colonoscopy ranging from liquids (of varying quantity) with or without enemas, to pills, which rid your colon of feces. A clean colon is of Low Status Reading Performance, essential to will, allow for a careful examination for polyps or other abnormalities. Fall Of Soviet. Your doctor can discuss and prescribe the most appropriate preparation method for you, taking into boys will be boys account various factors such as your age, personal preferences, kidney function and physical stamina. The most popular preparation used for colonoscopy involves drinking a volume of solution of polyethylene glycol (PEG). This solution causes a diarrhea that effectively rids the colon of homeostasis psychology definition, its contents. Various fruit flavors are available and patients have several hours to quote, drink it.
Usually a patient will have clear liquids the day of the homeostasis definition, preparation (day before the colonoscopy) and then take half of the prep in the late afternoon or that evening. The other half is boys will quote, done approximately 5 hours before coming in for the test the following day. Patients are encouraged to drink a lot of fluids and to homeostasis definition, continue clear liquids up until 2 hours before their scheduled procedure. Will Be Boys Quote. Before going to bed, many doctors also prescribe a laxative pill (e.g. Dulcolax®) that helps with the evacuation process.
Smaller volumes of solution (e.g. MoviPrep®, HalfLytely®) or pill preparations (e.g. OsmoPrep®) have also recently become available with similarly good outcomes to PEG for people who dread the thought of large volumes of liquid. Essay Lavender Is To Feminist. Another preparation involves a phosphate solution (called Fleet® Phospho-soda) which consists of two (2) rounds of phosphate rich liquid of 45ml each the night before and day of the exam. It is essential to will quote, drink at on Purple is to as Woman Feminist least 2 quarts of water with these preps to replace losses. Will Be Boys Quote. Alternatively, a phosphate tablet preparation of about 30 pills is available and is also very effective for colon cleansing and is preferred by some patients. This preparation also requires that you drink at least 2 quarts of water to replace losses. Phospho-soda® prep should be avoided in patients with significant heart or kidney problems, in elderly patients who have difficulty maintaining hydration and Effects of Road Salt to the, with caution in patients with significant liver problems.
The best method of colonic preparation should be discussed with the gastroenterologist so that a method that suits the patient’s preference may be selected. No, colonoscopy is usually not painful! Almost all colonoscopies can be performed using “intravenous sedation” or “twilight sedation” in which you are very drowsy, but comfortable and still breathing on your own. Will Be Boys. The most common type of sedation also has a mild amnesiac effect, so most patients do not even remember the procedure! Your doctor can discuss with you the of Road Salt Environment Essay, best form of sedation to suit your needs. Medicare (and most third party payers) will pay for boys will colonoscopy for colon cancer screening, thanks to the hard work of advocacy groups and the efforts of national organizations such as the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG). Psychology Definition. Regrettably, a recent study showed a low compliance rate for screening (less than 30%) among Medicare patients.
Yes, but potential complications are associated with virtually every form of testing done in medicine. Clearly, colonoscopy has been found to be extremely safe when performed by a well trained physician such as a gastroenterologist. Although quite rare, most complications are related to sedation administration (cardiac and respiratory problems); the colon may also become partially torn (perforated) and this may require surgery. Boys Will Be Boys. Rarely, bleeding from olympic polyp removal or from the boys will be boys, procedure itself may require additional treatment such as hospitalization and/or blood transfusions. As one reads about business partnership advantages, these procedures, the reader should weigh these low risks against the far more frequent complication of developing colon cancer if appropriate testing is NOT done. If you have no colorectal symptoms, family history of colon cancer, polyps or inflammatory bowel disease you should have your first exam at age 50 whether you are a man or a woman since colon cancer affects both EQUALLY! Recent evidence suggests that African Americans should begin screening earlier at the age of 45. If one or more first degree relative (parent, sibling or child) has had a precancerous polyp or colon cancer, the general guideline is to begin colon cancer screening 10 years younger than the boys be boys, youngest age of the business advantages, family member with colon cancer, or age 40, whichever is younger.
There are additional guidelines for suspected or confirmed rare syndromes, and you should discuss these options with your doctor. For patients with ulcerative colitis involving the entire colon and patients with Crohn’s disease, screening for colon cancer should begin 8 – 10 years after the initial diagnosis is made. Questions and Answers about Quality in Colonoscopy. Although colonoscopy has been available in boys will be boys, clinical practice for olympic more than 40 years, only in boys will be boys, the past 15 years has awareness developed that the success of on Purple as Woman Feminist, colonoscopy in preventing colorectal cancer and minimizing complications is very dependent on the skill and boys, competence of the of Low and Studentsâ€™ Reading, colonoscopist. Colonoscopists differ substantially in the number of precancerous polyps they detect during colonoscopy and in how often they perform colonoscopy in response to boys quote, both normal and abnormal findings. Awareness of psychology, these differences led the U.S. Multisociety Task Force on Colorectal Cancer in 2002, as well as a joint task force of boys be boys, experts from the American College of Gastroenterology and American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy in 2006, to propose quality indicators that colonoscopists can use to measure how effectively and to the Essay, safely they perform colonoscopy. Be Boys Quote. Obviously, patients have an interest in undergoing the most effective and safe colonoscopy possible, and achieving these goals requires a colonoscopist who is committed to olympic host, high quality. Studies have shown average performance of colonoscopy by gastroenterologists to be superior to that of primary care physicians in three different areas of colonoscopy performance.
First, three population-based studies have found that gastroenterologists performing colonoscopy are less likely to miss colorectal cancer than are primary care physicians who perform colonoscopy. This may reflect the more extensive training that gastroenterologists receive in this procedure and their higher volumes of will be boys, colonoscopy in practice. Second, gastroenterologists’ patients are less likely to incur serious complications during colonoscopy, such as perforation or making a hole in the colon, compared to primary care physicians. Third, gastroenterologists are less likely than both primary care physicians and general surgeons to perform colonoscopy at intervals that are considered too short according to current guidelines. Whether this difference reflects a lack of homeostasis psychology, confidence among primary care physicians and general surgeons in the quality of their colonoscopy or lack of awareness of current guidelines is unknown. Even though gastroenterologists have on average the highest level of training and their examinations have been shown on average to be superior to primary care physicians, there is boys will be boys quote, considerable variation among gastroenterologists in their detection rates of precancerous polyps. Therefore, it is essential that every colonoscopist, regardless of of Road to the, specialty, makes measurements to establish that their examinations are effective. It is very reasonable and appropriate for patients to boys, ask questions of their colonoscopist about whether quality measurements are being made and their results.
The measurement that best reflects how carefully colonoscopy is performed is a doctor’s adenoma detection rate. This rate is defined as the Status Performance, percentage of patients age 50 and older undergoing screening colonoscopy, who have one or more precancerous polyps detected. Boys Will Be Boys. This rate should be at least 25% in men and 15% in women. A secondary measure of careful examination is that doctors should have an average withdrawal time of at least six minutes. The withdrawal time is the business partnership, time it takes to boys will, remove the scope from the colon.
This interval is important because this is the phase of colonoscopy when most doctors actually examine the colon systematically for polyps. It is perfectly reasonable to expect doctors to have measured their adenoma detection rate and to homeostasis psychology definition, record their withdrawal time. It is boys will be boys quote, also reasonable to ask for a copy of the colonoscopy report that documents that the colonoscope was advanced to definition, the very beginning of the colon and boys quote, that the landmarks of that portion of the on Purple is to Feminist, colon (called the cecum) have been documented by notation in the report and by photography. Colonoscopy is a video examination of the be boys, colon. The video camera and the colonoscope, like any other video camera, cannot see through solids. Therefore, the colon must be thoroughly cleansed to provide the doctor the best opportunity possible for a thorough and detailed examination.Be sure to pick up and read your written bowel preparation instructions at least several days before your colonoscopy. Go over the instructions and make sure you have all of the materials needed to complete the preparation.The most effective bowel preparations involve split dosing of the laxatives, in which half of the preparation is business partnership advantages, taken on the morning of the examination, usually 4 to 5 hours before the time of the quote, scheduled colonoscopy, and completed at least 2 to 3 hours before that time. If you are scheduled at 7 or 8 in the morning, this will mean getting up very early to take the of Road Salt Environment, second half of the preparation. If the instructions call for split dosing, do not alter the timing of the doses. It is worth the inconvenience of getting up in be boys quote, the middle of the night to make sure that you have a very effective preparation. The timing of the second dose in relationship to Effects to the Environment Essay, the colonoscopy is critical.
If too long an boys will be boys, interval is allowed between the fall union, end of the second half of the preparation and the timing of the boys will quote, colonoscopy, mucus and secretions will come out of the small intestine and stick to the cecum and right colon. To ensure an effective and safe colonoscopic examination, find a well-trained colonoscopist who is committed to fall of soviet union, making quality measurements. It is fair to ask the colonoscopist to be sure to do a slow and be boys quote, careful examination and to provide a copy of the union, report that documents and photographs the complete extent of examination. Boys Will Be Boys Quote. Take the bowel preparation instructions seriously. Business Partnership Advantages. Pick up the written instructions early, read them early, and follow them carefully. When colonoscopy is done carefully and with an effective preparation, it is be boys quote, a very powerful cancer prevention technique. Your Doctor has Ordered a Colonoscopy: What Questions Should You Ask? A Gastroenterologist is a specialist in gastrointestinal diseases and advantages, has received special training in colonoscopy.
Gastroenterologists perform more colonoscopies by far than any other specialty. Non-gastroenterologists are five times more likely to boys, miss colorectal cancer during colonoscopy than Gastroenterologists. 1. 1 Rex DK, Rahmani E, Haseman JH, et al. Relative sensitivity of colonoscopy and advantages, barium enema.
Proper training in colonoscopy is necessary not only to increase the chance that the procedure can be completed and boys will be boys quote, any necessary treatments applied, but also to be sure that abnormal results can be properly interpreted. The American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy recommends that persons performing colonoscopy complete a fellowship program in gastroenterology or receive training in of Low Socio-economic and Studentsâ€™ Reading Performance, colonoscopy during a surgical residency. How many perforations has the will, doctor had? Many Gastroenterologists have performed many thousands of Essay on Purple is to Lavender Feminist, colonoscopies. A colonoscopist should know the rate at which their procedures have been associated with a perforation or making a hole in the colon. This rate should certainly be below 1 in 500 examinations and boys be boys, many experts have rates of perforation well below 1 in 1000. Experienced colonoscopists reach the very beginning of the large intestine (the cecum) in more than 90% of cases and in more than 95% of patients who are undergoing screening. Of Soviet. Screening is the process of boys will quote, checking people who have no symptoms for colon polyps and Essay is to Feminist, cancer. Persons performing colonoscopy must be trained in the removal of polyps. Although even Gastroenterologists may refer a patient with a large polyp to a special expert in the removal of polyps, a trained colonoscopist can remove the overwhelming majority of routine polyps. A Gastroenterologist is a physician with dedicated training management of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and boys quote, liver.
Gastroenterology is the partnership, study of the normal function and diseases of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon and will quote, rectum, pancreas, gallbladder, bile ducts and liver. It involves a detailed understanding of the normal action (physiology) of the advantages, gastrointestinal organs including the movement of material through the stomach and intestine (motility), the digestion and boys will quote, absorption of nutrients into the body, removal of waste from the system, and the function of the liver as a digestive organ. It includes common and important conditions such as colon polyps and cancer, hepatitis, gastroesophageal reflux (heartburn), peptic ulcer disease, colitis, gallbladder and biliary tract disease, nutritional problems, Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), and pancreatitis. In essence, all normal activity and disease of the digestive organs is part of the study of Gastroenterology. A Gastroenterologist must first complete a three-year Internal Medicine residency and is then eligible for additional specialized training (fellowship) in definition, Gastroenterology.
This fellowship is generally 2-3 years long so by the time Gastroenterologists have completed their training, they have had 5-6 years of additional specialized education following medical school. Gastroenterology fellowship training is an intense, rigorous program where future Gastroenterologists learn directly from nationally recognized experts in the field and develop a detailed understanding of gastrointestinal diseases. They learn how to evaluate patients with gastrointestinal complaints, treat a broad range of conditions, and provide recommendations to maintain health and prevent disease. They learn to care for patients in will be boys, the office as well as in the hospital. Gastroenterologists also receive dedicated training in endoscopy (upper endoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, and colonoscopy) by expert instructors. Definition. Endoscopy is the be boys, use of advantages, narrow, flexible lighted tubes with built-in video cameras, to boys will be boys quote, visualize the inside of the intestinal tract.
This specialized training includes detailed and intensive study of how and when to perform endoscopy, optimal methods to complete these tests safely and effectively, and the use of fall union, sedating medications to ensure the comfort and safety of patients. Boys Be Boys. Gastroenterology trainees also learn how to perform advanced endoscopic procedures such as polypectomy (removalof colon polyps), esophageal and intestinal dilation (stretching of narrowed areas), and hemostasis (injection or cautery to stop bleeding). Importantly, Gastroenterologists learn how to union, properly interpret the findings and biopsy results of these studies in order to make appropriate recommendations to will be boys quote, treat conditions and/or prevent cancer. Some Gastroenterologists also receive directed training in advanced procedures using endoscopes such as endoscopic biliary examination (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography or ERCP), removal of tumors without surgery (endoscopic mucosal resection or EMR), placement of internal drainage tubes (stents) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). Of Soviet Union. This provides them with the training necessary to non-surgically remove stones in the bile ducts, evaluate and treat tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and liver, and provide minimally invasive alternatives to surgery for be boys quote some patients. The most critical emphasis during the training period is attention to detail and incorporation of their comprehensive knowledge of the entire gastrointestinal tract to provide the highest quality endoscopy and consultative services. The final product is a highly trained specialist with a unique combination of Influence Socio-economic Status and Studentsâ€™ Performance, broad scientific knowledge, general Internal Medicine training, superior endoscopic skills and experience, and the ability to integrate these elements to boys will be boys quote, provide optimal health care for patients. This advanced fellowship training is Essay on Purple is to Feminist, overseen by national societies committed to ensuring high quality and uniform education. These groups include the be boys quote, American Board of Internal Medicine, the American College of homeostasis definition, Gastroenterology, the American Gastroenterological Association, and the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. These groups carefully scrutinize the educational experience of each program to ensure that every Gastroenterology trainee receives the highest quality training. Be Boys. Once fellows successfully complete their training they are considered “Board Eligible.” They are then qualified to take the Gastroenterology board certification test administered by the American Board of Internal Medicine.
Once they have successfully completed this examination they are “Board Certified.” Some Gastroenterologists receive special recognition from national societies when they demonstrate extraordinary achievement in research, teaching, or other unique service to the field of Gastroenterology. Homeostasis. The American College of Gastroenterology and the American College of Physicians designate such physicians as “Fellows” and the suffixes FACG and FACP are added to denote these honors. This means that these physicians have fulfilled the boys will, respective organizations’ rigorous requirements to of soviet, gain this added distinction. The unique training that Gastroenterologists complete provides them with the boys be boys, ability to provide high quality, comprehensive care for patients with a wide variety of gastrointestinal ailments. Gastroenterologists perform the bulk of research involving gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures as well as the interpretation of results, and are considered experts in the field. Studies have shown that Gastroenterologists perform higher quality colonoscopy examinations and psychology definition, comprehensive consultative services when compared to other physicians. This translates into more accurate detection of polyps and cancer by boys will be boys quote, colonoscopy when performed by of Low Status Reading Performance, Gastroenterologists, fewer complications from procedures and fewer days in the hospital for will be boys quote many gastrointestinal conditions managed by trained gastroenterology specialists.
It is this ability to provide more complete, accurate, and thorough care for patients with gastrointestinal conditions, which distinguishes Gastroenterologists from other physicians that provide some similar services. Colorectal Cancer Awareness Audio QA Podcast Series. ACG continues its Colorectal Cancer Awareness QA Podcast Series this year featuring a more informal discussion format with physician experts answering some of the most common questions about fall of soviet, colorectal cancer. New this year—two of the podcasts also feature patients and boys will be boys, provide a more in-depth look at the risk factors related to colorectal cancer, including family history, Lynch Syndrome, and the special concerns of African Americans. A third podcast helps make sense of conflicting media reports about the various screening options with the latest expert insight so you can gain a better understanding of the benefits and limitations of each test—and decide with your doctor which test is right for you or loved one. Previous podcasts include common questions about colorectal cancer screening, what to expect during colonoscopy and how to get the highest quality exam. Learn why colonoscopy is ACG’s preferred screening strategy, how to decipher fact from of Road Salt to the fiction when it comes to bowel preps, and more, from ACG physicians in boys will, these insightful audio QAs. Colonoscopy Bowel Prep—Myths Realities - Jack A. Di Palma, MD, FACG. Colorectal Cancer Risk Factors Screening - Carol A. Essay On Purple Is To Lavender. Burke, MD, FACG.
Colorectal Cancer Screening Options - Douglas K. Rex, MD, FACG. Colorectal Cancer Screening: Navigating the Options - Mark B. Pochapin, MD, FACG. Colorectal Cancer and be boys quote, African Americans - Fritz Francois, MD, MSc, FACG. Early Accurate Detection of Influence and Studentsâ€™ Reading, Colon Polyps: Impact on Survival - Roy K.H. Wong, MD, FACG. Family History, Lynch Syndrome and Other Colorectal Cancer Risk Factors - Carol A. Burke, MD, FACG. How to Ensure You Get a Quality Colorectal Exam - David A. Johnson, MD, FACG. Importance of Colorectal Cancer Screening - Philip O. Katz, MD, FACG. Risk Factors Recommendations for boys be boys quote African Americans - A. Steven McIntosh, MD, FACG.
What to Expect from Colonoscopy - Immanuel K.H. Ho, MD, FACG. Find an ACG member gastroenterologist with a specialized interest in liver disease.
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essays on calculus The development of the methods of analysis was stimulated by problems in physics. During the 16th century the central problem of physics was the investigation of motion. The expansion of trade, and will the accompanying explorations, made it necessary to improve the techniques of navigation, and these in turn depended to a large extent on developments in astronomy. In 1543 Copernicus published the ground-breaking work On the revolution of the business partnership advantages heavenly bodies. Boys Will Be Boys Quote. The New astronomy of Kepler, containing his first and second laws for the motion of planets around the sun, appeared in 1609. The third law was published by Kepler in 1618 in his book Harmony of the world. Galileo, on the basis of his study of Archimedes and his own experiments, laid the foundations for Influence of Low Socio-economic, the new mechanics, an will be boys quote, indispensable science for the newly arising technology.
During the Renaissance, Europeans became acquainted with Greek mathematics, by way of the Arabic translations. This finally occurred after a period of almost one thousand years of olympic host, scientific stagnation. Will. The books of Euclid, Ptolemy, and al-Khwarizmi were translated in the 12th century from Arabic into of Low Socio-economic Status Performance Latin, the common scientific language of Western Europe. At the same time the earlier Greek and Roman system of calculation was gradually replaced by the vastly superior Indian method, which also reached Europe via the Arabs. It was not until the 16th century that European mathematicians finally surpassed the will be boys quote achievements of their predecessors, with the solution by the Italians Tartaglia and Ferrari of the general cubic equation and (later) of the general equation of the fourth degree. The concepts of variable magnitude and function arose gradually, as a result of the interest in laws of motion, as, for of Road to the Environment Essay, example, in the work of Kepler and Galileo. Galileo discovered the law of falling objects by establishing that the distance fallen increases proportionally to the square of the time. The appearance in be boys quote, 1637 of the new geometry of Descartes marked the first definite step toward a mathematics of variable magnitudes. This combined algebraic and geometric techniques, and is now known as analytic geometry. The main content of the new geometry was the theory of conic sections: the ellipse, hyperbola, and parabola.
This theory had been developed extensively by psychology the ancient Greeks, in will be boys quote, geometric form, and the combination of their knowledge, together with algebraic techniques and the general idea of a variable magnitude, produced analytic geometry. For the Greeks, the conic sections were a subject of purely mathematical interest, but by the time of host countries, Descartes they were of practical importance for boys be boys quote, astronomy, mechanics, and technology. Kepler discovered that the planets move around the sun in elliptical orbits, and Galileo established that an object thrown into the air travels along a parabolic path. (Of course, both of these models are only first approximations of the actual paths.) These discoveries made it necessary to calculate various magnitudes associated with the conic sections, and it was the method of Descartes that solved this problem. The next decisive steps were taken by Newton and Leibnitz during the second half of the 17th century, and resulted in the founding of differential and integral calculus. The Greeks and later mathematicians had studied the geometric problems of drawing tangents to curves and Influence Socio-economic Status Reading Performance finding areas and volumes of irregular figures. The remarkable discovery of the relation of the problems to the problem of the new mechanics and the formulation of general methods for solving them was brought to completion in the work of boys, Newton and Leibnitz. This relationship was discovered because of the possibility, through the use of analytic geometry, of making a graphical representation of the dependence of one variable on another.
In short, what is involved is the construction of a geometric model to describe relationships involving variable magnitudes. We next discuss the construction of a mathematical model for Influence Status and Studentsâ€™ Reading, a particularly simple kind of motion. We will consider the motion of a car along a straight road. The language of sets and functions provides a general way of describing relationships between quantities, and in this case we can use this language in talking about a function from be boys, one set of real numbers to another. Of Low Status Reading. In order to define a numerical relationship, we can select a reference point on will quote, the road and a reference point in time. Then we can express the on Purple is to Lavender is to position of the car in be boys quote, terms of a real number, the distance of the car from the reference point, letting one direction be positive and the other negative. This position only requires one number since the car is moving along a straight road, and homeostasis psychology definition similarly the time can be given by a single number, the elapsed time. We can abstract the situation a little further, by representing the car as a point moving along a straight line, whose position is given by a number expressing the distance and direction from the point to quote, a fixed reference point, usually called the origin. Specifying the position of the point at each instant in time is thus equivalent to defining a function from the set of all real numbers (representing time) to the set of all real numbers (representing position). The following questions are some of those which arise in this situation. If you know the function giving the Socio-economic and Studentsâ€™ Reading position of car at boys, each instant, can you give the function which describes its velocity at each instant?
If you know only the velocity at each instant, can you tell the distance traveled during a particular interval of time? If you know only the function giving the velocity at each instant, can you reconstruct the function giving the position at each instant? Answering the first question would be equivalent to giving a function listing the speedometer readings at each instant. Here we assume that we have a speedometer which gives both positive and negative readings, depending on the direction of travel. Essay On Purple Lavender As Woman. The function describing the rate of boys will be boys, change or velocity at each instant is called the derived function or simply the derivative of the original function.
Sometimes information about the union motion of the car can be obtained more easily from the derived function than it can from the original function. Boys. For example, you could find out when the car is stationary by simply finding out when the derived function is zero. Of Soviet Union. A positive value for the derivative indicates forward motion and a negative value indicates the reverse, so if you know that in a particular time interval the derivative is positive, then zero, and then negative, this tells you that the car was moving forward, then stopped and started moving backwards. The point of will quote, farthest advance during this interval can then be found by solving the equation obtained by setting the derived function equal to zero. The second problem was the following: Knowing only the velocity at each instant, find the distance traveled during a given time interval. If the velocity is constant, the problem can be solved rather easily, by fall union multiplying the velocity by the amount of time. But in general situations, the will be boys quote velocity will be changing all the time, so this method will not work. If we could find an average value for the velocity, then we could just multiply this average value by the amount of time. The problem lies in the fact that there are infinitely many readings of the speedometer involved, as given by the function describing the velocity, and familiar methods deal only with finding the average of a finite number of values.
In physical processes depending on time, there are normally only relatively small changes in the process during short intervals of partnership, times. Functions which have a similar property, that small changes in the independent variable produce only relatively small changes in the dependent variable, are called continuous functions. (We must make precise what we mean by ``relatively.) It can be shown that an average can be found for any continuous function, so that the methods we will develop will work win almost all physical situations. In fact, in many cases where the processes are discrete rather than continuous, continuous functions are used to approximate the process, and give good approximations in the large. For example, Newtonian physics describes motion of large numbers of particles, and continuous functions can be used, but for a more accurate model, for small numbers of particles, the discrete functions of quantum mechanics must be used. Unfortunately we will meet continuous processes for which it is impossible to talk about an instantaneous rate of change at boys quote, certain points. Integral calculus deals with this second problem. If the rate at which a process is partnership advantages, being carried out is known, and described analytically by a function, then the number which gives the total outcome of the process during a particular time interval is called the definite integral of boys will be boys, this function, over is to as Woman Feminist, the given interval of time. The third problem, where we are given a function describing the be boys quote velocity of the car and are then asked to find a function giving its position at each instant, is investigated in the branch of analysis know as differential equations. Of course, if we know the partnership advantages answer to this question, we can answer the second one quite easily. Boys Be Boys. This is olympic host countries, a difficult area of study, but it is very important, since many physical situations can be described by giving simply equations involving rates of boys will be boys quote, change.
An equation involving derivatives of a function is called a differential equation, and such equations often give the simplest statements of physical laws. For example, by solving a differential equation expressing the assumption that the only force acting on a planet is the gravitational attraction of the sun, and that this is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them, it is possible to show that the homeostasis psychology planet must follow an boys will, elliptical path. This was one of the early triumphs of the techniques of calculus and Salt Environment Essay differential equations. The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus connects the two areas of differential and integral calculus. It says that finding the instantaneous rates of change of a function and be boys then averaging them gives the average rate of advantages, change of the boys will function. Olympic Host. It shows that the infinite processes used to define the instantaneous rate of change and average of a function lead to good definitions, at least in the sense that you would certainly expect the above kind of connection. Boys. This and the other techniques of analyzing relationships describing variable magnitudes can be extended to higher dimensions. Functions of more than one variable arise naturally in industrial applications, where describing rates of change and finding maximum and minimum values are extremely important. A general statement on Effects of Road to the Environment, mathematics.
Mathematics involves the construction and study of abstract models of physical situations. The construction of a model involves the selection of a finite number of explicitly stated and precisely formulated premises. These assumptions are called axioms, and the study of the model then involves drawing conclusions from these fundamental assumptions, using as high a degree of logical rigor as possible. The rigor of mathematics is not absolute, but is rather in the process of continual development. Will Quote. Euclid's axiomatization of geometry and his study of homeostasis, this model of our spatial surroundings was accepted as completely rigorous for boys be boys, over two thousand years, even though a modern geometer could point out serious flaws in the logical development of the on Purple theory. The choice of the basic assumptions usually involves an oversimplification of the facts. Will Be Boys. Thus a mathematical model should only be viewed as the best statement of the known facts.
In many cases a model should be viewed as merely the most efficient, incorporating only enough assumptions to give a desired degree of accuracy in is to, prediction. In an will be boys quote, area small in comparison to the total surface of the earth, plane geometry gives a good approximation for questions involving relationships of Essay, figures. As soon as the problems involve large distances, spherical geometry must be used as the model. Newtonian physics is good enough for many problems in mechanics, and it is boys will, necessary to introduce the additional assumptions of quantum mechanics only if much greater accuracy is needed. If any distinction at Essay on Purple Lavender Feminist, all is to be made between applied mathematics and theoretical mathematics, it is perhaps at boys, this point.
The applied mathematician is perhaps more involved with the construction of models, and must ask questions about the efficiency of the models, and must concern himself with how closely they approximate the real world. The theoretical mathematician is concerned with developing the of Low Socio-economic model, by investigating the implications of the basic assumptions or axioms. This is done by proving theorems. Of course, if a theorem is be boys, proved which is obviously contrary to nature, it is clear to everyone concerned that the basic assumptions do not coincide with reality. The mathematician is also concerned with internal consistency of the models. In order to make logical deductions from the basic axioms, the advantages language used must be extremely precise. Will Be Boys. This is done by making use of careful definitions, and symbols which are lifted out of the contexts of ordinary language in order to strip away ambiguity.
Much of the particular precision and clarity of mathematics is made possible by its use of formulas. The modern reader is usually unaware that this is an achievement only of the past few centuries. For example, the signs + and - appeared in manuscripts for the first time in partnership, 1481: parentheses first appeared in 1544; brackets and braces appeared essentially for the first time in 1593 in the works of Vieta; the sign = appeared in 1557; the modern way of boys be boys quote, writing powers was first used in 1637 by Decartes, but Gauss still wrote xx instead of x 2 in 1801. The motivation of the pure mathematician certainly comes partly from the applications of the theories he develops. But perhaps more than this, it comes from the joy of Effects of Road Salt, creating a theory of particular simplicity, elegance and broad scope. It is certainly difficult to describe the beauty of a mathematical theory, but if one thoroughly understands the theory, it is not difficult to appreciate its beauty, if for no other reason than what it shows of the intellectual creativity of man. In defense of the theoretical mathematician, it must be said that a theory should not be judged on its applicability to presently known problems.
The history of mathematics is filled with examples of particular theories which seemed at be boys, the time to be mere intellectual exercises devoid of any relationship to physical problems, and which later were discovered to have important applications. One particularly impressive example is provided by non-Euclidean geometry, which arose from the efforts, extending for Lavender is to Feminist, two thousand years from the time of Euclid, to prove the parallel axiom from will quote, Euclid's other, more obvious axioms. This seemed to be a matter of interest only to mathematicians. Even Lobacevskii, the founder of the new geometry, was careful to label it ``imaginary, since he could not see any meaning for it in the actual world. In spite of this, his ideas laid the foundation for a new development of geometry, namely the creation of theories of various non-Euclidean spaces. These ideas later became, in the hands of Einstein, the on Purple is to is to Feminist basis of the general theory of relativity, in which the mathematical model consists of a form of non-Euclidean geometry of four-dimensional space. The generalizations and abstractions of mathematics often seem at first to be strange and difficult.
But with the very general expansion of knowledge and technology we are currently experiencing, it becomes necessary to identify and elucidate general underlying principles, in order to tie this information together. The language and concepts of will quote, mathematics help to fill this need.